, Volume 721, Issue 1, pp 197–207 | Cite as

Spatial genetic heterogeneity of the cosmopolitan chaetognath Eukrohnia hamata (Möbius, 1875) revealed by mitochondrial DNA

  • Dmitry N. Kulagin
  • Alexandra N. Stupnikova
  • Tatyana V. Neretina
  • Nikolai S. Mugue
Primary Research Paper


Some holoplanktonic species are cosmopolitan and have continuous distribution in the world’s oceans. For most of these species it is not clear whether there is unhampered gene flow between far distant populations or they represent a complex of cryptic species. In the present study we investigated genetic diversity of the cosmopolitan chaetognath Eukrohnia hamata in order to identify its spatial structure. DNA-barcode fragment of the mitochondrial COI gene was determined and analyzed for E. hamata specimens collected in the Arctic Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, and Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean. Five lineages were determined by the phylogenetic analysis with robust statistical support. Three lineages: Antarctic (Eh-1), Subantarctic (Eh-2), and Arctic (Eh-3) had significant genetic differences and were geographically separated. Two other lineages: Eh-4 and Eh-5, that had the smallest genetic difference, were observed together in tropical waters, but they were geographically separated from the other lineages. We suppose that geographical distribution of most of the E. hamata lineages is shaped by the large-scale oceanic fronts, considered as biogeographic boundaries for numerous zooplankton species. Genetic homogeneity of Arctic, Subantarctic, and Antarctic lineages was also shown, each within its regions of inhabit.


Chaetognaths Eukrohnia hamata Mitochondrial DNA Population structure Phylogeography 



We acknowledge the assistance of the Captains and crew of the R/V Akademik Ioffe (AI-30), R/V Akademik Sergey Vavilov (ASV-31, ASV-36), R/V Akademik Mstislav Keldysh (AMK-59), and R/V Polarstern (ANT XXVII/2, ARC-XXVII-3). Some specimens were kindly collected by Carmen David, Elena Rybakova, and Ekaterina Uryupova on their cruises on Polarstern. We are also very grateful for the kind help of Alexander Vereshchaka, Anastasia Lunina, and Vladimir Gagarin in collecting the samples. The laboratory work and analysis was funded by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation (grant 11.G34.31.0008). Additional support for that project was provided by Program for Basic Research No. 23 from the Presidium of the Russian Academy of Sciences, by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (Grant No. 12-04-31718), and by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dmitry N. Kulagin
    • 1
  • Alexandra N. Stupnikova
    • 1
  • Tatyana V. Neretina
    • 2
  • Nikolai S. Mugue
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.P.P. Shirshov Institute of OceanologyRussian Academy of ScienceMoscowRussia
  2. 2.N.A. Pertsov White Sea Biological Station of the Moscow State UniversityBiological Faculty of Moscow UniversityMoscowRussia
  3. 3.Russian Federal Research Institute of Fisheries and OceanographyMoscowRussia
  4. 4.N.K. Koltzov Institute of Developmental BiologyRussian Academy of ScienceMoscowRussia

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