Hydrobiologia

, Volume 719, Issue 1, pp 383–425 | Cite as

The effects of land use changes on streams and rivers in mediterranean climates

  • Scott D. Cooper
  • P. Sam Lake
  • Sergi Sabater
  • John M. Melack
  • John L. Sabo
MEDITERRANEAN CLIMATE STREAMS Review Paper

Abstract

We reviewed the literature on the effects of land use changes on mediterranean river ecosystems (med-rivers) to provide a foundation and directions for future research on catchment management during times of rapid human population growth and climate change. Seasonal human demand for water in mediterranean climate regions (med-regions) is high, leading to intense competition for water with riverine communities often containing many endemic species. The responses of river communities to human alterations of land use, vegetation, hydrological, and hydrochemical conditions are similar in mediterranean and other climatic regions. High variation in hydrological regimes in med-regions, however, tends to exacerbate the magnitude of these responses. For example, land use changes promote longer dry season flows, concentrating contaminants, allowing the accumulation of detritus, algae, and plants, and fostering higher temperatures and lower dissolved oxygen levels, all of which may extirpate sensitive native species. Exotic species often thrive in med-rivers altered by human activity, further homogenizing river communities worldwide. We recommend that future research rigorously evaluate the effects of management and restoration practices on river ecosystems, delineate the cause–effect pathways leading from human perturbations to stream biological communities, and incorporate analyses of the effects of scale, land use heterogeneity, and high temporal hydrological variability on stream communities.

Keywords

Mediterranean rivers Streams Land use Ecosystems 

Notes

Acknowledgments

PSL thanks Paul Reich of the Victoria Department of Sustainability and Environment and Andrew Boulton of East Fremantle for supplying information and comments on parts of this article. JS expresses appreciation to Steven Gaines of the Bren School of Environmental Science and Policy and Cherie Briggs of the Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Marine Biology for hosting his sabbatical visit to UC-Santa Barbara which provided a platform for his collaboration on this project. JMM and SDC thank Kristie Klose, Jeff Brinkman, Al Leydecker, and Blair Goodrich for assistance in the field and with analysis, and Sheila Wiseman for assistance with the figures and references. SDC thanks Carola Flores for information on Chilean prehistory. SS acknowledges the funding of SCARCE (CONSOLIDER-INGENIO CSD2009-00065) and CARBONET (CGL2011-30474-C02-01) of the Spanish Science Ministry. Funding from the US National Science Foundation (Grants OCE-9982105 and OCE-0620276) supported studies of land use effects on streams in southern California.

References

  1. Abbott, I., 2003. Aboriginal fire regimes in south-west Western Australia: evidence from historical documents. In Abbott, I. & N. Burrows (eds), Fire in Ecosystems of South-west Western Australia: Impacts and Management. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden: 119–146.Google Scholar
  2. Abelho, M. & M. A. S. Graça, 1996. Effects of eucalyptus afforestation on leaf litter dynamics and macroinvertebrate community structure of streams in Central Portugal. Hydrobiologia 324: 195–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Abou-Hamdan, H., J. Haury, J. P. Hebrard, S. Dandelot & A. Cazaubon, 2005. Macrophytic communities inhabiting the Huveaune (South-East France), a river subject to natural and anthropic disturbances. Hydrobiologia 551: 161–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ackerman, D. & K. Schiff, 2003. Modeling storm water mass emissions to the southern California bight. Journal of Environmental Engineering 129: 308–317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Acuña, V., A. Giorgi, I. Muñoz, U. Uehlinger & S. Sabater, 2004. Flow extremes and benthic organic matter shape the metabolism of a headwater Mediterranean stream. Freshwater Biology 49: 960–971.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Acuña, V., I. Muñoz, A. Giorgi, M. Omella, F. Sabater & S. Sabater, 2005. Drought and post-drought recovery cycles in an intermittent Mediterranean stream: structural and functional aspects. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 24: 919–933.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Aguiar, F. & M. T. Ferreira, 2005. Human-disturbed landscapes: effects on composition and integrity of riparian woody vegetation in the Tagus River basin, Portugal. Environmental Conservation 32: 1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Aguiar, F. C., M. T. Ferreira & P. Pinto, 2002. Relative influence of environmental variables on macroinvertebrate assemblages from an Iberian basin. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 21: 43–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Aguiar, F. C., M. T. Ferreira, A. Albuquerque & I. Moreira, 2006. Alien and endemic flora at reference and non-reference sites in Mediterranean-type streams in Portugal. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 17: 335–347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Akanil, N. & B. Middleton, 1997. Leaf litter decomposition along the Porsuk River, Eskisehir, Turkey. Canadian Journal of Botany 75: 1394–1397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Akbulut, N., S. Bayari, A. Akbulut & Y. Sahin, 2009. Rivers of Turkey. In Tockner, K., C. U. Uhlinger & C. T. Robinson (eds), Rivers of Europe. Academic Press, Amsterdam: 467–495.Google Scholar
  12. Allan, J. D., 2004. Landscapes and riverscapes: the influence of land use on stream ecosystems. Annual Review of Ecology Evolution and Systematics 35: 257–284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Allan, J. D. & L. B. Johnson, 1997. Catchment-scale analysis of aquatic ecosystems. Freshwater Biology 37: 107–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Allan, J. D., D. L. Erickson & J. Fay, 1997. The influence of catchment land use on stream integrity across multiple spatial scales. Freshwater Biology 37: 149–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Alvarez, M. & I. Pardo, 2007a. Factors controlling epilithon biomass in a temporary, karstic stream: the interaction between substratum and grazing. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 26: 207–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Alvarez, M. & I. Pardo, 2007b. Do temporary streams of Mediterranean islands have a distinct macroinvertebrate community? The case of Majorca. Fundamental and Applied Limnology 168: 55–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Alvarez-Cobelas, M., C. Rojo & D. G. Angeler, 2005. Mediterranean limnology: current status, gaps and the future. Journal of Limnology 64: 13–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Alvarez-Cobelas, M., D. G. Angeler & S. Sánchez-Carrillo, 2008. Export of nitrogen from catchments: a worldwide analysis. Environmental Pollution 156: 261–269.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Alvarez-Cobelas, M., S. Sánchez-Carrillo, D. G. Angeler & R. Sánchez-Andrés, 2009. Phosphorous export from catchments: a global view. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 28: 805–820.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Aparicio, E., G. Carmona-Catot, P. B. Moyle & E. García-Berthou, 2011. Development and evaluation of a fish-based index to assess the biological integrity of Mediterranean streams. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 21: 324–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Arnesto, J. J., D. Manuschevich, A. Mora, C. Smith-Ramirez, R. Rozzi, A. M. Abarzua & P. A. Marquet, 2010. From the Holocene to the Anthropocene: a historical framework for land cover change in southwestern South America in the past 15,000 years. Land Use Policy 27: 148–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Aronson, J., A. Del Pozo, C. Ovalle, J. Avendaño, A. Lavin & M. Etienne, 1998. Land use changes and conflicts in Central Chile. In Rundel, P., G. Montenegro & F. M. Jaksic (eds), Landscape Degradation and Biodiversity in Mediterranean-Type Ecosystems. Ecological Studies, Vol. 136. Springer, Berlin: 155–170.Google Scholar
  23. Artigas, J., A. M. Romaní & S. Sabater, 2008. Effect of nutrients on the sporulation and diversity of aquatic hyphomycetes on submerged substrata in a Mediterranean stream. Aquatic Botany 88: 32–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Artigas, J., A. M. Romaní, A. Gaudes, I. Muñoz & S. Sabater, 2009. Organic matter availability structures microbial biomass and activity in a Mediterranean stream. Freshwater Biology 54: 2025–2036.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Artigas, J., A. Gaudes, I. Muñoz, A. M. Romaní & S. Sabater, 2011. Fungal and bacterial colonization of submerged leaf litter in a Mediterranean stream. International Review of Hydrobiology 96: 221–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Avila, A., A. Rodrigo & F. Rodà, 2002. Nitrogen circulation in a Mediterranean holm oak forest, La Castanya, Montseny, northeastern Spain. Hydrology and Earth Systems Sciences 6: 551–557.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Bacha, M. & R. Amara, 2007. Freshwater fish of Algeria. Study of the ichthyofauna of the Soummam River. Cybium 31: 351–358.Google Scholar
  28. Balik, S., 1995. Freshwater fish in Anatolia, Turkey. Biological Conservation 72: 213–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Bärlocher, F. & M. A. S. Graça, 2002. Exotic riparian vegetation lowers fungal diversity but not leaf decomposition in Portuguese streams. Freshwater Biology 47: 1123–1135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Beatty, S. J., D. L. Morgan, F. J. McAleer, A. Koenders & P. Horwitz, 2006. Fish and crayfish communities of the Blackwood River: migrations, ecology, and influence of surface and groundwater. Report to the Southwest Catchments Council and the Western Australia Department of Water. Centre for Fish and Fisheries Research, Murdoch University, Perth, Australia.Google Scholar
  31. Beatty, S. J., D. L. Morgan, M. Klunzinger & A. J. Lymbery, 2010. Aquatic Macrofauna of Ellen Brook and the Brockman River: fresh water refuges in a salinised catchment. Report to the Ellen Brockman Integrated Catchment Group. Centre for Fish and Fisheries Research, Murdoch University, Perth, Australia.Google Scholar
  32. Beatty, S. J., D. L. Morgan, M. Rashnavadi & A. J. Lymbery, 2011. Salinity tolerances of endemic freshwater fishes of south-western Australia: implications for conservation in a biodiversity hotspot. Marine & Freshwater Research 62: 91–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Bêche, L. A. & V. H. Resh, 2007. Short-term climatic trends affect the temporal variability of macroinvertebrates in California ‘Mediterranean’ streams. Freshwater Biology 52: 2317–2339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Bêche, L. A., E. P. McElravy & V. H. Resh, 2006. Long-term seasonal variation in the biological traits of benthic-macroinvertebrates in two Mediterranean-climate streams in California, USA. Freshwater Biology 51: 56–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Bêche, L. A., P. G. Connors, V. H. Resh & A. M. Merenlender, 2009. Resilience of fishes and invertebrates to prolonged drought in two California streams. Ecography 32: 778–788.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Beighley, R. E., T. Dunne & J. M. Melack, 2008. Impacts of climate variability and land use alterations on frequency distributions of terrestrial runoff loading to coastal waters in southern California. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 44: 62–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Belmar, O., J. Velasco, F. Martínez-Capel & A. A. Marín, 2010. Natural flow regime, degree of alteration and environmental flows in the Mula stream (Segura river basin, SE Spain). Limnetica 29: 353–368.Google Scholar
  38. Benejam, L., E. Aparicio, M. J. Vargas, A. Vila-Gispert & E. García-Berthou, 2008. Assessing fish metrics and biotic indices in a Mediterranean stream: effects of uncertain native status of fish. Hydrobiologia 603: 197–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Benejam, L., P. L. Angermeier, A. Munné & E. García-Berthou, 2010. Assessing effects of water abstraction on fish assemblages in Mediterranean streams. Freshwater Biology 55: 628–642.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Bernal, S., A. Butturini & F. Sabater, 2002. Variability of DOC and nitrate responses to storms in a small Mediterranean forested catchment. Hydrology and Earth Systems Sciences 6: 1031–1041.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Bernez, I. & T. Ferreira, 2007. River macrophytes in regulated Mediterranean-type rivers of southern Portugal. Belgian Journal of Botany 140: 136–139.Google Scholar
