Skip to main content
Log in

Niche segregation facilitates coexistence between native and introduced fishes in a deep Patagonian lake

  • Primary Research Paper
  • Published:
Hydrobiologia Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

Species introductions force sympatry between species that did not coevolve. Introduced salmonids have coexisted with native fish since the early 20th century in Patagonian water bodies, thus generating questions about the mechanisms that facilitate their coexistence. We analyzed the trophic and spatial intra- and inter-specific relationships established among native and salmonid species in a deep oligotrophic lake of Patagonia in order to determine niche partitioning patterns as strategies for their coexistence. Salmonids were more generalist feeders, while native species had narrower trophic niches. Native fish and introduced salmonids partitioned food, mainly through the consumption of the crayfish Samastacus sp. and the native galaxiid Galaxias maculatus, respectively. The diet of most species changed with body size, shifting from insects/amphipods to the larger G. maculatus and crayfish. Trophic interactions varied with season, in association with prey seasonality. In general, fishes feeding on the same prey were captured in the same depth strata, indicating common use of food and space. Our results provide new evidence on the trophic ecology of a mixed fish community (exotic-native), supporting the idea that native and non-native fishes could be avoiding negative interactions (e.g., competition) through trophic and spatial resource partitioning.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  • Aigo, J., V. Cussac, S. Peris, S. Ortubay, S. Gómez, H. López, M. Gross, J. Barriga & M. Battini, 2008. Distribution of introduced and native fish in Patagonia (Argentina): patterns and changes in fish assemblages. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 18: 387–408.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Barriga, J. P., M. A. Battini, P. J. Macchi, D. Milano & V. E. Cussac, 2002. Spatial and temporal distribution of landlocked Galaxias maculatus and Galaxias platei (Pisces, Galaxiidae) in a lake in the South American Andes. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 36: 349–363.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Barriga, J. P., M. A. Battini, M. García-Asorey, C. Carrea, P. J. Macchi & V. E. Cussac, 2012. Intraspecific variation in diet, growth, and morphology of landlocked Galaxias maculatus during its larval period: the role of food availability and predation risk. Hydrobiologia 679: 27–41.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bello, M. T., M. M. Bunge & M. Baiz, 1991. Alimentación natural del pejerrey (Patagonina hatcheri) introducido en la laguna Ñe Luan, Río Negro [Natural feed of silverside (Patagonina hatcheri) introduced in lagoon Ñe Luan, Río Negro]. Biología Pesquera 20: 13–19.

    Google Scholar 

  • Benjamin, J. R., F. Lepori, C. V. Baxter & K. D. Fausch, 2013. Can replacement of native by non-native trout alter stream-riparian food webs? Freshwater Biology 58: 1694–1709.

  • Bøhn, T., P.-A. Amundsen & A. Sparrow, 2008. Competitive exclusion after invasion? Biological Invasions 10: 359–368.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Browne, D. R. & J. B. Rasmussen, 2009. Shift in the trophic ecology of brook trout resulting from interactions with yellow perch: an intraguild predator-prey interaction. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 138: 1109–1122.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Buria, L., S. J. Walde, M. Battini, P. J. Macchi, M. Alonso, D. E. Ruzzante & V. E. Cussac, 2007. Movement of a South American perch Percichthys trucha in a mountain Patagonian lake during spawning and prespawning periods. Journal of Fish Biology 70: 215–230.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cervellini, P. M., M. A. Battini & V. E. Cussac, 1993. Ontogenetic shifts in the feeding of Galaxias maculatus (Galaxiidae) and Odontesthes microlepidotus (Atherinidae). Environmental Biology of Fishes 36: 283–290.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Chipps, S. R. & J. E. Garvey, 2007. Assessment of food habits and feeding patterns. In Guy, C. S. & M. L. Brown (eds), Analysis and Interpretation of Freshwater Fisheries Data. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda: 473–514.

    Google Scholar 

  • Clarke, K. R. & R. M. Warwick, 2001. Change in Marine Communities: An Approach to Statistical Analysis and Interpretation, 2nd ed. Natural Environment Research Council, London.

    Google Scholar 

  • Clarke, K. R. & R. N. Gorley, 2006. PRIMER v6: User Manual/Tutorial. PRIMER-E, Plymouth.

