Hydrobiologia

, Volume 719, Issue 1, pp 93–118 | Cite as

Long-term population and community patterns of benthic macroinvertebrates and fishes in Northern California Mediterranean-climate streams

  • Vincent H. Resh
  • Leah A. Bêche
  • Justin E. Lawrence
  • Raphael D. Mazor
  • Eric P. McElravy
  • Alison P. O’Dowd
  • Deborah Rudnick
  • Stephanie M. Carlson
MEDITERRANEAN CLIMATE STREAMS Review Paper

Abstract

Long-term studies can document temporal patterns in freshwater ecosystems, and this is particularly important in mediterranean-climate (med-climate) regions because of strong interannual variation in precipitation amounts and consequently stream flow. We review long-term studies of populations and communities of benthic macroinvertebrate and fishes from sites throughout the med-climate region of California and develop generalities that may apply broadly to med-climate streams worldwide. Severe drought may result in community shifts, and alter age-structure in both macroinvertebrates and fishes. Within-year seasonal patterns in macroinvertebrate communities can be influenced by annual variability in flow regimes. Macroinvertebrate biological-monitoring metrics with consistently low intra-annual variability may be especially applicable in med-climate streams, as is the use of different temporal windows to describe reference periods to reduce influence of interannual variability on impact detection. Long-term data can be used to develop macroinvertebrate-based metrics that can either show or be independent of climate-change effects. Most macroinvertebrate species are temporally rare in their annual occurrence. Multiple components of natural flow regimes can favor native over invasive fishes. Long-term, quantitative information from med-climate streams is generally lacking, which is a hindrance to both management practices and development of appropriate ecological constructs.

Keywords

Biological monitoring Long-term variability Benthic macroinvertebrates Fishes Mediterranean climate Streams 

References

  1. Bady, P., S. Dolédec, B. Dumont & J. Fruget, 2004. Multiple co-inertia analysis: a tool for assessing synchrony in the temporal variability of aquatic communities. Comptes Rendus Biologies 327: 29–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bailey, R. C., R. H. Norris & T. B. Reynoldson, 2003. Bioassessment of freshwater ecosystems: using the reference condition approach. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston.Google Scholar
  3. Ball, J. E., L. A. Bêche, P. K. Mendez & V. H. Resh, 2012. Biodiversity in mediterranean-climate streams of California. Hydrobiologia. doi:10.1007/s10750-012-1368-6.
  4. Barbour, M. T., J. Gerritsen, B. D. Snyder & J. B. Stribling, 1999. Rapid Bioassessment Protocols for Use in Streams and Wadeable Rivers: Periphyton, Benthic Macroinvertebrates and Fish, 2nd edition. EPA 841-B-99-002. US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  5. Barnett, T. P., D. W. Pierce, H. G. Hidalgo, C. Bonfils, B. D. Santer, T. D. G. Bala, A. W. Wood, T. Nozawa, A. A. Mirin, D. R. Cayan & M. D. Dettinger, 2008. Human-induced changes in the hydrology of the western United States. Science 319: 1080–1083.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bêche, L. A. & V. H. Resh, 2007a. Biological traits of benthic macroinvertebrates in California Mediterranean-climate streams: long-term annual variability and trait diversity patterns. Fundamental and Applied Limnology 169: 1–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bêche, L. A. & V. H. Resh, 2007b. Short-term climatic trends affect the temporal variability of macroinvertebrates in California ‘mediterranean’ streams. Freshwater Biology 52: 2317–2339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bêche, L. A., E. P. McElravy & V. H. Resh, 2006. Long-term seasonal variation of benthic-macroinvertebrate biological traits in two mediterranean-climate streams in California, USA. Freshwater Biology 51: 56–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bêche, L. A., P. G. Connors, V. H. Resh & A. M. Merenlender, 2009. Resilience of fishes and invertebrates to prolonged drought in two California streams. Ecography 32: 778–788.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bernardo, J. M., M. Ilhéu, P. Matono & A. M. Costa, 2003. Interannual variation of fish assemblage structure in a Mediterranean River: implications of streamflow on the dominance of native or exotic species. River Research and Applications 19: 521–532.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bernhardt, E. S., M. A. Palmer, J. D. Allan, G. Alexander, K. Barnas, S. Brooks, J. Carr, S. C. Dahm, J. Follstad-Shah, D. Galat, S. Gloss, P. Goodwin, D. Hart, B. Hassett, R. Jenkinson, S. Katz, G. M. Kondolf, P. S. Lake, R. Lave, J. L. Meyer, T. K. O’Donnell, L. Pagano, B. Powell & E. Sudduth, 2005. Synthesizing US river restoration efforts. Science 308: 636–637.