Advertisement

Hydrobiologia

, Volume 760, Issue 1, pp 225–238 | Cite as

The aquatic macroinvertebrate biodiversity of urban ponds in a medium-sized European town (Loughborough, UK)

  • M. J. HillEmail author
  • K. L. Mathers
  • P. J. Wood
Primary Research Paper

Abstract

Urbanisation is one of the greatest threats to freshwater biodiversity, with the area of land covered by towns and cities predicted to increase significantly in the future. Ponds are common features in the urban landscape and have been created for a variety of reasons ranging from ornamental/amenity purposes through to the detention of urban runoff and pollution. This paper aims to quantify the aquatic macroinvertebrate biodiversity associated with garden, ornamental and other urban ponds in Leicestershire, UK. We examined the macroinvertebrate biodiversity of 41 urban ponds (13 garden, 12 park and 16 other urban ponds) within the town of Loughborough, UK. Park ponds supported greater macroinvertebrate richness than garden or other urban ponds. Garden ponds were the most taxon poor. Pond size was strongly correlated with macroinvertebrate diversity. Collectively, urban ponds were found to be physically and biologically heterogeneous and were characterised by high community dissimilarity. Urban ponds provide a diverse range of habitats for a mixture of common and rare aquatic macroinvertebrate taxa and represent a valuable biodiversity resource within anthropogenically dominated landscapes. Recognition of the significant contribution of ponds to urban freshwater biodiversity is important for future aquatic conservation within anthropogenically dominated landscapes.

Keywords

Urbanisation Small lentic waterbodies Artificial habitat Anthropogenic ecosystems Invertebrate Pond management 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors gratefully acknowledge Charnwood Borough Council, Loughborough University and the home owners that granted access to ponds located in their gardens. We would like to thank the anonymous reviewers for their helpful and constructive comments on a draft of this manuscript which greatly improved the clarity and focus of the research. We are grateful to Stuart Ashby, Barry Kenny and Danielle Ashdown for help and assistance with field and laboratory work. MJH acknowledges the support of a Loughborough University Graduate School Studentship in the Department of Geography.