    Google Scholar 

  • Clarke, K. R., P. J. Somerfield & R. N. Gorley, 2008. Testing of null hypotheses in exploratory community analyses: similarity profiles and biota-environment linkage. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 366: 56–69.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Clavel, J., R. Julliard & V. Devictor, 2010. Worldwide decline of specialist species: toward a global functional homogenization? Frontiers in Ecology & Environment 9: 222–228.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Connell, J. H., 1980. Diversity and the coevolution of competitors, or the ghost of competition past. Oikos 35: 131–138.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Correa, C. & A. P. Hendry, 2012. Invasive salmonids and lake order interact in the decline of puye grande Galaxias platei in western Patagonia lakes. Ecological Applications 22: 828–842.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Correa, C., A. P. Bravo & A. P. Hendry, 2012. Reciprocal trophic niche shifts in native and invasive fish: salmonids and galaxiids in Patagonian lakes. Freshwater Biology 57: 1769–1781.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Crawford, S. S. & A. M. Muir, 2008. Global introductions of salmon and trout in the genus Oncorhynchus: 1870–2007. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 18: 313–344.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cussac, V. E., S. Ortubay, G. Iglesias, D. Milano, M. Lattuca, J. Barriga, M. Battini & M. Gross, 2004. The distribution of South American galaxiid fishes: the role of biological traits and post glacial history. Journal of Biogeography 31: 103–122.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Díaz, M., F. Pedrozo, C. Reynolds & P. Temporetti, 2007. Chemical composition and the nitrogen-regulated trophic state of Patagonian lakes. Limnologica 37: 17–27.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Eby, L. A., J. W. Roach, L. B. Crowder & J. A. Stanford, 2006. Effects of stocking-up freshwater food webs. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 21: 576–584.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Garrison, L. P., 2000. Spatial and dietary overlap in the Georges Bank ground fish community. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 57: 1679–1691.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Graeb, B. D. S., M. T. Mangan, J. C. Jolley, D. H. Wahl & J. M. Dettmers, 2006. Ontogenetic changes in prey preference and foraging ability of Yellow perch: insights based on relative energetic return of prey. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 135: 1493–1498.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Grosman, F. M. & G. Rudzik, 1990. Análisis de la dieta del pejerrey patagónico (Patagonina hatcheri) Eigenmann, 1909, Atherinidae, de la laguna Terraplén, Chubut, Argentina [Analysis of patagonian silverside (Patagonina hatcheri) diet Eigenmann, 1909, Atherinidae, of lagoon Terraplén, Chubut, Argentina]. Biota 6: 71–88.

  • Habit, E., J. González, D. E. Ruzzante & S. J. Walde, 2012. Native and introduced fish species richness in Chilean Patagonian lakes: inferences on invasion mechanisms using salmonid-free lakes. Diversity and Distributions 18: 1153–1165.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hayden, B., T. Holopainen, P.-A. Amundsen, A. Eloranta, R. Knudsen, K. Praebel & K. K. Kahilainen, 2013. Interactions between invading benthivorous fish and native whitefish in subarctic lakes. Freshwater Biology 58: 1234–1250.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Holt, R. D., 1977. Predation, apparent competition, and the structure of prey communities. Theoretical Population Biology 12: 237–266.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Juncos, R., D. Milano, P. J. Macchi, M. Alonso & P. H. Vigliano, 2011. Response of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to different food web structures in Northern Patagonia: implications on growth, bioenergetics and invasiveness. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 140: 415–428.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Juncos, R., D. A. Beauchamp & P. H. Vigliano, 2013. Modeling prey consumption by native and nonnative piscivorous fishes: implications for competition and impacts on shared prey in an ultraoligotrophic lake in Patagonia. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 142: 268–281.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lattuca, M. E., M. A. Battini & P. J. Macchi, 2008. Trophic interactions among native and introduced fishes in a northern Patagonian oligotrophic lake. Journal of Fish Biology 72: 1306–1320.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Levins, R., 1968. Evolution in Changing Environments: Some Theoretical Explanations. Princeton University Press, Princeton.

    Google Scholar 

  • Macchi, P. J., 2004 Respuestas poblacionales de Galaxias maculatus a la depredación por parte de Percichthys trucha y los salmónidos introducidos en la Patagonia [Population responses of Galaxias maculatus to predation by Percichthys trucha and introduced salmonids in Patagonia]. PhD Thesis. Universidad Nacional del Comahue, Río Negro, Argentina.

  • Macchi, P. J., V. E. Cussac, M. F. Alonso & M. A. Denegri, 1999. Predation relationships between introduced salmonids and the native fish fauna in lakes and reservoirs in Northern Patagonia. Ecology of Freshwater Fish 8: 227–236.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Macchi, P. J., M. A. Pascual & P. H. Vigliano, 2007. Differential piscivory of the native Percichthys trucha and exotic salmonids upon the native forage fish Galaxias maculatus in Patagonian Andean lakes. Limnologica 37: 76–87.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Macchi, P. J., P. H. Vigliano, M. A. Pascual, M. Alonso, M. A. Denegri, D. Milano, M. García Asorey & G. Lippolt, 2008. Historical policy goals for fish management in northern continental Patagonia Argentina: a structuring force of actual fish assemblages? American Fisheries Society Symposium 49: 331–348.

    Google Scholar 

  • Marchetti, M. P., P. B. Moyle & R. Levine, 2004. Invasive species profiling? Exploring the characteristics of non-native fishes across invasion stages in California. Freshwater Biology 49: 646–661.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Marshall, S. & M. Elliott, 1997. A comparison of univariate and multivariate numerical and graphical techniques for determining inter- and intraspecific feeding relationships in estuarine fish. Journal of Fish Biology 51: 526–545.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • McDowall, R. M., 2003. Impacts of introduced salmonids on native Galaxiids in New Zealand upland streams: a new look at an old problem. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 132: 229–238.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Milano, D., 2003. Biología de Galaxias platei (Pisces, Galaxiidae): especializaciones relativas a su distribución [Biology of Galaxias platei (Pisces, Galaxiidae): specializations relating to distribution]. PhD Thesis. Universidad Nacional del Comahue, Río Negro, Argentina.

