, Volume 783, Issue 1, pp 257–267 | Cite as

Genetic consequences of allopatric and sympatric divergence in Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus (L.)) from Fjellfrøsvatn as inferred by microsatellite markers

  • K. PræbelEmail author
  • M. Couton
  • R. Knudsen
  • P.-A. Amundsen


We contrast the genetic consequences of allopatric and sympatric divergence from the littoral spawning Arctic charr morph from Lake Fjellfrøsvatn. The littoral spawning Arctic charr has sympatrically diverged into a natural profundal adapted morph and via a recent (1930) translocation of about 40 adult Arctic charr established a new allopatric population in a nearby lake (Takvatn). The sympatric morph-pair in Fjellfrøsvatn was more genetically differentiated (F ST = 0.121), the derived profundal morph had higher genetic variation (H e  = 0.740 ± 0.220; N PAR = 4.87), and had a higher proportion of linkage disequilibrium among loci, than the Takvatn charr derived in allopatry (F ST = 0.066; H e  = 0.584 ± 0.193; N PAR = 0.29). The genetic differentiation in allopatry supports a scenario of rapid population expansion, despite genetic founder effects, whereas the genetic differentiation found in the sympatric morph-pair suggests that this divergence is older and supports a scenario of divergence under ongoing gene flow. We suggest that the differences between the two types of divergence may originate from temporal effects and differences in life histories between the two derived populations along with specific factors related to the initial stages of the divergence.


Founder effects Linkage disequilibrium Rapid divergence Sympatric morphs Translocation effects 



We thank L. Dalsbø, A. P. Eloranta, M. Gabler, Ø. Haugland, J. Jacobsen, R. Kristoffersen, C. Lien, and A. Moe for assistance in the field and T. Hanebrekke for help in the laboratory. We also thank M. Jobling and four anonymous reviewers for insightful comments on earlier versions of the manuscript, improving the overall quality of the paper. The study was financed by the Norwegian Research Council (NFR “small projects”) and the Department of Arctic and Marine Biology, UiT The Arctic University of Norway.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. Præbel
    • 1
    Email author
  • M. Couton
    • 1
  • R. Knudsen
    • 1
  • P.-A. Amundsen
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Arctic and Marine Biology, Faculty of Biosciences, Fisheries and EconomicsUiT–the Arctic University of NorwayTromsøNorway

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