References

  1. Bardsley, L., 2012. The Wildlife Pond Handbook: a practical guide to creating and maintaining your own wetland for wildlife. New Holland Publishers, London.Google Scholar
  2. Biggs, J., A. Corfield, D. Walker, M. Whitfield & P. Williams, 1994. New approaches to the management of ponds. British Wildlife 5: 273–287.Google Scholar
  3. Biggs, J., G. Fox, M. Whitfield & P. Williams, 1998. A guide to the methods of the National Pond Survey. Pond Action, Oxford.Google Scholar
  4. Biggs, J., P. Williams, M. Whitfield, P. Nicolet & A. Weatherby, 2005. 15 years of pond assessment in Britain: results and lessons learned from the work of pond conservation. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 15: 693–714.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Boothby, J., 1995. Sustaining a threatened landscape: farmland ponds in Cheshire. Journal of environmental planning and Management 38: 561–568.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brand, A. B. & J. W. Snodgrass, 2009. Value of artificial habitats for amphibian reproduction in altered landscapes. Conservation Biology 24: 295–301.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Briers, R. A., 2014. Invertebrate communities and environmental conditions in a series of urban drainage ponds in Eastern Scotland: implications for biodiversity and conservation value of SUDS. Clean — Soil, Air, Water 42: 193–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chester, E. T. & B. J. Robson, 2013. Anthropogenic refuges for freshwater biodiversity: their ecological characteristics and management. Biological Conservation 166: 64–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Clarke, K. R. & R. N. Gorley, 2006. PRIMER v6: user manual/tutorial. PRIMER E-Ltd, Plymouth, UK.Google Scholar
  10. Colding, J., J. Lundberg, S. Lundberg & E. Andersson, 2009. Golf courses and wetland fauna. Ecological Applications 19: 1481–1491.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Dallimer, M., Z. Tang, P. R. Bibby, P. Brindley, K. J. Gaston & Z. G. Davies, 2011. Temporal changes in green space in a highly urbanized region. Biology Letters 7: 763–766.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Davies, B. R., J. Biggs, P. Williams, M. Whitfield, P. Nicolet, D. Sear, S. Bray & S. Maund, 2008. Comparative biodiversity of aquatic habitats in the European agricultural landscape. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 125: 1–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Davies, Z. G., R. A. Fuller, A. Loram, K. N. Irvine, V. Sims & K. J. Gaston, 2009. A national scale inventory of resource provision for biodiversity within domestic gardens. Biological Conservation 142: 761–771.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. DCPWA (2014) Derby City Pond Warden Association Website. Available at: http://www.dcpwa.org.uk/ [Access Date: 30th April 2015].
  15. Dudgeon, D., et al., 2006. Freshwater biodiversity: importance, threats, status and conservation challenges. Biological Reviews 81: 163–182.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Fontana, S., T. Sattler, F. Bontadina & M. Moretti, 2011. How to manage the urban green to improve bird diversity and community structure. Landscape and Urban Planning 101: 278–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gaston, K. J., R. M. Smith, K. Thompson & P. H. Warren, 2005a. Urban domestic gardens (II): experimental test of methods for increasing biodiversity. Biodiversity and Conservation 14: 395–413.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gaston, K. J., P. H. Warren, K. Thompson & R. M. Smith, 2005b. Urban domestic gardens (IV): the extent of the resource and its associated features. Biodiversity and Conservation 14: 3327–3349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gledhill, D. G., P. James & D. H. Davies, 2008. Pond density as a determinant of aquatic species richness in an urban landscape. Landscape Ecology 23: 1219–1230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Goddard, M. A., A. J. Dougill & T. G. Benton, 2010. Scaling up from gardens: Biodiversity conservation in urban environments. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 25: 90–98.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Goertzen, D. & F. Suhling, 2013. Promoting dragonfly diversity in cities: major determinants and implications for urban pond design. Journal of Insect Conservation 17: 399–409.Google Scholar
  22. Google Earth, 2015. https://earth.google.com [last accessed 18/03/2015].
  23. Gopal, B., 2013. Future of wetlands in tropical and subtropical Asia, especially in the face of climate change. Aquatic Sciences 75: 39–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Grimm, N. B., S. H. Faeth, N. E. Golubiewski, C. L. Redman, J. Wu, X. Bai & J. M. Briggs, 2008. Global change and the ecology of cities. Science 319: 756–760.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Guneralp, B. & K. C. Seto, 2013. Futures of global urban expansion: uncertainties and implications of biodiversity conservation. Environmental Research Letters 8: 1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hassall, C., 2014. The ecology and biodiversity of urban ponds. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Water 1: 187–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hassall, C. & S. Anderson, 2015. Stormwater ponds can contain comparable biodiversity to unmanaged wetlands in urban areas. Hydrobiologia 745: 137–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hassall, C., J. Hollinshead & A. Hull, 2012. Temporal dynamics of aquatic communities and implications for pond conservation. Biodiversity and Conservation 21: 829–852.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Heal, K. V., D. A. Hepburn & R. J. Lunn, 2006. Sediment management in sustainable urban drainage system ponds. Water Science and Technology 53: 219–227.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Hill, M. J. 2015. Aquatic macroinvertebrate biodiversity of lowland rural and urban ponds in Leicestershire. Unpublished PhD thesis, Loughborough University.Google Scholar
  31. Hinden, H., B. Oertli, N. Menetrey, L. Sager & J. Lachavanne, 2005. Alpine pond biodiversity: what are the related environmental variables. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 15: 613–624.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Jeffries, M. J., 2011. The temporal dynamics of temporary pond macroinvertebrate communities over a 10 year period. Hydrobiologia 661: 391–405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Langley, J. M., S. Kett, R. S. Al-Khalili & C. J. Humphrey, 1995. The conservation value of English urban ponds in terms of their rotifer fauna. Hydrobiologia 313(314): 259–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Le Viol, I., J. Mocq, R. Julliard & C. Kerbiriou, 2009. The contribution of motorway stormwater retention ponds to the biodiversity of aquatic macroinvertebrates. Biological Conservation 142: 3163–3171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Legendre, P. & H. J. B. Birks, 2012. From classical to canonical conservation. In Birks, H. J. B., A. F. Lotter, S. Juggins & J. P. Smol (eds), Tracking Environmental Change Using Lake Sediments, Volume 5: Data Handling and Numerical Techniques. Springer, Dordrecht: 201–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Legendre, P. & E. D. Gallagher, 2001. Ecologically meaningful transformations for ordination of species data. Oecologia 129: 271–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Leps, J. & P. Smilauer, 2003. Multivariate Analysis of Ecological Data Using CANOCO. