, Volume 773, Issue 1, pp 163–175 | Cite as

Patch occupancy of stream fauna across a land cover gradient in the southern Appalachians, USA

  • John R. FrischEmail author
  • James T. Peterson
  • Kristen K. Cecala
  • John C. Maerz
  • C. Rhett Jackson
  • Ted L. Gragson
  • Catherine M. Pringle
Primary Research Paper


We modeled patch occupancy to examine factors that best predicted the prevalence of four functionally important focal stream consumers (Tallaperla spp., Cambarus spp., Pleurocera proxima, and Cottus bairdi) among 37 reaches within the Little Tennessee River basin of the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA. We compared 34 models of patch occupancy to examine the association of catchment and reach scale factors that varied as a result of converting forest to agricultural or urban land use. Occupancy of our taxa was linked to parameters reflecting both catchment and reach extent characteristics. At the catchment level, forest cover or its conversion to agriculture was a major determinant of occupancy for all four taxa. Patch occupancies of Tallaperla, Cambarus, and C. bairdi were positively, and Pleurocera negatively, correlated with forest cover. Secondarily at the reach level, local availability of large woody debris was important for Cambarus, availability of large cobble substrate was important for C. bairdi, and stream calcium concentration was important for P. proxima. Our results show the abundance of stream organisms was determined by the taxon-dependent interplay between catchment- and reach-level factors.


Appalachians Consumers Land use Patch occupancy Stream chemistry 



This study was part of the Coweeta Long Term Ecological Research study funded by National Science Foundation DEB0823293. It was supported by the Odum School of Ecology and the Warnell School of Forestry and Natural Resources at the University of Georgia. D. Hung, C. Kresl, L. Long, J. McMillan, J. Milanovich, S. Evans, S. Vulova, J. Cosgrove, and others provided critical field work. F. Benfield, D. Leigh, M. Valett, and J. Webster led collection of stream chemistry data. J. Hepinstall-Cymerman determined land cover in each catchment. J. Chamblee, K. Love, J. McDonald, and R. Benson produced the study area graphic. The USDA Forest Service provided key logistical support. M. Freeman, M. Snyder, S. Wenger, the Pringle lab, N. Bond, and three anonymous reviewers provided valuable comments on the manuscript.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • John R. Frisch
    • 1
    Email author
  • James T. Peterson
    • 2
  • Kristen K. Cecala
    • 3
  • John C. Maerz
    • 4
  • C. Rhett Jackson
    • 4
  • Ted L. Gragson
    • 5
  • Catherine M. Pringle
    • 6
  1. 1.Nongame Conservation Section, Wildlife Resources DivisionGeorgia Department of Natural ResourcesSocial CircleUSA
  2. 2.USGS Oregon Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research UnitOregon State UniversityCorvallisUSA
  3. 3.Department of BiologyUniversity of the SouthSewaneeUSA
  4. 4.Warnell School of Forestry and Natural ResourcesUniversity of GeorgiaAthensUSA
  5. 5.Department of AnthropologyUniversity of GeorgiaAthensUSA
  6. 6.Odum School of EcologyUniversity of GeorgiaAthensUSA

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