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Blumenshine, S. C., B. Tsukimura, A. Rice & D. A. Rudnick, 2012. Environmental factors influencing the dynamics of Chinese mitten crabs in the San Francisco Bay-Delta. Aquatic Invasions 7: 111–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bogan, M. T. & D. A. Lytle, 2011. Severe drought drives novel community trajectories in desert stream pools. Freshwater Biology 56: 2070–2081.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bonada, N., 2003. Ecology of the macroinvertebrate communities in mdeiterranean rivers at different scales and organization levels. Ph.D. thesis. University of Barcelona, Spain.Google Scholar
  15. Bonada, N., M. Rieradevall, N. Prat & V. H. Resh, 2006. Benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages and macrohabitat connectivity in Mediterranean climate streams of northern California. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 25: 32–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bonada, N., M. Rieradevall & N. Prat, 2007. Interaction of spatial and temporal heterogeneity: constraints on macroinvertebrate community structure and species traits in a Mediterranean river network. Hydrobiologia 589: 91–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bond, N. R., P. S. Lake & A. H. Arthington, 2008. The impacts of drought on freshwater ecosystems: an Australian perspective. Hydrobiologia 600: 3–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Boulton, A. J., C. G. Peterson, N. B. Grimm & S. G. Fisher, 1992. Stability of an aquatic macroinvertebrate community in a multiyear hydrological disturbance regime. Ecology 73: 2102–2207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bradley, D. C. & J. Ormerod, 2001. Community persistence among stream invertebrates tracks the North Atlantic Oscillation. Journal of Animal Ecology 70: 987–996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Brauman, K. A., G. C. Daily, T. K. Duarte & H. A. Mooney, 2007. The nature and value of ecosystem services: an overview highlighting hydrologic services. Annual Review of Environment and Resources 32: 67–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Briers, R. A., J. H. R. Gee & R. Geoghegan, 2004. Effects of the North Atlantic Oscillation on growth and phenology of stream insects. Ecography 27: 811–817.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Brook, B. W. & C. J. A. Bradshaw, 2006. Strength of evidence for density dependence in abundance time series of 1198 species. Ecology 87: 1445–1451.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Burt, T. P., N. J. K. Howden, F. Worrall & M. J. Whelan, 2008. Importance of long-term monitoring for detecting environmental change: lessons from a lowland river in south east England. Biogeosciences Discussions 5: 2369–2379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Carlisle, D. M. & W. H. Clements, 1999. Sensitivity and variability of metrics used in biological assessments of running waters. Environmental toxicology and chemistry 18: 285–291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Carter, J. L. & V. H. Resh, 2001. After site selection and before data analysis: sampling sorting, and laboratory procedures used in stream benthic-macroinvertebrate monitoring programs by USA state agencies. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 20: 658–682.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Cattanéo, F., N. Lamouroux, P. Breil & H. Capra, 2002. The influence of hydrological and biotic processes on brown trout (Salmo trutta) population dynamics. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 59: 12–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Charbonneau, R. & V. H. Resh, 1992. Strawberry Creek on the University of California, Berkeley campus: a case history of urban stream restoration. Aquatic Conservation 2: 293–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Chase, J. M., 2007. Drought mediates the importance of stochastic community assembly. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 104: 17430–17434.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Chessman, B. C., 2009. Climatic changes and 13-year trends in stream macroinvertebrate assemblages in New South Wales, Australia. Global Change Biology 15: 2791–2802.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Chessman, B. C., H. A. Jones, N. K. Searle, I. O. Growns & M. P. Parsons, 2010. Assessing effects of flow alteration on macroinvertebrate assemblages in Australian dryland rivers. Freshwater Biology 55: 1780–1800.Google Scholar