  42. Bernhardt, E. S. & M. A. Palmer, 2007. Restoring streams in an urbanizing world. Freshwater Biology 52: 738–751.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Bernhardt, E. S. & M. A. Palmer, 2011. River restoration: the fuzzy logic of repairing reaches to reverse catchment scale degradation. Ecological Applications 21: 1926–1931.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Bernhardt, E. S., M. A. Palmer, J. D. Allan, G. Alexander, K. Barnas, S. Brooks, J. Carr, S. Clayton, C. Dahm, J. Follstad-Shah, D. Galat, S. Gloss, P. Goodwin, D. Hart, B. Hassett, R. Jenkinson, S. Katz, G. M. Kondolf, P. S. Lake, R. Lave, J. L. Meyer, T. K. O’Donnell, L. Pagano, B. Powell & E. Sudduth, 2005. Synthesizing US river restoration efforts. Science 308: 636–637.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Bianco, P. G., 1995. Mediterranean endemic freshwater fishes of Italy. Biological Conservation 72: 159–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Bianco, P. G., 1998. Freshwater fish transfers in Italy: history, local changes in fish fauna and a prediction on the future of native populations. In Cowx, I. G. (ed.), Stocking and Introduction of Fish. Fishing News Books, Blackwell Science, Oxford: 167–185.Google Scholar
  47. Blanco, S. & E. Becarés, 2010. Are biotic indices sensitive to river toxicants? A comparison of metrics based on diatoms and macro-invertebrates. Chemosphere 79: 18–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Blanco, S., L. Ector, V. Huck, O. Monnier, H. M. Cauchie, L. Hoffman & E. Becarés, 2008. Diatom assemblages and water quality assessment in the Duero Basin (NW Spain). Belgian Journal of Botany 141: 39–50.Google Scholar
  49. Boix, D., E. García-Berthou, S. Gascón, L. Benejam, E. Tornés, J. Sala, J. Benito, A. Munné, C. Solà & S. Sabater, 2010. Response to community structure of sustained drought in Mediterranean rivers. Journal of Hydrology 383: 135–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Bollmohr, S. & R. Schulz, 2009. Seasonal changes of macroinvertebrate communities in a Western Cape river, South Africa, receiving nonpoint-source insecticide pollution. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 28: 809–817.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Bonada, N., C. Zamora-Muñoz, M. Rieradevall & N. Prat, 2004. Trichoptera (Insecta) collected in Mediterranean river basins of the Iberian Peninsula: taxonomic remarks and notes on ecology. Graellsia 60: 41–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Bonada, N., N. Prat, V. H. Resh & B. Statzner, 2006. Developments in aquatic insect biomonitoring: a comparative analysis of recent approaches. Annual Review of Entomology 51: 495–523.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Bonada, N., S. Dolédec & B. Statzner, 2007a. Taxonomic and biological trait differences of stream macroinvertebrate communities between Mediterranean and temperate regions: implications for future climatic scenarios. Global Change Biology 13: 1658–1671.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Bonada, N., M. Rieradevall & N. Prat, 2007b. Macroinvertebrate community structure and biological traits related to flow permanence in a Mediterranean river network. Hydrobiologia 589: 91–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Bonada, N., M. Rieradevall, H. Dallas, J. Davis, J. Day, R. Figueroa, V. H. Resh & N. Prat, 2008. Multi-scale assessment of macroinvertebrate richness and composition in Mediterranean-climate rivers. Freshwater Biology 53: 772–788.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Booth, D. B., 1990. Stream-channel incision following drainage-basin urbanization. Water Resources Bulletin 26: 407–417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Booth, D. B., J. R. Karr, S. Schauman, C. P. Konrad, S. A. Morley, M. G. Larson & S. J. Burges, 2004. Reviving urban streams: land use, hydrology, biology, and human behavior. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 40: 1351–1364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Boulton, A. & P. J. Suter, 1986. Ecology of temporary streams: an Australian perspective. In De Deckker, P. & W. D. Williams (eds), Limnology in Australia. CSIRO, Melbourne: 313–327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Boulton, A. J., P. Marmonier & P. Sarriquet, 2007. Hyporheic invertebrate community composition in streams of varying salinity in southwestern Australia: diversity peaks at intermediate thresholds. River Research and Applications 23: 579–594.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Bowman, G. M. J. S., J. Balch, P. Artaxo, W. J. Bond, M. A. Cochrane, C. M. D’Antonio, R. De Fries, F. H. Johnston, J. E. Keeley, M. A. Krawchuk, C. A. Kull, M. Mack, M. A. Moritz, S. Pyne, C. I. Roos, A. C. Scott, N. S. Sodhi & T. W. Swetnam, 2011. The human dimension of fire regimes on earth. Journal of Biogeography 38: 2223–2236.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Boyacioglu, H., 2006. Surface water quality assessment using factor analysis. Water SA 32: 389–393.Google Scholar
  62. Bredenhand, E. & M. J. Samways, 2009. Impact of a dam on benthic macroinvertebrates in a small river in a biodiversity hotspot: Cape Floristic Region, South Africa. Journal of Insect Conservation 13: 297–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Brinkman, J., 2007. Influences of human disturbance and natural physical and chemical variables on biological community structure in streams of southern coastal Santa Barbara County, California, and an index of biological integrity. M.A. Thesis, University of California, Santa Barbara, California, USA.Google Scholar
  64. Brown, C., 2004. Effects of alien invasives on the Breede River. Report prepared by Southern Waters ER&C cc with the University of Stellenbosch for the Department of Water Affairs and Forestry, Working for Water Directorate, Pretoria, South Africa.Google Scholar
  65. Brown, L. R., R. H. Gray, R. M. Hughes & M. R. Meador (eds), 2005a. Effects of Urbanization on Stream Ecosystems. Symposium 47, American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, USA.Google Scholar
  66. Brown, L. R., C. A. Burton & K. Belitz, 2005b. Aquatic assemblages of the highly urbanized Santa Ana River basin, California. In Brown, L. R., R. H. Gray, R. M. Hughes & M. R. Meador (eds), Effects of Urbanization on Stream Ecosystems. Symposium 47. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda: 263–287.Google Scholar
  67. Bruder, A., E. Chauvet & M. O. Gessner, 2011. Litter diversity, fungal decomposers and litter decomposition under simulated stream intermittency. Functional Ecology 25: 1269–1277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Bunn, S. E. & P. M. Davies, 1990. Why is the stream fauna of south-western Australia so impoverished? Hydrobiologia 194: 169–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Bunn, S. E. & P. M. Davies, 1992. Community structure of the macroinvertebrate fauna and water quality of a saline river system in south-western Australia. Hydrobiologia 248: 143–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Bunn, S. E., D. H. Edward & N. R. Loneragan, 1986. Spatial and temporal variation in the macroinvertebrate fauna of streams in the northern jarrah forest, Western Australia: community structure. Freshwater Biology 16: 67–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Bunn, S. E., P. M. Davies & T. D. Mosisch, 1999. Ecosystem measures of river health and their responses to riparian and catchment degradation. Freshwater Biology 41: 333–345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Burcher, C. L., H. M. Valett & E. F. Benfield, 2007. The land-cover cascade: relationships coupling land and water. Ecology 88: 228–242.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Burke, E. J., S. J. Brown & N. Christidis, 2006. Modeling the recent evolution of global drought and projections for the twenty-first century with the Hadley Centre climate model. Journal of Hydrometeorology 7: 1113–1125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Burton, C. A., L. R. Brown & K. Belitz, 2005. Assessing water source and channel type as factors affecting benthic macroinvertebrate and periphyton assemblages in the highly urbanized Santa Ana River basin, California. In Brown, L. R., R. H. Gray, R. H. Hughes & M. R. Meador (eds), Effects of Urbanization on Stream Ecosystems. American Fisheries Society Symposium 47, Bethesda: 239–262.Google Scholar
  75. Busse, L. B., J. C. Simpson & S. D. Cooper, 2006. Relationships among nutrients, algae, and land use in urbanized southern California streams. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 63: 2621–2638.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Butturini, A. & F. Sabater, 2002. Nitrogen concentrations in a small Mediterranean stream: 1. nitrate 2. ammonium. Hydrology and Earth Systems Sciences 6: 539–550.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. C. A. P. E. Estuaries Management Program, 2008. Berg Estuary situation assessment. Report prepared by Anchor Environmental for Cape Action for People and the Environment, Cape Town, South Africa.Google Scholar
  78. Caccetta, P., R. Dunne, R. George & D. McFarlane, 2010. A methodology to estimate the future extent of dryland salinity in the southwest of Western Australia. Journal of Environmental Quality 39: 26–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Cairns, J. Jr. & J. R. Pratt, 1993. A history of biological monitoring using benthic macroinvertebrates. In Rosenberg, D. M. & V. H. Resh (eds), Freshwater Biomonitoring and Benthic Macroinvertebrates. Routledge, Chapman & Hall, Inc, New York: 10–27.Google Scholar
  80. Campbell, J. L., J. W. Hornbeck, W. H. McDowell, D. C. Buso, J. B. Shanley & G. E. Likens, 2000. Dissolved organic nitrogen budgets for upland, forested ecosystems in New England. Biogeochemistry 49: 123–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Candela, A., G. Aronica & M. Santoro, 2005. Effects of forest fires on flood frequency curves in a Mediterranean catchment. Hydrological Sciences Journal 50: 193–206.Google Scholar
  82. Canhoto, C. & M. A. S. Graça, 1996. Decomposition of Eucalyptus globulus leaves and three native leaf species (Alnus glutinosa, Castanea sativa and Quercus faginea) in a Portuguese low order stream. Hydrobiologia 333: 79–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Cao, Y., C. H. Wu, G. L. Andersen & P. A. Holden, 2011a. Community analysis-based methods. In Hagedorn, C., A. R. Blanch & F. J. Harwood (eds), Microbial Source Tracking: Methods, Applications, and Case Studies. Springer, New York: 251–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Cao, YP., L. C. Van de Werfhorst, B. Sercu, J. L. S. Murray & P. A. Holden, 2011b. Application of an integrated community analysis approach for microbial source tracking in a coastal creek. Environmental Science & Technology 45: 7195–7201. doi:10.1021/es201118r
  85. Carey, R. O. & K. W. Migliaccio, 2009. Contribution of wastewater treatment plant effluents to nutrient dynamics in aquatic systems: a review. Environmental Management 44: 205–217.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Carter, J. L. & S. V. Fend, 2005. Setting limits: the development and use of factor-ceiling distributions for an urban assessment using macroinvertebrates. In Brown, L. R., R. H. Gray, R. H. Hughes & M. R. Meador (eds), Effects of Urbanization on Stream Ecosystems. American Fisheries Society Symposium 47, Bethesda: 179–191.Google Scholar
