The seasonal development of phytoplankton is a sequence of consecutive events with waxes and wanes of biomass and compositional shifts. This study analyzed 16 years data in Lake Erken, Sweden and revealed four baselines of phytoplankton succession with their underlying drivers. Results showed that there were two diatom-dominated phases annually. The vernal community was dominated by centric diatoms larger than 15 µm (functional groups B and C) which were fast-growing diatoms being highly efficient in the use of nutrients. The autumn community was comprised mainly meroplanktonic mixing-dependent Aulacoseira granulata and Fragilaria sp. (MP and P) or/and large centric diatoms (B). Between the two mixing-phases with diatoms, a Gloeotrichia echinulata (H 2) bloom occurred due to its preference for a stratified water column with elevated water temperatures and high light availability. The summer stratification in Lake Erken was weak and short, thus, favoring meroplanktonic diatoms to peak once the lake turned over in early autumn. Lake Erken represents an intermediate case between a highly mixed polymictic lake and a lake with strong summer stratification, where the observed stratification patterns allowed the development of an autumn diatom phase similar, by extent, to the vernal one and mainly dominated by meroplanktonic diatoms.
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The authors thank the staff of the Erken Laboratory and Don Pierson for sampling and technical support and, for establishing the long-term database. We thank Anders Hasselrot for his support on data mining and statistics. We thank an anonymous reviewer for her/his very helpful criticism and comments on the earlier version of this paper; he/she has substantially improved our manuscript.
Guest editors: Luigi Naselli-Flores & Judit Padisák / Biogeography and Spatial Patterns of Biodiversity of Freshwater Phytoplankton
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Yang, Y., Pettersson, K. & Padisák, J. Repetitive baselines of phytoplankton succession in an unstably stratified temperate lake (Lake Erken, Sweden): a long-term analysis. Hydrobiologia 764, 211–227 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10750-015-2314-1
- Phytoplankton dynamics
- Water column stability
- Meroplanktonic diatom
- Gloeotrichia echinulata
- Decision trees