  31. Chester, E. T. & B. J. Robson, 2011. Drought refuges, spatial scale and recolonisation by invertebrates in non-perennial streams. Freshwater Biology 56: 2094–2104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Chin, A., A. H. Purcell, J. Quan & V. H. Resh, 2009. Assessing geomorphological and ecological responses in restored step-pool systems. In James, L. A., S. L. Rathburn & G. R. Whittcar (eds), Management and Restoration of Fluvial Systems with Broad Historical Changes and Human Impacts. Geological Society of America Special Paper 451, Boulder, CO: 199–217.Google Scholar
  33. Connell, J. H. & W. P. Sousa, 1983. On the evidence needed to judge ecological stability or persistence. American Naturalist 121: 789–824.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Cooper, S. D., T. L. Dudley & N. Hemphill, 1986. The biology of chaparral streams in Southern California. In DeVries, J. (ed.), Proceedings of the Chaparrel Ecosystem Research Conference Report no. 62. California Water Resources Center, Davis, CA: 139–151.Google Scholar
  35. Daufresne, M., M. C. Roger, H. Capra & N. Lamarouroux, 2004. Long-term changes within the invertebrate and fish communities of the Upper Rhône River: effects of climatic factors. Global Change Biology 10: 124–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Daufresne, M., P. Bady & J.-F. Fruget, 2007. Impacts of global changes and extreme hydroclimatic events on macroinvertebrate community structures in the French Rhône River. Oecologia 151: 544–559.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Daufresne, M., K. Lengfellner & U. Sommer, 2009. Global warming benefits the small in aquatic ecosystems. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106: 12788–12793.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Deitch, M. J., G. M. Kondolf & A. M. Merenlender, 2009. Hydrologic impacts of small-scale instream diversions for frost and heat protection in the California wine country. River Research and Applications 25: 118–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Dewson, Z. S., A. B. W. James & R. G. Death, 2007. A review of the consequences of decreased flow for instream habitat and macroinvertebrates. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 26: 401–415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Didham, R. K. & C. H. Watts, 2005. Are systems with strong underlying abiotic regimes more likely to exhibit alternative stable states? Oikos 110: 409–416.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Dodds, W. K., C. T. Robinson, E. E. Gaiser, G. J. A. Hansen, H. Powell, J. M. Smit, N. B. Morse, S. L. Johnson, S. V. Gregory, T. K. Kratz & W. H. McDowell, 2012. Surprises and insights from long-term data sets and experiments. BioScience 62: 709–721.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Doeg, T. J., 1996. An assessment of significance of the aquatic macroinvertebrates in the Grampians National Park. National Estate Grants Program No. 95/0025. Final Report, Department of Natural Resources and Environment, Victoria and Australian Heritage Commission, Canberra.Google Scholar
  43. Durance, I. & S. J. Ormerod, 2007. Climate change effects on upland stream macroinvertebrates over a 25-year period. Global Change Biology 13: 924–957.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Durance, I. & S. J. Ormerod, 2009. Trends in water quality and discharge confound long-term warming effects on river macroinvertebrates. Freshwater Biology 54: 388–405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Eby, L. A., W. F. Fagan & W. L. Minckley, 2003. Variability and dynamics of a desert stream community. Ecology 13: 1566–1579.Google Scholar
  46. Elliott, J. M., 1990. The need for long-term investigations in ecology and the contribution of the Freshwater Biological Association. Freshwater Biology 23: 1–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Elliott, J. M., 1993. A 25-year study of production of juvenile sea-trout, Salmo trutta, in an English Lake District stream. Canadian Special Publication of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 118: 109–122.Google Scholar
  48. Elliott, J. M., 1994. Quantitative ecology and the brown trout. Oxford University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  49. Feminella, J. W. & V. H. Resh, 1990. Hydrologic influences, disturbance, and intraspecific competition in a stream caddisfly population. Ecology 71: 2083–2094.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Filipe, A. F., J. E. Lawrence & N. Bonada, 2012. Vulnerability of stream biota to climate change in mediterranean climate regions: a synthesis of ecological responses and conservation challenges. Hydrobiologia. doi:10.1007/s10750-012-1244-4.