  87. Casas, J. J., C. Zamora-Muñoz, F. Archila & J. Alba-Tercedor, 2000. The effects of a headwater dam on the use of leaf bags by invertebrate communities. Regulated Rivers: Research & Management 16: 577–591.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Ceschin, S., V. Zuccarello & G. Caneva, 2010. Role of macrophyte communities as bioindicators of water quality: application on the Tiber River basin (Italy). Plant Biosystems 144: 528–536.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Chapin, F. S. III., O. E. Sala & E. Huber-Sannwald, 2001. Global Biodiversity in a Changing Environment: Scenarios for the 21st Century. Ecological Studies, Vol. 152. Springer, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Cheimonopoulou, M. T., D. C. Bobori, I. Theocharopoulos & M. Lazaridou, 2011. Assessing ecological water quality with macroinvertebrates and fish: a case study from a small Mediterranean river. Environmental Management 47: 279–290.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Chenoweth, J., P. Hadjinicolaou, A. Bruggeman, J. Lelieveld, Z. Levin, M. A. Lange, E. Xoplaki & M. Hadjikakou, 2011. Impact of climate change on the water resources of the eastern Mediterranean and Middle East region: modeled 21st century changes and implications. Water Resources Research 47: W06506.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Cherifi, O. & M. Loudiki, 1999. Flood transport of dissolved and suspended matter in the El Abud river basin (Morocco). Hydrobiologia 410: 287–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Chu, Y., C. Salles, M.-G. Tournoud, P. Got, M. Troussellier, C. Rodier & A. Caro, 2011. Faecal bacteria loads during flood events in northwestern Mediterranean coastal rivers. Journal of Hydrology 405: 501–511.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Clapcott, J. E., K. J. Collier, R. G. Death, E. O. Goodwin, J. S. Harding, D. Kelly, J. R. Leathwick & R. G. Young, 2012. Quantifying relationships between land-use gradients and structural and functional indicators of stream ecological integrity. Freshwater Biology 57: 74–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Clark, B. M., D. Impson & J. Rall, 2009. Present status and historical changes in the fish fauna of the Berg River, South Africa. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa 64: 142–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Clavero, M. & E. García-Berthou, 2006. Homogenization dynamics and introduction routes of invasive freshwater fish in the Iberian Peninsula. Ecological Applications 16: 2313–2324.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Clavero, M. & V. Hermoso, 2011. Reservoirs promote the taxonomic homogenization of fish communities within river basins. Biodiversity and Conservation 20: 41–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Clavero, M., V. Hermoso, N. Levin & S. Kark, 2010. Geographical linkages between threats and imperilment in freshwater fish in the Mediterranean Basin. Diversity and Distributions 16: 744–754.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Cooper, S. D. & L. A. Barmuta, 1993. Field experiments in biomonitoring. In Rosenberg, D. M. & V. H. Resh (eds), Freshwater Biomonitoring and Benthic Invertebrates. Chapman and Hall, New York: 399–441.Google Scholar
  100. Cooper, S. D., T. L. Dudley & N. Hemphill, 1986. The biology of chaparral streams in southern California. In De Vries, J. (ed.), Proceedings of the Chaparral Ecosystems Research Conference, May 16–17, 1985, Santa Barbara, CA. California Water Resources Center, University of California, Davis, USA, Report No. 62: 139–151.Google Scholar
  101. Cooper, S. D., S. Diehl, K. Kratz & O. Sarnelle, 1998. Implications of scale for patterns and processes in stream ecology. Australian Journal of Ecology 23: 27–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Corbacho, C. & J. M. Sánchez, 2001. Patterns of species richness and introduced species in native freshwater fish faunas of a Mediterranean-type basin: the Guadiana River (southwest Iberian Peninsula). Regulated Rivers: Research and Management 17: 699–707.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Corbacho, C., J. M. Sánchez & E. Costillo, 2003. Patterns of structural complexity and human disturbance of riparian vegetation in agricultural landscapes of Mediterranean area. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 95: 495–507.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Correa-Araneda, F., R. Rivera, J. Urrutia, P. de los Rios, A. Contreras & F. Encina-Montoya, 2010. Effects of an urban zone on the benthonic macroinvertebrate community of a fluvial ecosystem in southern Chile. Limnetica 29: 183–194.Google Scholar
  105. D. W. A. F. (Department of Water Affairs and Forestry, South Africa), 2004. Effects of Alien Invasives on the Breede River. Report prepared by Southern Water ER&C cc for the Department of Water Affairs and Forestry, Pretoria, South Africa.Google Scholar
  106. Dallas, H. F., 2007. The influence of biotope availability on macroinvertebrate assemblages in South African rivers: implications for aquatic bioassessment. Freshwater Biology 52: 370–380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Dallas, H. F. & J. A. Day, 2007. Natural variation in macroinvertebrate assemblages and the development of a biological banding system for interpreting bioassessment data—a preliminary evaluation using data from upland sites in the south-western Cape, South Africa. Hydrobiologia 575: 231–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Dallas, H. F. & Z. A. Ketley, 2011. Upper thermal limits of aquatic macroinvertebrates: comparing critical thermal maxima with 96-LT(50) values. Journal of Thermal Biology 36: 322–327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Dallas, H. F. & N. A. Rivers-Moore, 2011. Micro-scale heterogeneity in water temperature. Water SA 37: 505–512.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Dallas, H. F. & N. A. Rivers-Moore, 2012. Critical thermal maxima of aquatic macroinvertebrates: towards identifying bioindicators of thermal alteration. Hydrobiologia 679: 61–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. David, A., J.-L. Perrin, D. Rosian, C. Rodier, B. Picot & M.-G. Tournoud, 2011. Implication of two in-stream processes in the fate of nutrients discharged into a temporary river. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 18: 491–507.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Davies, P. M., 2010. Climate change implications for river restoration in global biodiversity hotspots. Restoration Ecology 18: 261–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Davis, J. A., L. Sim & J. Chambers, 2010. Multiple stressors and regime shifts in shallow aquatic ecosystems in antipodean landscapes. Freshwater Biology 55: 5–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Décamps, H., J. Joachim & J. Lauga, 1987. The importance for birds of the riparian woodlands within the alluvial corridor of the river Garonne, S.W. France. Regulated Rivers 1: 301–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Décamps, H., M. Fortune, F. Gazelle & G. Pautou, 1988. Historical influence of man on the riparian dynamics of a fluvial landscape. Landscape Ecology 1: 163–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Delgado, C., I. Pardo & L. Garcia, 2012. Diatom communities as indicators of ecological status in Mediterranean temporary streams (Balearic Islands, Spain). Ecological Indicators 15: 131–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism, South Africa, 2001. South Africa Estuarine Land-cover [available on internet at http://www.environment.gov.za/soer/estuary/wc.html].
  118. Department of Water Affairs and Forestry, South Africa, 2004. Breede Water Management Area (WMA No. 18), Internal Strategic Perspective. Prepared by N. Shand (Pty) Ltd in association with Jakoet & Associates, Umvoto Africa and Tlou and Matji, on behalf of the Directorate: National Water Resource Planning. Pretoria, South Africa. DWAF Report No. PWMA 18/000/00/0304 [available on internet at http://www.dwaf.gov.za/documents/].
  119. Djellouli-Tabet, Y., 2010. Common scarcity, diverse responses in the Maghreb Region. In Schneier-Madanes, G. & M.-F. Courel (eds), Water and Sustainability in Arid Regions: An Interdisciplinary Exploration of Human and Environmental Interactions. Springer Science + Business Media, Dordrecht: 87–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Doupé, R. G., A. J. Lymbery & N. E. Pettit, 2006. Stream salinization is associated with reduced taxonomic but not functional diversity in a riparian plant community. Austral Ecology 32: 388–393.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Downes, B. J., 2010. Back to the future: little-used tools and principles of scientific inference can help disentangle effects of multiple stressors on freshwater ecosystems. Freshwater Biology 55: 60–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Downes, B. J., L. A. Barmuta, P. G. Fairweather, D. P. Faith, M. J. Keough, P. S. Lake, B. D. Mapstone & G. P. Quinn, 2002. Monitoring Ecological Impacts: Concepts and Practice in Flowing Waters. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Dudley, T. L., 1992. Beneficial-effects of herbivores on stream macroalgae via epiphyte removal. Oikos 65: 121–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Dudley, T. L., S. D. Cooper & N. Hemphill, 1986. Effects of macroalgae on a stream invertebrate community. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 5: 93–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Economidis, P. S., 1995. Endangered freshwater fishes of Greece. Biological Conservation 72: 201–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Economidis, P. S., E. Dimitriou, R. Pagoni, E. Michaloudi & L. Natsis, 2000. Introduced and translocated fish species in the inland waters of Greece. Fisheries Management and Ecology 7: 239–250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Elvira, B. & A. Almodóvar, 2001. Freshwater fish introductions in Spain: facts and figures at the beginning of the 21st century. Journal of Fish Biology 59: 323–331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Englund, G. & S. D. Cooper, 2003. Scale effects and extrapolation in ecological experiments. Advances in Ecological Research 33: 161–213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Fagan, B. M., 2003. Before California: An Archaeologist Looks at our Earliest Inhabitants. Rowman and Littlefield Publishers/AltaMira Press, Lanham.Google Scholar
  130. Fagan, B. M., 2011. Elixir: A History of Water and Humankind. Bloomsbury Press, New York.Google Scholar
  131. Faivre, N., P. Roche, M. M. Boer, L. McCaw & P. F. Grierson, 2011. Characterization of landscape pyrodiversity in Mediterranean environments: contrasts and similarities between south-western Australia and south-eastern France. Landscape Ecology 26: 557–571.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Farmaki, E. G. & N. S. Thomaidis, 2008. Current status of the metal pollution of the environment of Greece—a review. Gobal Nest Journal 10: 366–375.Google Scholar
  133. Feio, M. J., T. Alves, M. Boavida, A. Medeiros & M. A. S. Graça, 2010. Functional indicators of stream health: a river-basin approach. Freshwater Biology 55: 1050–1065.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Feld, C. K., S. Birk, D. C. Bradley, D. Hering, J. Kail, A. Marzin, A. Melcher, D. Nemitz, M. L. Pedersen, F. Pletterbauer, D. Pont, P. F. M. Verdonschot & N. Friberg, 2011. From natural to degraded rivers and back again: a test of restoration ecology theory and practice. Advances in Ecological Research 44: 119–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Feminella, J. W. & V. H. Resh, 1991. Herbivorous caddisflies, macroalgae, and epilithic microalgae—dynamic interactions in a stream grazing system. Oecologia 87: 247–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Fend, S. V., J. L. Carter & F. R. Kearns, 2005. Relationships of field habitat measurements, visual habitat indices, and land cover to benthic macroinvertebrates in urbanized streams of the Santa Clara Valley, California. In Brown, L. R., R. H. Gray, R. H. Hughes & M. R. Meador (eds), Effects of Urbanization on Stream Ecosystems. American Fisheries Society Symposium 47, Bethesda: 193–212.Google Scholar
