A global assessment of freshwater fish introductions in mediterranean-climate regions
- 965 Downloads
Mediterranean-climate regions (med-regions) are global hotspots of endemism facing mounting environmental threats associated with human-related activities, including the ecological impacts associated with non-native species introductions. We review freshwater fish introductions across med-regions to evaluate the influences of non-native fishes on the biogeography of taxonomic and functional diversity. Our synthesis revealed that 136 freshwater fish species (26 families, 13 orders) have been introduced into med-regions globally. These introductions, and local extirpations, have increased taxonomic and functional faunal similarity among regions by an average of 7.5% (4.6–11.4%; Jaccard) and 7.2% (1.4–14.0%; Bray–Curtis), respectively. Faunal homogenisation was highest in Chile and the western Med Basin, whereas sw Cape and the Aegean Sea drainages showed slight differentiation (decrease in faunal similarity) over time. At present, fish faunas of different med-regions have widespread species in common (e.g. Gambusia holbrooki, Cyprinus carpio, Oncorhynchus mykiss, Carassius auratus, and Micropterus salmoides) which are typically large-bodied, non-migratory, have higher physiological tolerance, and display fast population growth rates. Our findings suggest that intentional and accidental introductions of freshwater fish have dissolved dispersal barriers and significantly changed the present-day biogeography of med-regions across the globe. Conservation challenges in med-regions include understanding the ecosystem consequences of non-native species introductions at macro-ecological scales.
KeywordsIntroduced species Non-native species Conservation biogeography Taxonomic homogenisation Functional homogenisation
SMM acknowledges the financial support of the DST/NRF Centre of Excellence for Invasion Biology and the David and Elaine Potter Foundation during his PhD studies. EGB acknowledges funding support from the Spanish Ministry of Science (projects CGL2009-12877-C02-01 and Consolider-Ingenio 2010 CSD2009-00065). DLM acknowledges Dr Stephen Beatty (Murdoch University) for his work on the fishes of south-western Australia. RŠ acknowledges support from the Czech Ministry of Culture (DKRVO2012 and DKRVO 2013/14, National Museum, 00023272). The authors thank Nicolas Poulet (ONEMA) for providing data on French Mediterranean river systems, Meta Povž and Predag Simonovic for providing data on Adriatic river systems, and Sergio Zerunian and Massimo Lorenzoni for providing data on Italian river systems.
- Abell, R., M. L. Theime, C. Revenga, M. Bryer, M. Kottelat, N. Bogutskaya, B. Coad, N. Mandrak, S. Contreras-Balderas, W. Bussing, M. L. J. Stiassny, P. Skelton, G. R. Allen, P. Unmack, A. Naseka, R. Ng, N. Sindorf, J. Robertson, E. Armijo, J. V. Higgins, T. J. Heibel, E. Wikramanayake, D. Olson, H. L. Lopez, R. E. Reis, J. G. Lundberg, M. H. Sabaj Perez & P. Petry, 2008. Freshwater ecoregions of the world: a new map of biogeographic units for freshwater biodiversity conservation. BioScience 58: 403–414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Basulto, S., 2003. El largo viaje de los salmones: Una crónica olvidada: propagación y cultivo de especies acuáticas en Chile. Editorial Maval, Santiago.Google Scholar
- Çelikkale, M. S., 2002. İçsu Balıkları ve Yetiştiriciliği (Aquaculture of Freshwater Fish). Karadeniz Technical University Press, Trabzon.Google Scholar
- Copp, G. H., P. G. Bianco, N. G. Bogutskaya, T. Erös, I. Falka, M. T. Ferreira, M. G. Fox, J. Freyhof, R. E. Gozlan, J. Grabowska, V. Kováč, A. R. Moreno-Amich, A. M. Naseka, M. Peňáz, M. Povž, M. Przybylski, M. Robillard, I. C. Russell, S. Statkens, S. Šumer, A. Vila-Gispert & C. Wiesner, 2005. To be, or not to be, a non-native freshwater fish? Journal of Applied Ichthyology 21: 242–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- de Moor, I. J. & M. N. Bruton, 1988. Atlas of alien and translocated indigenous aquatic animals in Southern Africa. South African National Scientific Programmes Report No. 144, CSIR, Pretoria.Google Scholar
- Froese, R. & D. Pauly (eds), 2010. FishBase 2010: Concepts, Design and Data Sources. International Center for Living Aquatic Resource Management, Manila. www.fishbase.org.
- García-Berthou, E. & P. B. Moyle, 2011. Rivers. In Simberloff, D. & M. Rejmánek (eds), Encyclopedia of Biological Invasions. University of California Press, Berkeley & Los Angeles: 609–612.Google Scholar
- Hooper, D. U., F. S. Chapin, J. J. Ewel, A. Hector, P. Inchausti, S. Lavorel, J. H. Lawton, D. M. Lodge, M. Loreau, S. Naeem, B. Schmid, H. Setälä, A. J. Symstad, J. Vandermeer & D. A. Wardle, 2005. Effects of biodiversity on ecosystem functioning: a consensus of current knowledge. Ecological Monographs 75: 3–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Impson, N. D., 2007. Freshwater fishes. In Nature, C. (ed.), Western Cape Province State of Biodiversity 2007. Cape Nature Scientific Services, Stellenbosch: 18–36.Google Scholar
- Iriarte, J. A., G. A. Lobos & F. M. Jaksic, 2005. Invasive vertebrate species in Chile and their control and monitoring by government agencies. Revista Chilena de Historia Natural 78: 143–154.Google Scholar
- Katz, J., P. B. Moyle, R. M. Quiñones, J. Israel & S. Purdy, 2012. Impending extinction of salmon, steelhead, and trout (Salmonidae) in California. Environmental Biology of Fishes. doi: 10.1007/s10641-012-9974-8.
- Marr, S. M., M. P. Marchetti, J. D. Olden, D. L. Morgan, E. García-Berthou, I. Arismendi, J. A. Day, C. L. Griffiths & P. H. Skelton, 2010. Freshwater fish introductions in mediterranean-climate regions: are there commonalities in the conservation problem? Diversity and Distributions 16: 606–619.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, 2005. Ecosystem and Human Well-being: Biodiversity Synthesis. World Resources Institute, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
- Morgan, D. L., D. C. Thorburn & H. S. Gill, 2003. Salinization of south-western Western Australian rivers and the implications for the inland fish fauna: the Blackwood River, a case study. Pacific Conservation Biology 9: 161–171.Google Scholar
- Olden, J. D., M. J. Kennard & B. J. Pusey, 2008. Species invasion and the changing biogeography of Australian freshwater fishes. Global Ecology and Biogeography 17: 25–37.Google Scholar
- Rahel, F. J., 2004. Unauthorized fish introductions: fisheries management of the people, for the people, or by the people? In Nickum, M. J., P. M. Mazik, J. G. Nickum & D. D. MacKinlay (eds), Propagated Fishes in Resource Management American Fisheries Society Symposium Series 44. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, MD: 431–443.Google Scholar
- Shumka, S., L. Shuka & S. Mali, 2010. (2010) Rivers water life and the responses of possible hydropower’s to be constructed in the water courses of Vjosa, Semani and Drini in Albania. BALWOIS 25: 1–8.Google Scholar
- Zenetos, A., M.-A. Pancucci-Papadopoulou, S. Zogaris, E. Papastergiadou, L. Vardakas, K. Aligizaki & A. N. Economou, 2009. Aquatic alien species in Greece (2009): tracking sources, patterns and effects on the ecosystem. Journal of Biological Research-Thessaloniki 12: 135–172.Google Scholar