  51. Franken, R. J. M., R. G. Storey & D. D. Williams, 2001. Biological, chemical and physical characteristics of downwelling and upwelling zones in the hyporheic zone of a north-temperate stream. Hydrobiologia 444: 183–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Gallo, L., A. De Filippis, A. Mezzotero, N. J. Voelz & L. Lucadamo, 2010. Assessment of the effect of hydrological variations on macrobenthic communities in pools and riffles of a Mediterranean stream. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 166: 125–137.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Gasith, A. & V. H. Resh, 1999. Streams in mediterranean climate regions: abiotic influences and biotic responses to predictable seasonal events. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 31: 51–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Gebler, J. B., 2004. Mesoscale spatial variability of selected aquatic invertebrate community metrics from a minimally impaired stream segment. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 23: 616–633.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Grantham, T. E., A. M. Merenlender & V. H. Resh, 2010. Climatic influences and anthropogenic stressors: an integrated framework for streamflow management in Mediterranean-climate California, USA. Freshwater Biology 55(Suppl. 1): 188–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Grantham, T. E., D. A. Newburn, M. A. McCarthy & A. M. Merenlender, 2012. The role of stream flow and land use in limiting over-summer survival of juvenile steelhead trout in California streams. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 141: 585–598.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Haddad, N. M., D. Tilman & J. M. H. Knops, 2002. Long-term oscillations in grassland productivity induced by drought. Ecological Letters 5: 110–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Hannaford, M. J. & V. H. Resh, 1995. Variability in macroinvertebrate rapid-bioassessment surveys and habitat assessments in a Northern California stream. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 14: 430–439.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Hannaford, M. J., M. J. Barbour & V. H. Resh, 1997. Training reduces observer variability in visual-based assessments of stream habitat. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 16: 853–860.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Hieb, K., 2009. 2008 status and trends report: common crabs of the San Francisco Estuary. IEP Newsletter 22: 12–16.Google Scholar
  61. Hieb, K., 2010. 2009 status and trends report: common crabs of the San Francisco Estuary. IEP Newsletter 23: 22–28.Google Scholar
  62. IPCC, 2008. Climate Change and Water. In Bates, B. C., Z. W. Kundzewicz, S. Wu & J. P. Palutikof (eds), Technical Paper of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. IPCC Secretariat, Geneva: 1–200.Google Scholar
  63. Jackson, J. K. & L. Füreder, 2006. Long-term studies of freshwater macroinvertebrates: a review of frequency, duration and ecological significance. Freshwater Biology 51: 591–603.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Kiernan, J. D., P. B. Moyle & P. K. Crain, 2012. Restoring native fish assemblages to a regulated California stream using the natural flow regime concept. Ecological Applications 22: 1472–1482.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Kondolf, G. M., 1995. Five elements for effective evaluation of stream restoration. Restoration Ecology 3: 133–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Kondolf, G. M., 1998. Lessons learned from river restoration projects in California. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 8: 39–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Kondolf, G. M. & E. R. Mitchell, 1995. Evaluating stream restoration projects. Environmental Management 19: 1–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Kondolf, G. M., K. Podolak & T. E. Grantham, 2012. Restoring mediterranean-climate rivers. Hydrobiologia. doi:10.1007/s10750-012-1363-y.