  137. Fenn, M. E. & M. A. Poth, 1999. Temporal and spatial trends in streamwater nitrate concentrations in the San Bernardino Mountains, southern California. Journal of Environmental Quality 28: 822–836.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Fernandes, M. R., F. C. Aguiar & M. T. Ferreira, 2011. Assessing riparian vegetation structure and the influence of land use using landscape metrics and geostatistical tools. Landscape and Urban Planning 99: 166–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Fernández, C., M. Gonzalez-Doncel, J. Pro, G. Carbonell & J. V. Tarzona, 2010. Occurrence of pharmaceutically active compounds in surface waters of the Henares-Jarama-Tajo river system (Madrid, Spain) and a potential risk characterization. Science of the Total Environment 408: 543–551.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Ferreira, V. & E. Chauvet, 2011a. Future increase in temperature more than decrease in litter quality can affect microbial litter decomposition in streams. Oecologia 167: 279–291.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Ferreira, V. & E. Chauvet, 2011b. Synergistic effects of water temperature and dissolved nutrients on litter decomposition and associated fungi. Global Change Biology 17: 551–564.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Ferreira, M. T., F. C. Aguiar & C. Nogueira, 2005. Changes in riparian woods over space and time: influence of environment and land use. Forest Ecology and Management 212: 145–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Ferreira, T., J. Olivera, N. Caiola, A. De Sostoa, F. Casals, R. Cortes, A. Economou, X. Zogaris, D. Garcia-Jalon, M. Ilhéu, F. Marinez-Capel, D. Pont, C. Rogers & J. Prenda, 2007. Ecological traits of fish assemblages from Mediterranean Europe and their responses to human disturbance. Fisheries Management and Ecology 14: 473–481.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Ficetola, G. F., L. Marziali, B. Rossaro, F. de Bernardi & E. Padoa-Schioppa, 2011. Landscape–stream interactions and habitat conservation for amphibians. Ecological Applications 21: 1272–1282.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Fitzpatrick, F. A., B. C. Scudder, B. N. Lenz & D. J. Sullivan, 2001. Effects of multi-scale environmental characteristics on agricultural stream biota in eastern Wisconsin. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 37: 1489–1507.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Foley, J. A., R. De Fries, G. P. Asner, C. Barford, G. Bonan, S. R. Carpenter, F. S. Chapin, M. T. Coe, G. C. Daily, H. K. Gibbs, J. H. Helkowski, T. Holloway, E. A. Howard, C. J. Kucharik, C. Monfreda, J. A. Patz, I. C. Prentice, N. Ramankutty & P. K. Snyder, 2005. Global consequences of land use. Science 309: 570–574.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Friberg, N., N. Bonada, D. C. Bradley, M. J. Dunbar, F. K. Edwards, J. Grey, R. B. Hayes, A. G. Hildrew, N. Lamouroux, M. Trimmer & G. Woodward, 2011. Biomonitoring of human impacts in freshwater ecosystems: the good, the bad, and the ugly. Advances in Ecological Research 44: 1–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Furby, S., P. Caccetta & J. Wallace, 2010. Salinity monitoring in Western Australia using remotely sensed and other spatial data. Journal of Environmental Quality 39: 16–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Gafny, S., M. Goren & A. Gasith, 2000. Habitat condition and fish assemblage structure in a coastal mediterranean stream (Yarqon, Israel) receiving domestic effluent. Hydrobiologia 422: 319–330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Gammage, B., 2011. The Biggest Greatest Estate on Earth. How Aborigines Made Australia. Allen & Unwin, Sydney.Google Scholar
  151. Garcia-Ruíz, J. M., D. Regüés, B. Alvera, N. Lana-Renault, P. Serrano-Muela, E. Nadal-Romero, A. Navas, J. Latron, C. Martí-Bono & J. Arnáez, 2008. Flood generation and sediment transport in experimental catchments affected by land use changes in the central Pyrenees. Journal of Hydrology 356: 245–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. García-Ruiz, J. M., J. I. López-Moreno, S. M. Vicente-Serrano, T. Lasanta-Martínez & S. Beguería, 2011. Mediterranean water resources in a global change scenario. Earth-Science Reviews 105: 121–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Gasith, A. & V. H. Resh, 1999. Streams in Mediterranean climate regions: abiotic influences and biotic responses to predictable seasonal events. Annual Review of Ecology Evolution and Systematics 30: 51–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Gaudes, A., J. Artigas & I. Muñoz, 2010. Species traits and resilience of meiofauna to floods and droughts in a Mediterranean stream. Marine & Freshwater Research 61: 1336–1347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Ghassemi, F., A. J. Jakeman & H. A. Nix, 1995. Salinisation of Land and Water Resources. University of New South Wales Press, Sydney.Google Scholar
  156. Gil-Sánchez, J. M. & J. Alba-Tercedor, 2002. Ecology of the native and introduced crayfishes Austropotamobius pallipes and Procamburus clarkii in southern Spain and implications for conservation of the native species. Biological Conservation 105: 75–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Ginebreda, A., I. Muñoz, M. L. de Alda, R. Brix, J. Lopez-Doval & D. Barceló, 2010. Environmental risk assessment of pharmaceuticals in rivers: Relationships between hazard indexes and aquatic macroinvertebrate diversity indexes in the Llobregat River (NE Spain). Environment International 36: 153–162.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Glennon, R., 2002. Water Follies. Groundwater Pumping and the Fate of America’s Fresh Waters. Island Press, Washington DC.Google Scholar
  159. Going, B. M. & T. L. Dudley, 2008. Invasive riparian plant litter alters aquatic insect growth. Biological Invasions 10: 1041–1051.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Going, B., J. Simpson & T. Even, 2008. The influence of light on the growth of watercress (Nasturtium officinale R. Br.). Hydrobiologia 607: 75–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. González, E., E. Muller, B. Gallardo, F. A. Comín & M. González-Sanchís, 2010. Factors controlling litter production in a large Mediterranean river floodplain forest. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 40: 1698–1709.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Goodridge, B. M. & J. M. Melack, 2012. Land use control of stream nitrate concentrations in mountainous coastal California watersheds. Journal of Geophysical Research 117: G02005. doi:10.1029/2011JG001833.
  163. Goslin, M., 2005. Creating a comprehensive dam dataset for assessing anadromous fish passage in California. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Marine Fisheries Service, Southwest Fisheries Science Center, Santa Cruz, California, USA. Technical Memorandum NOAA-TM-NMFS-SWFSC-376.Google Scholar
  164. Graça, M. A. S., C. Cressa, T. M. O. Gessner, M. J. Feio, K. A. Callies & C. Barrios, 2001. Food quality, feeding preferences, survival and growth of shredders from temperate and tropical streams. Freshwater Biology 46: 947–957.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Grace, J. B., 2006. Structural Equation Modeling and Natural Systems. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Grantham, T. E., M. Cañedo-Arguelles, I. Perree, M. Rieradevall & N. Prat, 2012. A mesocosm approach for detecting stream invertebrate community responses to treated wastewater effluent. Environmental Pollution 160: 95–102.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Grossman, G. & J. Sabo, 2010. Incorporating environmental variation into models of community stability: examples from stream fish. American Fisheries Society Symposium 73: 407–426.Google Scholar
  168. Guasch, H., A. Serra, N. Corcoll, B. Bonet & M. Leira, 2010. Metal ecotoxicology in fluvial biofilms: potential influence of water scarcity. In Sabater, S. & D. Barceló (eds), Water Scarcity in Mediterranean Areas. Springer, New York: 41–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Gulis, V., V. Ferreira & M. A. S. Graça, 2006. Stimulation of leaf litter decomposition and associated fungi and invertebrates by moderate eutrophication: implications for stream assessment. Freshwater Biology 51: 1655–1669.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Gumiero, B., B. Maiolini, M. Rinaldi, N. Surian, B. Boz & F. Moroni, 2009. The Italian Rivers. In Tockner, K., U. Uhlinger & C. T. Robinson (eds), Rivers of Europe. Academic Press, Amsterdam: 467–495.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Hagedorn, C., A. R. Blanch & F. J. Harwood, 2011. Microbial Source Tracking: Methods, Applications, and Case Studies. Springer, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Hallam, S. J., 1975. Fire and Hearth. A Study of Aboriginal Usage and European Usurpation in South-western Australia. Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies, Canberra, Australia.Google Scholar
  173. Halse, S. A., J. K. Ruprecht & A. M. Pinder, 2003. Salinisation and prospects for biodiversity in rivers and wetlands of south-west Western Australia. Australian Journal of Botany 51: 673–688.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Hamon, S. M., 2011. Effects of pollution on freshwater organisms. Water Environment Research 83: 1733–1788.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Harding, J. S., E. F. Benfield, P. V. Tolstad, G. S. Helfman & E. B. D. Jones, 1998. Stream biodiversity: the ghost of land use past. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 95: 14843–14847.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Hart, S. D., 1975. The decomposition of leaves in two southern California streams. M.A. Thesis, University of California, Santa Barbara, USA.Google Scholar
  177. Hassell, C. W. & J. R. Dodson, 2003. The fire history of south-west Western Australia prior to European settlement in 1826–1829. In Abbott, I. & N. Burrows (eds), Fire in Ecosystems of South-West Western Australia: Impacts and Management. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden: 71–86.Google Scholar
  178. Herbst, D. B., M. T. Bogan, S. K. Roll & H. D. Safford, 2012. Effects of livestock exclusion on in-stream habitat and benthic invertebrate assemblages in montane streams. Freshwater Biology 57: 204–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Hermoso, V. & M. Clavero, 2011. Threatening processes and conservation management of endemic freshwater fish in the Mediterranean basin: a review. Marine & Freshwater Research 62: 244–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Hermoso, V., M. Clavero, F. Blanco-Garrido & J. Prenda, 2009. Assessing freshwater fish sensitivity to different sources of perturbation in a Mediterranean basin. Ecology of Freshwater Fish 18: 269–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Hermoso, V., M. Clavero, F. Blanco-Garrido & J. Prenda, 2010. Assessing the ecological status in species-poor systems: a fish-based index for Mediterranean Rivers (Guadiana River, SW Spain). Ecological Indicators 10: 1152–1161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Hermoso, V., M. Clavero, F. Blanco-Garrido & J. Prenda, 2011. Invasive species and habitat degradation in Iberian streams: an analysis of their role in freshwater fish diversity loss. Ecological Applications 21: 175–188.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Hermoso, V., M. Clavero & M. J. Kennard, 2012. Determinants of fine-scale homogenization and differentiation of native freshwater fish faunas in a Mediterranean Basin: implications for conservation. Diversity and Distributions 18: 236–247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Hodgkin, E. P. & B. H. Hamilton, 1993. Fertilizers and eutrophication in southwestern Australia: setting the scene. Fertilizer Research 36: 95–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Hooke, J. M., 2006. Human impacts on fluvial systems in the Mediterranean region. Geomorphology 79: 311–335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Hornberger, G. M., M. G. Kelly & B. J. Cosby, 1977. Evaluating eutrophication potential from river community productivity. Water Research 11: 65–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Horwitz, P., 1997. Comparative endemism and richness of the aquatic invertebrate fauna in peatlands and shrublands of far south-western Australia. Memoirs of the Museum of Victoria 56: 313–321.Google Scholar
  188. Horwitz, P., D. Bradshaw, S. Hopper, P. Davies, R. Froend & F. Bradshaw, 2008. Hydrological change escalates risk of ecosystem stress in Australia’s threatened biodiversity hotspot. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 91: 1–11.Google Scholar
  189. Hughes, S. J., J. M. Santos, M. T. Ferreira, R. Caraça & A. M. Mendes, 2009. Ecological assessment of an intermittent Mediterranean river using community structure and function: evaluating the role of different organism groups. Freshwater Biology 54: 2383–2400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Hughes, S. J., J. Santos, T. Ferreira & A. Mendes, 2010. Evaluating the response of biological assemblages as potential indicators for restoration measures in an intermittent Mediterranean river. Environmental Management 46: 285–301.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Hunt, L. E., 2008. Southern California coast steelhead recovery planning area: conservation action planning (CAP) workbooks threats assessment. Report prepared by Hunt & Associates, Biological Consulting Services, Santa Barbara, CA for NOAA-NMFS Southwest Region, Santa Barbara, USA.Google Scholar
  192. Iliopoulou-Georgudaki, J., V. Kantzaris, P. Katharios, P. Kaspiris, T. Georgiadis & B. Montesantou, 2003. An application of different bioindicators for assessing water quality: a case study in the rivers Alfeios and Pineios (Peloponnisos, Greece). Ecological Indicators 2: 345–360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Impson, N. D., 2007. Freshwater fishes. In Western Cape Province State of Biodiversity 2007. Scientific Services, CapeNature, Cape Town: 18–33. http://www.capenature.co.za/docs/1016/Biodiversity%20Review.pdf.