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Mcdonald, R. I., P. Kareiva & R. T. T. Forman, 2008. The implications of current and future urbanization for global protected areas and biodiversity conservation. Biological Conservation 141: 1695–1703.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. McKinney, M. L., 2002. Urbanization, biodiversity and conservation. Bioscience 52: 883–890.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. McKinney, M. L., 2008. Effects of urbanization of species richness: a review of plants and animals. Urban Ecosystems 11: 161–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Nakanishi, K., T. Nishida, M. Kon & H. Sawada, 2014. Effects of environmental factors on the species composition of aquatic insects in irrigation ponds. Entomological Science 17: 251–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Nicolet, P., J. Biggs, G. Fox, M. J. Hodson, C. Reynolds, M. Whitfield & P. Williams, 2004. The wetland plant and macroinvertebrate assemblages of temporary ponds in England and Wales. Biological Conservation 120: 261–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Niinemets, U. & J. Penuelas, 2008. Gardening and urban landscaping: significant player in global change. Trends in Plant Science 13: 60–65.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Nilsson, A. N. & B. W. Svensson, 1995. Assemblages of dytiscid predators and culicid prey in relation to environmental factors in natural and clear-cut boreal swamp forest pools. Hydrobiologia 308: 183–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Noble, A. & Hassall, C. 2014. Poor ecological quality of urban ponds in northern England: causes and consequences. Urban Ecosystems: 1–14.Google Scholar
  46. Oertli, B., D. A. Joye, E. Castella, R. Juge, D. Cambin & J. B. Lachavanne, 2002. Does pond size matter? The relationship between pond area and biodiversity. Biological Conservation 104: 59–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Paul, M. J. & J. L. Mayer, 2001. Streams in the urban landscape. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 32: 333–365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Pisces Conservation, 2004. Community Analysis Package Version 3.0. Pisces Conservation Ltd, Lymington, UK.Google Scholar
  49. Pisces Conservation, 2008. Species Diversity and Richness IV. Pisces Conservation Ltd, Lymington, UK.Google Scholar
  50. Ruggiero, A., R. Cereghino, J. Figuerola, P. Marty & S. Angelibert, 2008. Farm ponds make a contribution to the biodiversity of aquatic insects in a French agricultural landscape. Comptes Rendus Biologies 331: 298–308.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Santoul, F., A. Gaujard, S. Angelibert, S. Mastrorillo & R. Cereghino, 2009. Gravel pits support waterbird diversity in an urban landscape. Hydrobiologia 634: 107–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Scher, O. & A. Thiery, 2005. Odonata, amphibian and environmental characteristics in motorway stormwater retention ponds (Southern France). Hydrobiologia 551: 237–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Semlitsch, R. D. & J. R. Bodie, 2003. Biological criteria for buffer zones around wetlands and riparian habitats for amphibians and reptiles. Conservation Biology 17: 1219–1228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Seto, K. C., B. Guneralp & L. R. Hutyra, 2012. Global forecasts of urban expansion to 2030 and direct impacts on biodiversity and carbon pools. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 109: 16083–16088.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Scheffer, M., G. J. van Geest, K. Zimmer, E. Jeppersen, M. Sondergaard, M. G. Butler, M. A. Hanson, S. Declerck & L. De Meester, 2006. Small habitat size and isolation can promote species richness: second-order effects on biodiversity in shallow lakes and ponds. Oikos 112: 227–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Shochat, E., S. B. Lerman, J. M. Anderies, P. S. Warren, S. H. Faeth & C. H. Nilon, 2010. Invasion, competition, and biodiversity loss in urban ecosystems. Bioscience 60: 199–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Smith, R. K. & W. J. Sutherland, 2014. Amphibian Conservation: Global Evidence for the Effects of Interventions. Pelagic Publishing, Exeter.Google Scholar
  58. Sushinsky, J. R., J. R. Rhodes, H. P. Possingham, T. K. Gill & R. A. Fuller, 2013. How should we grow cities to minimize their biodiversity impacts? Global Change Biology 19: 401–410.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. United Nations, 2014. World Urbanization Prospects: the 2014 revision. United Nations, New York.Google Scholar
  60. Urban, M. C., D. K. Skelly, D. Burchsted, W. Price & S. Lowry, 2006. Stream communities across a rural-urban landscape gradient. Diversity and Distributions 12: 337–350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Van de Meutter, F., R. Stoks & L. De Meester, 2005. The effect of turbidity state and microhabitat on macroinvertebrate assemblages: a pilot study of six shallow lakes. Hydrobiologia 542: 379–390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Vermonden, K., R. S. E. W. Leuven, G. van der Velde, M. M. van Katwijk, J. G. M. Roelofs & A. Jan Hendriks, 2009. Urban drainage systems: an undervalued habitat for aquatic macroinvertebrates. Biological Conservation 142: 1105–1115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Waterkeyn, A., P. Grillas, B. Vanschoenwinkel & L. Brendonck, 2008. Invertebrate community patterns in Mediterranean temporary wetlands along hydroperiod and salinity gradients. Freshwater Biology 53: 1808–1822.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Williams, P., M. Whitfield, J. Biggs, S. Bray, G. Fox, P. Nicolet & D. Sear, 2003. Comparative biodiversity of rivers, streams, ditches and ponds in an agricultural landscape in Southern England. Biological Conservation 115: 329–341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Williams, P., M. Whitfield & J. Biggs, 2008. How can we make new ponds biodiverse? A case study monitored over seven years. Hydrobiologia 597: 137–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Williams, P., Biggs, J., Crowe, A., Murphy, J., Nicolet, P., Meatherby, A. & Dunbar, M. 2010. Countryside survey report from 2007, Technical report No 7/07 Pond Conservation and NERC/Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster.Google Scholar
  67. Williams, C. J., P. C. Frost & M. Xenopoulos, 2013. Beyond best management practices: pelagic biogeochemical dynamics in urban stormwater ponds. Ecological Applications 23: 1384–1395.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Whittaker, R. J. & J. M. Fernandez-Palacios, 2007. Island Biogeography: Ecology, Evolution, and Conservation. Oxford University Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  69. Wood, P. J., M. T. Greenwood, S. A. Barker & J. Gunn, 2001. The effects of amenity management for angling on the conservation value of aquatic invertebrate communities in old industrial mill ponds. Biological Conservation 102: 17–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Wood, P.J., Greenwood, M. T. & Agnew, M. D. 2003. Pond biodiversity and habitat loss in the UK. Area 35: 206–216.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Geography, Centre for Hydrological and Ecosystem ScienceLoughborough UniversityLoughboroughUK

Personalised recommendations