  69. Labbe, T. R. & K. D. Fausch, 2000. Dynamics of intermittent stream habitat regulate persistence of a threatened fish at multiple scales. Ecological Applications 10: 1774–1791.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Lake, P. S., 2000. Disturbance, patchiness, and diversity in streams. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 19: 573–592.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Lake, P. S., 2003. Ecological effects of perturbation by drought in flowing waters. Freshwater Biology 48: 1161–1172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Lake, P. S., 2008. Drought, the “creeping disaster”. Effects on Aquatic Ecosystems. Land & Water Australia, Canberra.Google Scholar
  73. Lamberti, G. A. & V. H. Resh, 1983. Stream periphyton and insect herbivores: an experimental study of grazing by a caddisfly population. Ecology 64: 1124–1135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Lawrence, J. E., K. E. Lunde, R. D. Mazor, L. A. Bêche, E. P. McElravy & V. H. Resh, 2010. Long-term macroinvertebrate response to climate change: implications for biological assessment in mediterranean-climate streams. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 29: 1424–1440.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Lawrence, J. E., M. J. Deitch & V. H. Resh, 2011. Effects of Vineyard Coverage and Extent on Benthic Macroinvertebrates in Mediterranean-Climate Streams of Northern California. Annales de Limnologie - International Journal of Limnology 47: 347–354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Lenat, D. R. & V. H. Resh, 2001. Taxonomy and stream ecology—the benefits of genus- and species-level identifications. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 20: 287–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Lévêque, C., J. M. Hougard, V. H. Resh, B. Statzner & L. Yaméogo, 2003. Freshwater ecology and biodiversity in the tropics: what did we learn from 30 years of Onchocerciasis control and the associated biomonitoring of West African rivers? Hydrobiologia 500: 23–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Linke, S., R. C. Bailey & J. Schwindt, 1999. Temporal variability of stream bioassessments using benthic macroinvertebrates. Freshwater Biology 42: 575–584.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Lunde, K.B., 2011. Investigations of altered aquatic ecosystems: biomonitoring, disease, and conservation. Ph.D. thesis, University of California, Berkeley, CA.Google Scholar
  80. Magalhães, M. F., P. Beja, I. J. Schlosser & M. G. Collares-Pereira, 2003. The role of life history in the relationship between population dynamics and environmental variability in two Mediterranean stream fishes. Journal of Fish Biology 63: 300–317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Magalhães, M. F., P. Beja, I. J. Schlosser & M. G. Collares-Pereira, 2007. Effects of multi-year droughts on fish assemblages of seasonally drying Mediterranean streams. Freshwater Biology 52: 1494–1510.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Magurran, A. E., 2007. Species abundance distributions over time. Ecology Letters 10: 347–354.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Marchetti, M. P. & P. B. Moyle, 2000. Spatial and temporal ecology of native and introduced fish larvae in lower Putah Creek, California. Environmental Biology of Fishes 58: 75–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Marchetti, M. P. & P. B. Moyle, 2001. Effects of flow regime on fish assemblages in a regulated California stream. Ecological Applications 11: 530–539.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Matthews, W. J. & E. Marsh-Matthews, 2003. Effects of drought on fish across axes of space, time and ecological complexity. Freshwater Biology 48: 1232–1253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. May, C. W. & R. R. Horner, 2000. The cumulative impacts of watershed urbanization on stream-riparian ecosystems. In Wigington, P. J. & R. L. Beschta (eds), Proceedings of the International Conference on Riparian Ecology and Management in Multi-Land Use Watersheds. American Water Resources Association, Portland: 281–286.Google Scholar
  87. Mazor, R. D., 2006. Evaluation of biomonitoring techniques using benthic macroinvertebrates and periphyton in aquatic ecosystems: detecting impairment of population and community structure. Ph.D. thesis, University of California, Berkeley, CA.Google Scholar