  194. Innal, D. & F. Erk’akan, 2006. Effects of exotic and translocated fish species in the inland waters of Turkey. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 16: 39–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Johnson, L. B. & G. E. Horst, 2010. Recent developments in landscape approaches for the study of aquatic ecosystems. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 29: 41–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Johnson, R. K., T. Wierderholm & D. M. Rosenberg, 1993. Freshwater biomonitoring using individual organisms, populations, and species assemblages of benthic macroinvertebrates. In Rosenberg, D. M. & V. H. Resh (eds), Freshwater Biomonitoring and Benthic Macroinvertebrates. Chapman and Hall, London: 40–158.Google Scholar
  197. Kala, J., T. J. Lyons & U. S. Nair, 2011. Numerical simulations of the impacts of land-cover change on cold fronts in south-west Western Australia. Boundary-Layer Meteorology 138: 121–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Kara, H. M., 2011. Freshwater fish diversity in Algeria with emphasis on alien species. European Journal of Wildlife Research 58: 243–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Karaer, F. & A. Kucukballi, 2006. Monitoring of water quality and assessment of organic pollution load in the Nilufer Stream, Turkey. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 114: 391–417.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Kargioglu, M., A. Serteser, E. Kivrak, Y. Icaga & M. Konuk, 2012. Relationships between epipelic diatoms, aquatic macrophytes, and water quality in Akar double dagger ay Stream, Afyonkarahisar, Turkey. Oceanological and Hydrobiological Studies 41: 74–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. Karrasch, B., O. Parma, H. Cid, M. Mehrens, P. Pacheco, R. Urrulia, C. Valdovinos & C. Zaror, 2006. Effects of pulp and paper mill effluents on the microplankton and microbial self-purification capabilities of the Biobio River, Chile. Science of the Total Environment 359: 194–208.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Kay, W. R., S. A. Halse, M. D. Scanlon & M. J. Smith, 2001. Distribution and environmental tolerances of aquatic macroinvertebrate families in the agricultural zone of southwestern Australia. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 20: 182–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Keeley, J. E., 2002. Native American impacts on fire regimes of the California coastal ranges. Journal of Biogeography 29: 303–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. Keipert, N., D. Weaver, R. Summers, M. Clarke & S. Neville, 2008. Guiding BMP adoption to improve water quality in various estuarine ecosystems in Western Australia. Water Science and Technology 57: 1749–1756.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. Kennard, M. J., B. J. Pusey, J. D. Olden, S. J. Mackay, J. L. Stein & N. Marsh, 2010. Classification of natural flow regimes in Australia to support environmental flow management. Freshwater Biology 55: 171–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. Kettle, A. J., L. A. Vollestad & J. Wibig, 2011. Where once the eel and the elephant were together: decline of the European eel because of changing hydrology in southwest Europe and northwest Africa? Fish and Fisheries 12: 380–411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. King, R. S., M. E. Baker, D. F. Whigham, D. E. Weller, T. E. Jordan, P. F. Kazyak & M. K. Hurd, 2005. Spatial considerations for linking watershed land cover to ecological indicators in streams. Ecological Applications 15: 137–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. King, R. S., M. E. Baker, P. F. Kazyak & D. E. Weller, 2011. How novel is too novel? Stream community thresholds at exceptionally low levels of catchment urbanization. Ecological Applications 21: 1659–1678.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Klausmeyer, K. R. & M. R. Shaw, 2009. Climate change, habitat loss, protected areas and the climate adaptation potential of species in Mediterranean ecosystems worldwide. PLoS ONE 4(7): e6392.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. Klose, K. & S. D. Cooper, 2012a. Contrasting effects of an invasive crayfish (Procamburus clarkii) on two temperate stream communities. Freshwater Biology 57: 526–540.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Klose, K. & S. D. Cooper, 2012b. Complex impacts of an invasive omnivore and native consumers on stream communities in California and Hawaii. Oecologia. doi:10.1007/s004422-012-2449-y.
  212. Klose, K., S. D. Cooper & A. Leydecker, 2009. An assessment of numeric algal and nutrient targets for Ventura River watershed total maximum daily loads (TMDLs). Report to the Los Angeles Regional Water Quality Control Board, Los Angeles, USA.Google Scholar
  213. Klose, K., S. D. Cooper, A. D. Leydecker & J. Kreitler, 2012. Relationships among catchment land use and concentrations of nutrients, algae, and dissolved oxygen in a southern California river. Freshwater Science 31: 908–927.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. Kondolf, G. M., 1997. Hungry water: effects of dams and gravel mining on river channels. Environmental Management 21: 533–551.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. Kondolf, G. M., 1998. Lessons learned from river restoration projects in California. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 8: 39–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. Kondolf, G. M., M. W. Smeltzer & S. F. Railsback, 2001. Design and performance of a channel reconstruction project in a coastal California gravel-bed stream. Environmental Management 28: 761–776.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. Kondolf, G. M., S. Anderson, R. Lave, L. Pagano, A. Merenlander & E. S. Bernhardt, 2007. Two decades of river restoration in California: what can we learn? Restoration Ecology 15: 516–523.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. Konrad, C. P. & D. B. Booth, 2005. Hydrologic changes in urban streams and their ecological significance. In Brown, L. R., R. H. Gray, R. H. Hughes & M. R. Meador (eds), Effects of Urbanization on Stream Ecosystems. American Fisheries Society Symposium 47, Bethesda: 157–177.Google Scholar
  219. Lake, P. S., 2003. Ecological effects of perturbation by drought in flowing waters. Freshwater Biology 48: 1161–1172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. Lake, P. S., 2011. Drought and Aquatic Ecosystems. Effects and Responses. Wiley-Blackwell, Chichester.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. Lange, K., A. Liess, J. J. Pigott, C. R. Townsend & C. D. Matthaei, 2011. Light, nutrients and grazing interact to determine stream diatom community composition and functional group structure. Freshwater Biology 56: 264–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. Larsen, S., A. Sorace & L. Mancini, 2010. Riparian bird communities as indicators of human impacts along Mediterranean streams. Environmental Management 45: 261–273.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. Lawrence, J. E., K. B. Lunde, R. D. Mazor, L. A. Bêche, E. P. McElravy & V. H. Resh, 2010. Long-term macroinvertebrate responses to climate change: implications for biological assessments in Mediterranean-climate streams. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 29: 1424–1440.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. Le Maitre, D. C., B. W. van Wilgen, R. A. Chapman & D. H. McKelly, 1996. Invasive plants and water resources in the Western Cape Province, South Africa: modeling the consequences of a lack of management. Journal of Applied Ecology 33: 161–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. Le Maitre, D. C., M. Gaertner, E. Marchante, E.-J. Ens, P. M. Holmes, A. Pauchard, P. J. O’Farrell, A. M. Rogers, R. Blanchard, J. Blignaut & D. M. Richardson, 2011. Impacts of invasive Australian acacias: implications for management and restoration. Diversity and Distributions 17: 1015–1029.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. Lehner, B., P. Döll, J. Alcamo, Y. Henrichs & F. Kaspar, 2006. Estimating the impact of global change on flood and drought risks in Europe: a continental, integrated analysis. Climatic Change 75: 273–299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. Lewis, W. M. Jr., 2002. Yield of nitrogen from minimally disturbed watersheds of the United States. Biogeochemistry 57(58): 375–385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. Light, T. & M. P. Marchetti, 2007. Distinguishing between invasions and habitat changes as drivers of biodiversity loss among California’s freshwater fishes. Conservation Biology 21: 434–446.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. Lillo, F., F. P. Faraone & M. L. Valvo, 2011. Can the introduction of Xenopus laevis affect native amphibian populations? Reduction of reproductive occurrence in presence of the invasive species. Biological Invasions 13: 1533–1541.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. Lin, C. J. & R. F. Ambrose, 2005. Relations between fish assemblages and urbanization in southern California coastal streams. In Brown, L. R., R. H. Gray, R. H. Hughes & M. R. Meador (eds), Effects of Urbanization on Stream Ecosystems. American Fisheries Society Symposium 47, Bethesda: 229–238.Google Scholar
  231. Little, C., A. Lara, J. McPhee & R. Urrutia, 2009. Revealing the impact of forest exotic plantations on water yield in large scale watersheds in South-Central Chile. Journal of Hydrology 374: 162–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. Lobos, G. & G. J. Measey, 2002. Invasive populations of Xenopus laevis (Daudin) in Chile. Herpetological Journal 12: 163–168.Google Scholar
