Trophic niche partitioning in communities of African annual fish: evidence from stable isotopes
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Annual killifish of the genus Nothobranchius often co-occur in temporary savannah pools. Their space- and time-limited environment does not allow for any substantial habitat or temporal segregation. Coexisting species are therefore predicted to have well separated trophic niches to avoid intense food competition. Although in a previous “snapshot” study using stomach content analysis (SCA), the trophic niches of three sympatric species (N. furzeri, N. orthonotus, and N. pienaari) were found to vary among species, the difference was relatively weak and inconsistent across different sites. Here, we used the time-integrative capacity of stable isotope analysis to test whether the trophic niches of sympatric Mozambican Nothobranchius are more distinct over a long-term period. Analysis of carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes separated the trophic niche and trophic position of N. pienaari but failed to find any difference between N. furzeri/N. kadleci and N. orthonotus. No segregation was found at the sites with low prey diversity. In contrast, SCA identified N. orthonotus as the species with the most distinct trophic niche. We discuss the effect of prey diversity and different sensitivities of stomach content and stable isotope analysis in general and conclude that the trophic niches of the three sympatric Nothobranchius species are well separated.
KeywordsNothobranchius Coexistence Niche separation Sympatric Extreme environment Africa
Funding came from the Czech Science Foundation, Project P505/11/P646 to M. P. The authors would like to thank three anonymous referees whose comments greatly improved the paper.
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