  88. Mazor, R., A. Purcell & V. H. Resh, 2009. Long-term variability in benthic macroinvertebrate bioassessments: a 20-year study from two northern Californian streams. Environmental Management 43: 1269–1286.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. McElravy, E. P. & V. H. Resh, 1991. Distribution and seasonal occurrence of the hyporheic fauna in a northern California stream. Hydrobiologia 220: 233–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. McElravy, E. P., G. A. Lamberti & V. H. Resh, 1989. Year-to-year variation in the aquatic macroinvertebrate fauna of a northern California stream. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 8: 51–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Metzeling, L. D., S. Perriss Robinson & R. Marchant, 2002. Temporal persistence of benthic invertebrate communities in south-eastern Australian streams: taxonomic resolution and implications for the use of predictive models. Marine and Freshwater Research 53: 1223–1234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Milner, A. M., S. C. Conn & I. E. Brown, 2006. Persistence and stability of macroinvertebrate communities in streams of Denali National Park, Alaska: implications for biomonitoring. Freshwater Biology 51: 357–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Mol, J. H., D. Resida, J. S. Ramlal & C. R. Becker, 2000. Effects of El Niño-related drought on freshwater and brackish-water fishes in Suriname, South America. Environmental Biology of Fishes 59: 429–440.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Morais, M., P. Pinto, P. Guilherme, J. Rosado & I. Antunes, 2004. Assessment of temporary streams: the robustness of metric and multimetric indices under different hydrological conditions. Hydrobiologia 516: 229–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Moyle, P. B., 2002. Inland fishes of California. University of California Press, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  96. Moyle, P. B., P. K. Crain, K. Whitener & J. F. Mount, 2003. Alien fishes in natural streams: fish distribution, assemblage structure, and conservation in the Cosumnes River, California, USA. Environmental Biology of Fishes 68: 143–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Needham, P. R. & R. L. Usinger, 1956. Variability in the macrofauna of a single riffle in Prosser Creek, California, as indicated by the Surber sampler. Hilgardia 24: 383–409.Google Scholar
  98. Oberdorff, T., B. Hugueny & T. Vigneron, 2001. Is assemblage variability related to environmental variability? An answer for riverine fishes. Oikos 93: 419–428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Ode, P. R., A. C. Rehn & J. T. May, 2005. A quantitative tool for assessing the integrity of southern coastal California streams. Environmental Management 35: 493–504.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Ode, P. R., C. P. Hawkins & R. D. Mazor, 2008. Comparability of biological assessments derived from predictive models and multimetric indices of increasing geographic scope. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 27: 967–985.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Pillot, H. M., 2003. Hoe waterdieren zich handhaven in een dynmische wereld. 10 jaar onderzoek in de Roodloop, een bovenloopje van der Reusel in Noord-Brabant. Stichting het Noordbrabants Landschap, Haaren, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  102. Pires, A. M., I. G. Cowx & M. M. Coelho, 1999. Seasonal changes in fish community structure of intermittent streams in the middle reaches of the Guadiana basin, Portugal. Journal of Fish Biology 54: 235–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Pires, A. M., I. G. Cowx & M. M. Coelho, 2000. Benthic macroinvertebrate communities of intermittent streams in the middle reaches of the Guadiana Basin (Portugal). Hydrobiologia 435: 167–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Poff, N. L. & J. D. Allan, 1995. Functional organization of stream fish assemblages in relation to hydrologic variability. Ecology 76: 606–627.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Poff, N. L., J. D. Allan, M. B. Bain, J. R. Karr, K. L. Prestegaard, B. D. Richter, R. E. Sparks & J. C. Stromberg, 1997. The natural flow regime. Bioscience 47: 769–784.