Hermit crabs respond to sensory cues that guide them toward limiting resources in marine and terrestrial environments. We examined the response of the common intertidal hermit crab Pagurus criniticornis (Dana, 1852) to simulated predation events on: (1) their principal shell donor Cerithium atratum (Born, 1778), (2) conspecifics, and (3) a sympatric bivalve; to test for the prevalence of olfactory specificity (i.e., attraction to a preferred gastropod species) or olfactory generality (i.e., attraction to a range of cues). Results showed that crabs were strongly attracted to gastropod baits but not to conspecifics or bivalves possibly reflecting greater motivation to acquire newly liberated resources than those more widely available (e.g., existing shells or food). We then examined the potential drivers of aggregative behavior by comparing the morphology and shell quality of attending individuals to an unbiased population. Although attending crabs were of a similar size and weight to the general population, their shells were of lower quality (adequacy, damage, and encrustation), suggesting that motivation to procure new shells is modulated by existing shell quality. The findings provide a clearer understanding of how hermit crabs acquire new resources and might have implications for the release and redistribution of other limiting resources within coastal environments.
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Research funding was provided by the Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP) in the form of scholarship grants to E.C.F. Souza (1999/11233-7) and D. Gorman (2013/07576-5). F.P.P. Leite was supported by a fellowship grant provided by the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq) and the Fundo de Apoio ao Ensino e à Pesquisa (FAEP-UNICAMP). The Centro de Biologia Marinha of the Universidade de São Paulo (CEBIMar-USP) provided substantial in-kind support. We are grateful to a number of anonymous reviewers whose constructive comments improved earlier versions of the manuscript.
Handling editor: Stuart Jenkins
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de Souza, E.C.F., Gorman, D., Leite, F.P.P. et al. Olfactory selectivity in intertidal hermit crabs: aggregation behavior by Pagurus criniticornis (Decapoda, Anomura) in response to simulated predation on the gastropod Cerithium atratum . Hydrobiologia 772, 31–43 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10750-015-2621-6
- Decapod crustaceans
- Portable shelters
- Resource limitation
- Subjective resource value