  • Milano, D., V. E. Cussac, P. J. Macchi, D. E. Ruzzante, M. F. Alonso, P. H. Vigliano & M. A. Denegri, 2002. Predator associated morphology in Galaxias platei in Patagonia lakes. Journal of Fish Biology 61: 138–156.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Milano, D., D. E. Ruzzante, V. E. Cussac, P. J. Macchi, R. A. Ferriz, J. P. Barriga, J. Aigo, M. E. Lattuca & S. Walde, 2006. Latitudinal and ecological correlates of morphological variation in Galaxias platei (Pisces, Galaxiidae) in Patagonia. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 87: 69–82.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Milano, D., J. Aigo & P. J. Macchi, 2013. Diel patterns in space use, food and metabolic activity of Galaxias maculatus (Pisces: Galaxiidae) in the littoral zone of a shallow Patagonian lake. Aquatic Ecology 47: 277–290.

  • Noy-Meir, I., 1981. Theoretical dynamics of competitors under predation. Oecologia 50: 277–284.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Nunn, A. D., J. P. Harvey & I. G. Cowx, 2007. The food and feeding relationships of larval and 0 + year juvenile fishes in lowland rivers and connected waterbodies. I. Ontogenetic shifts and interspecific diet similarity. Journal of Fish Biology 70: 726–742.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pascual, M. A., V. E. Cussac, B. Dyer, D. Soto, P. H. Vigliano, S. Ortubay & P. J. Macchi, 2007. Freshwater fishes of Patagonia in the 21st Century after a hundred years of human settlement, species introductions, and environmental change. Aquatic Ecosystem Health and Management 10: 1–16.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Penaluna, B. E., I. Arismendi & D. Soto, 2009. Evidence of interactive segregation between introduced trout and native fishes in Northern Patagonian rivers, Chile. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 138: 839–845.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pinkas, L., M. S. Olipham & I. L. K. Iversor, 1971. Food habits of albacore, bluefin tuna and bonito in California waters. Fisheries Bulletin 152: 1–105.

    Google Scholar 

  • Platell, M. E. & I. C. Potter, 2001. Partitioning of food resources amongst 18 abundant benthic carnivorous fish species in marine waters on the lower west coast of Australia. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 261: 31–54.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Rechencq, M., A. Sosnovsky, P. J. Macchi, P. A. Alvear & P. H. Vigliano, 2011. Extensive diel fish migrations in a deep ultraoligotrophic lake of Patagonia Argentina. Hydrobiologia 658: 147–161.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ross, S. T., 1986. Resource partitioning in fish assemblages: a review of field studies. Copeia 2: 352–388.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Svanbäck, R. & P. Eklöv, 2004. Morphology in perch affects habitat specific feeding efficiency. Functional Ecology 18: 503–510.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Vander Zanden, M. J., J. M. Casselman & J. B. Rasmussen, 1999. Stable isotope evidence for the food web consequences of species invasions in lakes. Nature 401: 464–467.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Vigliano, P. H., P. J. Macchi, M. A. Denegri, M. Alonso, D. Milano, G. Lippolt & G. Padilla, 1999. A modified sampling design for qualitative–quantitative studies of fish by depth strata in Araucanian lakes. Natura Neotropicalis 1–2: 1–11.

    Google Scholar 

  • Vigliano, P. H., D. A. Beauchamp, D. Milano, P. J. Macchi, M. F. Alonso, M. García Asorey, M. A. Denegri, J. E. Ciancio, G. Lippolt, M. Rechencq & J. P. Barriga, 2009. Quantifying predation on galaxiids and other native organisms by introduced rainbow trout in an ultraoligotrophic lake in northern Patagonia, Argentina: a bioenergetics modeling approach. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 138: 1405–1419.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Werner, E. E. & J. F. Gilliam, 1984. The ontogenetic niche and species interactions in size-structured populations. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics 15: 393–425.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wiens, J. A., 1993. Fat times, lean times and competition among predators. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 8: 348–349.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Wissinger, S. A., A. R. McIntosh & H. S. Greig, 2006. Impats of introduced brown and rainbow trout on benthic invertebrate communities in shallow New Zeland lakes. Freshwater Biology 51: 2009–2028.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

This research was partially supported by Universidad Nacional del Comahue (CRUB,UNCo B001) and Agencia Nacional de Promoción Científica y Tecnológica (PICT 25722). We thank all the members of the Grupo de Evaluación y Manejo de Recursos Ícticos (GEMaRI) for their field assistance. Special thanks to Audrey Shaw for revision of the written English.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Romina Juncos.

Additional information

Handling editor: M. Power

Electronic supplementary material

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

Supplementary material 1 (PDF 48 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Juncos, R., Milano, D., Macchi, P.J. et al. Niche segregation facilitates coexistence between native and introduced fishes in a deep Patagonian lake. Hydrobiologia 747, 53–67 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10750-014-2122-z

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10750-014-2122-z

Keywords

Navigation