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Poff, N. L., J. D. Allen, M. A. Palmer, D. D. Hard, B. D. Richter, A. H. Arthington, K. H. Rogers, J. L. Meyer & J. A. Stanford, 2003. River flows and water waters: emerging science for environmental decision making. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 1: 298–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Power, M. E., R. J. Stout, C. E. Cushing, P. P. Harper, F. R. Hauer, W. J. Matthews, P. B. Moyle, B. Statzner & I. R. Wais de Badgen, 1988. Biotic and abiotic controls in river and stream communities. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 7: 456–479.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Power, M. E., M. S. Parker & W. E. Dietrich, 2008. Seasonal reassembly of a river food web: floods, droughts, and impacts of fish. Ecological Monographs 78: 263–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Power, M. E., J. Holomuzki & R. L. Lowe, 2012. Food webs in mediterranean rivers. Hydrobiologia, this issue.Google Scholar
  110. Puckridge, J. T., K. F. Walker & J. F. Costelloe, 2000. Hydrological persistence and the ecology of dryland rivers. Regulated Rivers: Research and Management 16: 328–344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Purcell, A. H., C. Friedrich & V. H. Resh, 2002. An assessment of a small urban stream restoration project in northern California. Restoration Ecology 10: 685–694.Google Scholar
  112. Rehn, A. C., P. R. Ode & J. T. May, 2005. Development of a benthic index of biotic integrity (B-IBI) for wadable streams in in northern coastal California and its application to regional 305(b) assessment. Report to the State Water Resources Control Board. California Department of Fish and Game, Aquatic Bioassessment Laboratory.Google Scholar
  113. Rieradevall, M., N. Bonada & N. Prat, 1999. Community structure and water quality in the mediterranean streams of a natural park (St. Llorenç del Munt, EN Spain). Limnetica 17: 45–56.Google Scholar
  114. Resh, V. H., 1982. Age structure alteration in a caddisfly population following loss and recovery of habitat. Oikos 38: 280–284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Resh, V. H., 1992. Year-to-year changes in the age structure of a caddisfly population following loss and recovery of a springbrook habitat. Ecography 15: 314–317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Resh, V. H., 1994. Variability, accuracy, and taxonomic costs of rapid assessment approaches in benthic biomonitoring. Bolletino di Zoologia 61: 375–383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Resh, V. H. & J. K. Jackson, 1993. Rapid assessment approaches to biomonitoring using benthic macroinvertebrates. In Rosenberg, D. M. & V. H. Resh (eds), Freshwater biomonitoring and benthic macroinvertebrates. Chapman and Hall, New York: 195–223.Google Scholar
  118. Resh, V. H. & D. M. Rosenberg, 1989. Spatial-temporal variability and the study of aquatic insects. Canadian Entomologist 121: 941–963.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Resh, V. H. & D. M. Rosenberg, 2010. Recent trends in life-history research on benthic macroinvertebrates. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 29: 207–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Resh, V. H., G. A. Lamberti & J. R. Wood, 1984. Biology of the caddisfly Helicopsyche borealis (Hagen): A comparison of North American populations. Freshwater Invertebrate Biology 5: 172–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Resh, V. H., A. Brown, A. P. Covich, M. E. Gurtz, H. W. Li, W. Minshall, S. Reice, A. L. Sheldon, J. B. Wallace & R. Wissmar, 1988. The role of disturbance in stream ecology. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 7: 433–455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Resh, V. H., R. H. Norris & M. T. Barbour, 1995. Design and implementation of rapid assessment approaches for water resource monitoring using benthic macroinvertebrates. Australian Journal of Ecology 20: 108–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Resh, V. H., J. R. Wood, E. A. Bergey, J. W. Feminella, J. K. Jackson & E. P. McElravy, 1997. Biology of Gumaga nigricula (McL.) in a northern California stream. In Holzenthal, R. & O. Flint (eds), Proceedings of the 8th International Symposia on Trichoptera. Ohio Biological Survey, Columbus, OH: 401–410Google Scholar