  233. López-Moreno, J. I., S. M. Vicente-Serrano, E. Moran-Tejeda, J. Zabalza, J. Lorenzo-Lacruz & J. M. García-Ruiz, 2011. Impact of climate evolution and land use changes on water yield in the Ebro Basin. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 15: 311–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. Lorenzo-Lacruz, J., S. M. Vicente-Serrano, J. I. López-Moreno, S. Begueŕia, J. M. Garćia-Ruiz & J. M. Cuadrat, 2010. The impact of droughts and water management on various hydrological systems in the headwaters of the Tagus River (central Spain). Journal of Hydrology 386: 13–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. Lowe, S. R., D. J. Woodford, D. N. Impson & J. A. Day, 2010. The impact of invasive fish and invasive riparian plants on the invertebrate fauna of the Rondegat River, Cape Floristic Region, South Africa. African Journal of Aquatic Science 33: 51–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. Lymbery, A. J., R. G. Doupé & N. E. Pettit, 2003. Effects of salinisation on riparian plant communities in experimental catchments on the Collie River, Western Australia. Australian Journal of Botany 51: 667–672.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. Magalhães, M. F., P. Beja, I. F. Schlosser & M. J. Collares-Pereira, 2007. Effects of multi-year droughts on fish assemblages of seasonally drying Mediterranean streams. Freshwater Biology 52: 1494–1510.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. Magalhães, M. F., C. E. Ramalho & M. J. Collares-Pereira, 2008. Assessing biotic integrity in a Mediterranean watershed: development and evaluation of a fish-based index. Fisheries Management and Ecology 15: 273–289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. Magoba, R. N. & M. J. Samways, 2010. Recovery of benthic macroinvertebrate and adult dragonfly assemblages in response to large scale removal of riparian invasive alien trees. Journal of Insect Conservation 14: 627–636.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. Maloney, K. O. & D. E. Weller, 2011. Anthropogenic disturbance and streams: land use and land-use change affect stream ecosystems via multiple pathways. Freshwater Biology 56: 611–626.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. Mancilla, G., C. Valdovinos, M. Azocar, P. Jorquera & R. Figueroa, 2009a. Replacement effect of riparian native vegetation on benthic macroinvertebrates community in temperate climate streams, Central Chile. Hydrobiologia 19: 193–203.Google Scholar
  242. Mancilla, G., C. Valdovinos, M. Azocar, M. Henriquez & R. Figueroa, 2009b. Multimetric approach to water quality evaluation of basins with different levels of anthropic perturbation. Interciencia 34: 857–864.Google Scholar
  243. Marchetti, M. P., T. Light, P. B. Moyle & J. H. Viers, 2004. Fish invasions in California watersheds: testing hypotheses using landscape patterns. Ecological Applications 14: 1507–1525.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. Marchetti, M. P., J. L. Lockwood & T. Light, 2006. Effects of urbanization on California’s fish diversity: differentiation, homogenization and the influence of spatial scale. Biological Conservation 127: 310–318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  245. Marchi, L., M. Borga, E. Preciso & E. Gaume, 2010. Characterisation of selected extreme flash floods in Europe and implications for flood risk management. Journal of Hydrology 394: 118–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. Marr, S. M., M. P. Marchetti, J. D. Olden, E. García-Berthou, D. L. Morgan, I. Arismendi, J. A. Day, C. L. Griffiths & P. H. Skelton, 2010. Freshwater fish introductions in Mediterranean-climate regions: are there commonalities in the conservation problem? Diversity and Distributions 16: 606–619.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  247. Martí, E., J. L. Riera & F. Sabater, 2010. Effects of wastewater treatment plants on stream nutrient dynamics under water scarcity conditions. In Sabater, S. & D. Barceló (eds), Water Scarcity in the Mediterranean. Springer, New York: 173–195.Google Scholar
  248. Martín, G., J. Toja, S. E. Sala, M. D. R. Fernández, I. Reyes & M. A. Casco, 2010. Application of diatom biotic indices in the Guadalquivir River Basin, a Mediterranean basin. Which one is the most appropriated? Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 170: 519–534.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  249. Mayor, A. G., S. Bautista, J. Llovet & J. Bellot, 2007. Post-fire hydrological and erosional responses of a Mediterranean landscape: seven years of catchment-scale dynamics. Catena 71: 68–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. Mazor, R. D. & K. Schiff, 2008. Surface Water Ambient Monitoring Program (SWAMP) Synthesis Report on Stream Assessments in the San Diego Region. Southern California Coastal Water Research Project, Costa Mesa, California, USA. Technical Report 527.Google Scholar
  251. Mazor, R. D., A. H. Purcell & V. H. Resh, 2009. Long-term variability in bioassessments: a twenty-year study from two northern California streams. Environmental Management 43: 1269–1286.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  252. Mazor, R. D., D. J. Gillett, K. Schiff, K. Ritter & E. D. Stein, 2011. Ecological Condition of Watersheds in Coastal Southern California: Summary of the Storm water Monitoring Coalition’s Stream Monitoring Program First Year (2009). Southern California Coastal Water Research Project, Costa Mesa, California, USA. Technical Report 639.Google Scholar
  253. McBride, M. & D. B. Booth, 2005. Urban impacts on physical stream condition: effects of spatial scale, connectivity, and longitudinal trends. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 41: 565–580.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  254. McComb, A. J. & J. A. Davis, 1993. Eutrophic waters of southwestern Australia. Fertilizer Research 36: 105–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  255. McFarlane, D. J. & R. J. George, 1992. Factors affecting dryland salinity in two wheatbelt catchments in Western Australia. Australian Journal of Soil Research 30: 85–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  256. Meffe, G. K., 1984. Effects of abiotic disturbance on coexistence of predator-prey fish species. Ecology 65: 1525–1534.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  257. Melack, J. M. & A. Leydecker, 2005. Episodic variations in nutrient concentrations in coastal California streams. Verhandlungen der Internationalen Vereinigung für Theoretische und Angewandte Limnologie 29: 1049–1053.Google Scholar
  258. Menció, A. & J. Mas-Pla, 2008. Assessment by multivariate analysis of groundwater–surface interactions in urbanized Mediterranean streams. Journal of Hydrology 352: 355–366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  259. Menció, A. & J. Mas-Pla, 2010. Influence of groundwater exploitation on the ecological status of streams in a Mediterranean system (Selva Basin, NE Spain). Ecological Indicators 10: 915–926.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  260. Menéndez, M., E. Descals, T. Riera & O. Moya, 2011. Leaf litter breakdown in Mediterranean streams: effect of dissolved inorganic nutrients. Hydrobiologia 669: 143–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  261. Merseburger, G., E. Martí, F. Sabater & J. D. Ortiz, 2011. Point source effects on N and P uptake in a forested and an agricultural Mediterranean streams. Science of the Total Environment 409: 957–967.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  262. Millán, A., J. Velasco, C. Gutiérrez-Cánovas, P. Arribas, F. Picazo, D. Sánchez-Fernández & P. Abellán, 2011. Mediterranean saline streams in southeast Spain: what do we know? Journal of Arid Environments 75(SI): 1352–1359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  263. Milliman, J. D. & K. L. Farnsworth, 2011. River Discharge to the Coastal Ocean: A Global Synthesis. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  264. Minear, J. T. & G. M. Kondolf, 2009. Estimating reservoir sedimentation rates at large spatial and temporal scales: a case study of California. Water Resources Research 45: Article W12502, 8 pp.Google Scholar
  265. Mokhatla, M. M., G. J. Measey, C. T. Chimimba & B. J. van Rensburg, 2012. A biogeographical assessment of anthropogenic threats to areas where different frog breeding groups occur in South Africa: implications for anuran conservation. Diversity and Distributions 18: 470–480.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  266. Moline, A. B. & N. L. Poff, 2008. Growth of an invertebrate shredder on native (Populus) and non-native (Tamarix, Elaeagnus) leaf litter. Freshwater Biology 53: 1012–1020.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  267. Morgan, D. L., D. D. Thorburn & H. Gill, 2003. Salinization of southwestern Western Australian rivers and the implications for the inland fish fauna—the Blackwood River, a case study. Pacific Conservation Biology 9: 161–171.Google Scholar
  268. Moyle, P. B., J. A. Israel & S. E. Purdy, 2008. Salmon, Steelhead, and Trout in California: Status of an Emblematic Fauna. Center for Watershed Sciences, University of California, Davis, California, USA. Report Commissioned by California Trout, San Francisco, California, USA.Google Scholar
  269. Moyle, P. B., J. V. E. Katz & R. M. Quinones, 2011. Rapid decline of California’s native inland fishes: a status assessment. Biological Conservation 144: 2414–2423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  270. Mpelasoka, F., K. Hennessy, R. Jones & B. Bates, 2008. Comparison of suitable drought indices for climate change impacts assessment over Australia towards resource management. International Journal of Climatology 28: 1283–1292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  271. Munné, A. & N. Prat, 2011. Effects of Mediterranean climate annual variability on stream biological quality assessment using macroinvertebrate communities. Ecological Indicators 11: 651–662.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  272. Muñoz, I., J. C. López-Doval, M. Ricart, M. Villagrasa, R. Brix, A. Geiszinger, A. Ginebreda, H. Guasch, M. J. L. de Alda, A. M. Romaní, S. Sabater & D. Barceló, 2009. Bridging levels of pharmaceuticals in river water with biological community structure in the Llobregat River basin (Northeast Spain). Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 28: 2706–2714.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  273. Múrria, C., N. Bonada & N. Prat, 2008. Effects of the invasive species Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Hydrobiidae, Mollusca) on community structure in a small Mediterranean stream. Fundamental and Applied Limnology 171: 131–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  274. Myers, N., C. G. Mittermeier, G. A. B. de Fonseca & J. Kent, 2000. Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities. Nature 403: 853–858.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  275. Naiman, R. J. & H. Décamps, 1997. The ecology of interfaces: riparian zones. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 28: 621–658.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  276. National Marine Fisheries Service, 2012. Southern California Steelhead Recovery Plan. Southwest Regional Office, National Marine Fisheries Service, Long Beach, CA, USA [available on internet at http://swr.nmfs.noaa.gov/pr/recovery/plans.htm].
  277. Navel, S., F. Mermillod-Blondin, B. Montuelle, E. Chauvet, L. Simon, C. Piscart & P. Marmonier, 2010. Interactions between fauna and sediment control the breakdown of plant matter in river sediments. Freshwater Biology 55: 753–766.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  278. Neumann, F. H., L. Scott & M. K. Bamford, 2011. Climate change and human disturbance of fynbos vegetation during the late Holocene at Princess Vlei, Western Cape, South Africa. Holocene 21: 1137–1149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  279. Norris, R. H. & A. Georges, 1993. Analysis and interpretation of benthic macroinvertebrate surveys. In Rosenberg, D. M. & V. H. Resh (eds), Freshwater Biomonitoring and Benthic Macroinvertebrates. Chapman and Hall, New York: 234–286.Google Scholar
  280. Obermann, M., K. H. Rosenwinkel & M. G. Tournoud, 2009. Investigation of first-flushes in a medium-sized Mediterranean catchment. Journal of Hydrology 373: 405–415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  281. Ode, P. R., A. C. Rehn & J. T. May, 2005. A quantitative tool for assessing the integrity of southern coastal California streams. Environmental Management 35: 493–504.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  282. Ode, P. R., T. M. Kincaid, T. Fleming & A. C. Rehn, 2010. Ecological conditional assessments of California’s perennial wadeable streams (2000 through 2007): novel use of a probability survey to assess the condition of streams draining agricultural, urban and forested landscapes. Report Prepared by California Department of Fish and Game Aquatic Bioassessment Laboratory, Rancho Cordova, CA, USA for the State Water Resources Control Board’s Non-Point Source Program, Sacramento, USA.Google Scholar
  283. Olivier, J.-M., G. Carrel, N. Lamouroux, M.-J. Dole-Olivier, F. Malard, J.-P. Bravard & C. Amoros, 2009. The Rhône River Basin. In Tockner, K., U. Uhlinger & C. T. Robinson (eds), Rivers of Europe. Academic Press, Amsterdam: 247–295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  284. Ollero, A., 2007. Channel adjustments, floodplain changes and riparian ecosystems of the middle Ebro River: assessment and management. International Journal on Water Resources Development 23: 73–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  285. Ortiz, J. D. & M. A. Puig, 2007. Point source effects on density, biomass and diversity of benthic invertebrates in a Mediterranean stream. River Research and Applications 23: 155–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  286. Ortiz, J. D., E. Martí & M. A. Puig, 2005. Recovery of the macroinvertebrate community below a wastewater treatment plant input in a Mediterranean stream. Hydrobiologia 545: 289–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  287. Ortiz, J. D., G. Merseburger, E. Martí, M. Ordeix & F. Sabater, 2008. Effects of urbanization on aquatic macroinvertebrates in Mediterranean streams. In Wagner, L. N. (ed.), Urbanization: 21st Century Issues and Challenges. Nova Science Publishers Inc., Hauppauge, NY: 91–132.Google Scholar
  288. Palmer, M. A. & J. D. Allan, 2006. Restoring rivers. Issues in Science and Technology 22: 40–48.Google Scholar
  289. Palmer, M. A., E. S. Bernhardt, J. D. Allan, P. S. Lake, G. Alexander, S. Brooks, J. Carr, S. Clayton, C. N. Dahm, J. F. Shah, D. L. Galat, S. G. Loss, P. Goodwin, D. D. Hart, B. Hassett, R. Jenkinson, G. M. Kondolf, R. Lave, J. L. Meyer, T. K. O’Donnell, L. Pagano & E. Sudduth, 2005. Standards for ecologically successful river restoration. Journal of Applied Ecology 42: 208–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  290. Pan, Y. D., A. Herlihy, P. Kaufmann, J. Wigington, J. van Sickle & T. Moser, 2004. Linkages among land-use, water quality, physical habitat conditions and lotic diatom assemblages: a multi-spatial scale assessment. Hydrobiologia 515: 59–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  291. Pascual, L.-L., M. Luigi, F. Alessandra, B. Emilio & B. Luigi, 2011. Hotspots of species richness, threat and endemism for terrestrial vertebrates in SW Europe. Acta Oecologia 37: 399–412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  292. Paul, M. J. & J. L. Meyer, 2001. Streams in the urban landscape. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 32: 333–365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  293. Perlin, J., 1989. A Forest Journey: The Role of Wood in the Development of Civilization. Harvard University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  294. Peru, N. & S. Dolédec, 2010. From compositional to functional biodiversity metrics in bioassessment: a case study using stream macroinvertebrate communities. Ecological Indicators 10: 1025–1086.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  295. Peterson, E. E., F. Sheldon, R. Darnell, S. E. Bunn & B. D. Harch, 2011. A comparison of spatially explicit landscape representation methods and their relationship to stream condition. Freshwater Biology 56: 590–610.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  296. Petrovic, M., A. Ginebreda, V. Acuña, R. J. Batalla, A. Elosegi, H. Guasch, M. L. de Alda, R. Marce, I. Muñoz, A. Navarro-Ortega, E. Navarro, D. Vericat, S. Sabater & D. Barceló, 2011. Combined scenarios of chemical and ecological quality under water scarcity in Mediterranean rivers. Trends in Analytical Chemistry 30: 1269–1278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  297. Pitman, A. J., G. T. Narisma, R. A. Pielke & N. J. Holbrook, 2004. Impact of land cover change on the climate of southwest Western Australia. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres 109: D18109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  298. Poesen, J. W. A. & J. M. Hooke, 1997. Erosion, flooding and channel management in Mediterranean environments of southern Europe. Progress in Physical Geography 21: 157–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  299. Poquet, J. M., J. Alba-Tercedor, T. Punti, M. D. Sánchez-Montoya, S. Robles, M. Alvarez, C. Zamora-Muñoz, C. E. Sainz-Cantero, M. R. Vidal-Abarca, M. L. Suarez, M. Toro, A. M. Pujante, M. Rieradevall & N. Prat, 2009. The MEDiterranean Predication and Classification System (MEDPACS): and implementation of the RIVPACS/AUSRIVAS predictive approach for assessing Mediterranean aquatic macroinvertebrate communities. Hydrobiologia 623: 153–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  300. Porter, S. D., D. K. Mueller, N. E. Spahr, M. D. Munn & N. M. Dubrovsky, 2008. Efficacy of algal metrics for assessing nutrient and organic enrichment in flowing waters. Freshwater Biology 53: 1036–1054.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  301. Prat, N. & A. Munné, 2000. Water use and quality and stream flow in a Mediterranean stream. Water Research 34: 3876–3881.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  302. Prenda, J. & A. Gallardo-Mayenco, 1996. Self-purification, temporal variability and the macroinvertebrate community in small lowland Mediterranean streams receiving crude domestic sewage effluents. Archive fur Hydrobiologie 136: 159–170.Google Scholar
  303. Purcell, A. H., C. Friedrich & V. H. Resh, 2002. An assessment of a small urban stream restoration project in northern California. Restoration Ecology 10: 685–694.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  304. Rehn, A. C., 2010. The effects of wildfire on benthic macroinvertebrates in southern California. Memo to the San Diego Regional Water Quality Board, San Diego, USA.Google Scholar
  305. Rehn, A. C., P. R. Ode & C. P. Hawkins, 2007. Comparisons of targeted-riffle and reach-wide benthic macroinvertebrate samples: implications for data sharing in stream-condition assessments. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 26: 332–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  306. Resh, V. H., 2008. Which group is best? Attributes of different biological assemblages used in freshwater biomonitoring programs. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 138: 131–138.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  307. Resh, V. H. & G. Grodhaus, 1983. Aquatic insects in urban environments. In Frankie, G. W. & C. S. Koehler (eds), Urban Entomology, Chap. 11: Interdisciplinary Perspectives. Praeger Publishers, New York: 247–276.Google Scholar
  308. Ribeiro, F. & P. M. Leunda, 2012. Non-native fish impacts on Mediterranean freshwater ecosystems: current knowledge and research needs. Fisheries Management and Ecology 19: 142–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  309. Ricart, M., H. Guasch, D. Barceló, R. Brix, M. H. Conceição, A. Geiszinger, M. J. L. de Alda, J. C. López-Doval, I. Muñoz, C. Postigo, A. M. Romaní, M. Villagrasa & S. Sabater, 2010. Primary and complex stressors in polluted Mediterranean rivers: pesticide effects on biological communities. Journal of Hydrology 383: 52–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  310. Riggan, P. J., R. N. Lockwood & E. N. López, 1985. Deposition and processing of airborne nitrogen pollutants in Mediterranean-type ecosystems of southern California. Environmental Science and Technology 19: 781–789.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  311. Riley, S. P. D., G. T. Busteed, L. B. Kats, T. L. Vandergon, L. F. S. Lee, R. G. Dagit, J. L. Kerby, R. N. Fisher & R. M. Sauvajot, 2005. Effects of urbanization on the distribution and abundance of amphibians and invasive species in southern California streams. Conservation Biology 2005: 1894–1907.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  312. Ritchie, G. S. P. & D. M. Weaver, 1993. Phosphorus retention and release from sandy soils of the Peel-Harvey catchment. Fertilizer Research 36: 115–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  313. River Health Programme, 2003. State-of-Rivers Report: Diep, Hout Bay, Laurens and Palmiet River Systems. Department of Water Affairs and Forestry. Pretoria, South Africa.Google Scholar
  314. River Health Programme, 2007. State-of-Rivers Report: Rivers of the Gouritz Water Management Area. Department of Water Affairs and Forestry. Pretoria, South Africa.Google Scholar
  315. Robinson, T. H., 2006. Catchment and subcatchment scale linkages between land use and nutrient concentrations and fluxes in coastal California streams. Ph.D. Thesis. University of California, Santa Barbara, USA.Google Scholar
  316. Robinson, T. H., A. Leydecker, A. A. Keller & J. M. Melack, 2005. Steps towards modeling nutrient export in coastal California streams with a Mediterranean climate. Agricultural Water Management 77: 144–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  317. Rolland, T., S. Fayolle, A. Cazaubon & S. Pagnetti, 1997. Methodical approach to distribution of epilithic and drifting algae communities in a French subalpine river: inferences on water quality assessment. Aquatic Sciences 59: 57–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  318. Rosenberg, D. M. & V. H. Resh, 1993. Freshwater Biomonitoring and Benthic Macroinvertebrates. Chapman and Hall, London.Google Scholar
  319. Roy, A. H., M. C. Freeman, B. J. Freeman, S. J. Wenger, J. L. Meyer & W. E. Ensign, 2006. Importance of riparian forests in urban catchments contingent on sediment and hydrologic regimes. Environmental Management 37: 523–539.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  320. Roy, A. H., B. J. Freeman & M. C. Freeman, 2007. Riparian influence on stream fish assemblage structure in urbanizing streams. Landscape Ecology 22: 385–402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  321. Rundio, D. E., 2009. Community–habitat relationships in coastal streams in Big Sur, California, USA: travertine influences macroinvertebrate abundance and community structure. Hydrobiologia 620: 91–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  322. Rutherford, J. C., N. A. Marsh, P. M. Davies & S. E. Bunn, 2004. Effects of patchy shade on stream water temperature: how quickly do small streams heat and cool? Marine & Freshwater Research 55: 737–748.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  323. Sabater, S., 2008. Alterations of the global water cycle and their effects on river structure, function and services. Freshwater Reviews 1: 75–88.Google Scholar
  324. Sabater, S. & K. Tockner, 2010. Effects of hydrologic alterations in the ecological quality of river ecosystems. In Sabater, S. & D. Barceló (eds), Water Scarcity in Mediterranean Areas. Springer, New York: 15–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  325. Sabater, F., A. Butturini, E. Martí, I. Muñoz, A. Romaní, J. Wray & S. Sabater, 2000. Effects of riparian vegetation removal on nutrient retention in a Mediterranean stream. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 19: 609–620.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  326. Sabater, S., T. Buchaca, J. Cambra, J. Catalan, H. Guasch, N. Ivorra, I. Muñoz, E. Navarro, M. Real & A. Romaní, 2003. Structure and function of benthic algal communities in an extremely acid river. Journal of Phycology 39: 481–489.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  327. Sabater, S., H. Guasch, I. Muñoz & A. Romaní, 2006. Hydrology, light and the use of organic and inorganic materials as structuring factors of biological communities in Mediterranean streams. Limnetica 25: 335–348.Google Scholar