  124. Resh, V. H., L. Bêche & E. P. McElravy, 2005. How common are rare species in long-term benthic macroinvertebrate studies? Journal of the North American Benthological Society 24: 976–989.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Reynoldson, T. B., R. H. Norris, V. H. Resh, K. E. Day & D. M. Rosenberg, 1997. The reference condition: a comparison of multimetric and multivariate approaches to assess water quality impairment using benthic macroinvertebrates. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 16: 833–852.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Rose, P., L. Metzeling & S. Catzikiris, 2008. Can macroinvertebrate rapid bioassessment methods be used to assess river health during drought in south eastern Australia streams? Freshwater Biology 53: 2626–2638.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Rosenberg, D. M. & V. H. Resh, 1993. Freshwater biomonitoring and benthic macroinvertebrates. Chapman and Hall, New York.Google Scholar
  128. Rudnick, D. & V. H. Resh, 2005. Stable isotopes, mesocosms and gut content analysis demonstrate trophic differences in two invasive decapod crustacea. Freshwater Biology 50: 1323–1336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Rudnick, D., K. Halat & V. H. Resh, 2000. Distribution, ecology and economic impacts of the Chinese Mitten Crab (Eriocheir sinensis) in San Francisco Bay. University of California Water Resources Center Contribution 206, Davis, CA.Google Scholar
  130. Rudnick, D., K. Hieb, K. Grimmer & V. H. Resh, 2003. Patterns and processes of biological invasion: the Chinese mitten crab in San Francisco Bay. Basic and Applied Ecology 4: 249–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Rudnick, D., V. Chan & V. H. Resh, 2005. Morphology and impacts of the burrows of the Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis H. Milne Edwards (Decapoda, Grapsidae) in South San Francisco Bay, California, USA. Crustaceana 78: 787–807.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Scarsbrook, M. R., I. K. G. Boothroyd & J. M. Quinn, 2000. New Zealand’s national river water quality network: long-term trends in macroinvertebrate communities. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 34: 289–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Scheffer, M., D. Straile, E. H. van Nes & H. Hosper, 2001. Climate warming causes regime shifts in lake food webs. Limnology and Oceanography 46: 1780–1783.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Storey, R. G. & D. D. Williams, 2004. Spatial responses of hyporheic invertebrates to seasonal changes in environmental parameters. Freshwater Biology 49: 1468–1486.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Townsend, C., S. Dolédec & M. Scarsbrook, 1997. Species traits in relation to temporal and spatial heterogeneity in streams: a test of habitat templet theory. Freshwater Biology 37: 367–387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Wagner, R., J. Marxsen, P. Zwick & E. J. Cox, 2009. Central European stream ecosystems The long term study of the Breitenbach. Wiley-Blackwell, Weinheim.Google Scholar
  137. Walsh, C. J. & P. F. Breen, 1999. Urban stream rehabilitation through a decision-making framework to identify degrading processes and prioritize management actions. In Rutherfurd, I. & R. Bartley (eds), Proceedings of the Second Australian Stream Management Conference, Adelaide S.A. Vol 2. Cooperative Research Centre for Catchment Hydrology, Melbourne: 763–768.Google Scholar
  138. Walters, A. W. & D. M. Post, 2008. An experimental disturbance alters fish size structure but not food chain length in streams. Ecology 89: 3261–3267.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Walther, G.-R., E. Post, P. Convey, A. Menzel, C. Parmesan, T. J. C. Beebee, J.-M. Fromentin, O. Hoegh-Guldberg & F. Bairlein, 2002. Ecological responses to recent climate change. Nature 416: 389–395.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vincent H. Resh
    • 1
  • Leah A. Bêche
    • 1
    • 2
  • Justin E. Lawrence
    • 1
  • Raphael D. Mazor
    • 1
    • 3
  • Eric P. McElravy
    • 1
  • Alison P. O’Dowd
    • 1
    • 4
  • Deborah Rudnick
    • 1
    • 5
  • Stephanie M. Carlson
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Environmental SciencePolicy & Management, University of CaliforniaBerkeleyUSA
  2. 2.VilleurbanneFrance
  3. 3.Southern California Coastal Water Research ProjectCosta MesaUSA
  4. 4.Department of Environmental Science & ManagementHumboldt State UniversityArcataUSA
  5. 5.Integral Consulting IncSeattleUSA

Personalised recommendations