  328. Sabater, S., M. J. Feio, M. A. S. Graça, I. Muñoz & A. Romaní, 2009. The Iberian Rivers. In Tockner, K., U. Uhlinger & C. T. Robinson (eds), Rivers of Europe. Academic Press, Amsterdam: 113–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  329. Sabater, S., J. Artigas, A. Gaudes, I. Muñoz, G. Urrea & A. M. Romaní, 2011. Long-term moderate nutrient inputs enhance autotrophy in a forested Mediterranean stream. Freshwater Biology 56: 1266–1280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  330. Sabo, J. L. & D. M. Post, 2008. Quantifying periodic, stochastic, and catastrophic environmental variation. Ecological Monographs 78: 19–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  331. Sabo, J. L., J. C. Finlay & D. M. Post, 2009. Food chains in freshwaters. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1162: 187–220.Google Scholar
  332. Sabo, J. L., J. C. Finlay, T. Kennedy & D. M. Post, 2010a. The role of discharge variation in scaling of drainage area and food chain length in rivers. Science 330: 965–967.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  333. Sabo, J. S., T. Sinha, L. C. Bowling, G. H. W. Schoups, W. W. Wallender, M. E. Campana, K. A. Cherkauer, P. Fuller, W. L. Graf, J. W. Hopmans, J. S. Kominoski, C. Taylor, S. W. Trimble, R. H. Webb & E. E. Wohl, 2010b. Reclaiming freshwater sustainability in the Cadillac Desert. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 107: 21256–21262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  334. Sabo, J., K. Bestgen, T. Sinha, W. L. Graf & E. E. Wohl, 2012. Dams in the Cadillac Desert: downstream effects in a geomorphic context. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1249: 227–246.Google Scholar
  335. Sala, O. E., F. S. Chapin, J. J. Arnesto, E. Berlow, J. Bloomfield, R. Dirzo, E. Huber-Sannwald, L. F. Huenneke, R. B. Jackson, A. Kinzig, R. Leemans, D. M. Lodge, H. A. Mooney, M. Oesterheld, N. L. Poff, M. T. Sykes, B. H. Walker, M. Walker & D. H. Wall, 2000. Global biodiversity scenarios for the year 2100. Science 287: 1770–1774.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  336. Salinas, M. J. & J. J. Casas, 2007. Riparian vegetation of two semi-arid Mediterranean rivers: basin-scale responses of woody and herbaceous plants to environmental gradients. Wetlands 27: 831–845.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  337. Sampaio, A., R. Cortes & C. Leao, 2001. Invertebrate and microbial colonization in native and exotic leaf litter species in a mountain stream. VI. Decomposition of different leaf species. International Review of Hydrobiology 86: 527–540.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  338. Samways, M. J. & N. J. Sharratt, 2009. Recovery of endemic dragonflies after removal of invasive alien trees. Conservation Biology 24: 267–277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  339. Samways, M. J., N. J. Sharratt & J. P. Simaika, 2011. Effect of alien riparian vegetation and its removal on a highly endemic river macroinvertebrate community. Biological Invasions 13: 1305–1324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  340. Sánchez-Montoya, M. M., T. Puntí, M. L. Suárez, M. D. Vidal-Abarca, M. Rieradevall, J. J. Poquet, C. Zamora-Muñoz, S. Robles, M. Álvarez, J. Alba-Tercedor, M. Toro, A. M. Pujante, A. Munné & N. Prat, 2007. Concordance between ecotypes and macroinvertebrate assemblages in Mediterranean streams. Freshwater Biology 52: 2240–2255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  341. Sánchez-Montoya, M. M., M. R. Vidal-Abarca & M. L. Suárez, 2010. Comparing the sensitivity of diverse macroinvertebrate metrics to a multiple stressor gradient in Mediterranean streams and its influence on the assessment of ecological status. Ecological Indicators 10: 896–904.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  342. Sánchez-Pérez, J. M., M. Gerino, S. Sauvage, P. Dumas, E. Maneux, F. Julien, P. Winterton & P. Vervier, 2009. Effects of wastewater treatment plant pollution on in-stream ecosystems functions in an agricultural watershed. International Journal of Limnology 45: 79–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  343. Schofield, N. J. & J. K. Ruprecht, 1989. Regional analysis of stream salinisation in southwest Western Australia. Journal of Hydrology 112: 19–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  344. Seager, R., M. Ting, I. Held, Y. Kushnir, G. Vecchi, H.-P. Huang, N. Harnik, A. Leetmaa, N.-C. Lau, J. Velez & N. Naik, 2007. Model projections of an imminent transition to a more arid climate in southwestern North America. Science 316: 1181–1184.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  345. Sercu, B., L. C. Van de Werfhorst, J. L. S. Murray & P. A. Holden, 2011. Terrestrial sources homogenize bacterial water quality during rainfall in two urbanized watersheds in Santa Barbara, CA. Microbial Ecology 62: 574–583.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  346. Shakesby, R. A., 2011. Post-wildfire soil erosion in the Mediterranean: review and future research directions. Earth-Science Reviews 105: 71–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  347. Sickman, J. O., A. Leydecker, C. Y. Chang, C. Kendall, J. M. Melack, D. M. Lucero & J. Schimel, 2003. Mechanisms underlying export of N from high-elevation catchments during seasonal transitions. Biogeochemistry 64: 1–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  348. Simonetti, J. A. & L. E. Cornejo. 1990. Economic and ecological changes: the prehistory of the Andean mountains of central Chile. Economic Catalysts to Ecological Changes. Working Papers, Center for Latin American Studies, University of Florida, Gainesville, USA: 65–77.Google Scholar
  349. Simpson, J. C., 2006. The effects of natural and anthropogenic perturbations on stream primary producer communities in southern California. Ph.D. Thesis, University of California, Santa Barbara, USA.Google Scholar
  350. Singer, G. A. & T. J. Battin, 2007. Anthropogenic subsidies alter stream consumer-resource stoichiometry, biodiversity, and food chains. Ecological Applications 17: 376–389.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  351. Sirami, C., A. Nespoulous, J. P. Cheylan, P. Marty, G. T. Hvenegaard, P. Geniez, B. Schatz & J. L. Martin, 2010. Long-term anthropogenic and ecological dynamics of a Mediterranean landscape: impacts on multiple taxa. Landscape and Urban Planning 96: 214–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  352. Skoulikidis, N., A. Economou, K. Gritzalis & S. Zogaris, 2009. Rivers of the Balkans. In Tockner, K., U. Uhlinger & C. T. Robinson (eds), Rivers of Europe. Academic Press, Amsterdam: 421–466.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  353. Solak, C. N. & E. Acs, 2011. Water quality monitoring in European and Turkish rivers using diatoms. Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 11: 329–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  354. Solimini, A. G., P. Gulia, M. Monfrinotti & G. Carchini, 2000. Performance of different biotic indices and sampling methods in assessing water quality in the lowland stretch of the Tiber River. Hydrobiologia 422(423): 197–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  355. Song, M. Y., F. Leprieur, A. Thomas, S. Lek-Ang, T. S. Chon & S. Lek, 2009. Impact of agricultural land use on aquatic insect assemblages in the Garonne river catchment (SW France). Aquatic Ecology 43: 999–1009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  356. Sophocleous, M., 2002. Interactions between groundwater and surface water: the state of the science. Hydrogeology Journal 10: 52–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  357. Sponseller, R. A., E. F. Benfield & H. M. Valett, 2001. Relationships between land use, spatial scale and stream macroinvertebrate communities. Freshwater Biology 46: 1409–1424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  358. Stancheva, R., A. E. Fetscher & R. G. Sheath, 2012. A novel quantification method for stream-inhabiting, non-diatom benthic algae, and its application in bioassessment. Hydrobiologia 684: 225–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  359. Stanley, E. H. & M. W. Doyle, 2003. Trading off: the ecological effects of dam removal. Frontiers in Ecology and Environment 1: 15–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  360. Stein, J. L., 2006. A continental landscape framework for systematic conservation planning for Australian rivers and streams. Ph.D. Thesis, Centre for Resource and Environmental Studies, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia [available on internet at http://hdl.handle.net/1885/49406].
  361. Stevenson, R. J. & S. Sabater, 2010. Understanding global change in river ecosystems: science to support policy in a changing world. Hydrobiologia 657: 3–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  362. Stehr, A., M. Aguayo, O. Link, O. Parra, E. Romero & H. Alcayaga, 2010. Modelling the hydrologic response of a mesoscale Andean watershed to changes in land use patterns for environmental planning. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 14: 1963–1977.Google Scholar
  363. Stipinovich, A., 2005. Change in land cover and water abstraction: Modelling runoff effects in the Bot River catchment. M.A. Thesis, University of Stellenbosch. Stellenbosch, South Africa.Google Scholar
  364. Strayer, D. L., R. E. Beighley, L. C. Thompson, S. Brooks, C. Nilsson, G. Pinay & R. J. Naiman, 2003. Effects of land cover on stream ecosystems: roles of empirical models and scaling issues. Ecosystems 6: 407–423.Google Scholar
  365. Summers, R. N., M. D. A. Bolland & M. P. Clarke, 2001. Effect of application of bauxite residue (red mud) to very sandy soils on subterranean clover and P response. Australian Journal of Soil Research 39: 979–990.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  366. Swift, C. C., T. R. Haglund, M. Ruiz & R. N. Fisher, 1993. The status and distribution of freshwater fishes of southern California. Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences 92: 101–167.Google Scholar
  367. Tague, C., L. Seaby & A. Hope, 2009. Modeling the eco-hydrologic response of a Mediterranean type ecosystem to the combined impacts of projected climate change and altered fire frequencies. Climatic Change 93: 137–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  368. Theodoropoulos, C. & J. Iliopoulou-Georgudaki, 2010. Response of biota to land use changes and water quality degradation in two medium-sized river basins in southwestern Greece. Ecological Indicators 10: 1231–1238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  369. Timbrook, J., J. R. Johnson & D. D. Earle, 1982. Vegetation burning by the Chumash. Journal of California and Great Basin Anthropology 4: 163–186.Google Scholar
  370. Tornés, E. & S. Sabater, 2010. Variable discharge alters habitat suitability for benthic algae and cyanobacteria in a forested Mediterranean stream. Marine & Freshwater Research 61: 441–450.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  371. Tornés, E., J. Cambra, J. Goma, M. Leira, R. Ortiz & S. Sabater, 2007. Indicator taxa of benthic diatom communities: a case study in Mediterranean streams. International Journal of Limnology 43: 1–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  372. Towns, D. R., 1985. Limnological characteristics of a South Australian intermittent stream, Brown Hill Creek. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 36: 821–837.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  373. Towns, D. R., 1991. Ecology of leptocerid caddisfly larvae in an intermittent South Australian stream receiving eucalyptus litter. Freshwater Biology 25: 117–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  374. Townsend, C. R., S. Dolédec, R. Norris, K. Peacock & C. Arbuckle, 2003. The influence of scale and geography on relationships between stream community composition and landscape variables: description and prediction. Freshwater Biology 48: 768–785.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  375. Townsend, C. R., B. J. Downes, K. Peacock & C. J. Arbuckle, 2004. Scale and the detection of land-use effects on morphology, vegetation and macroinvertebrate communities of grassland streams. Freshwater Biology 49: 448–462.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  376. Townsend, C. R., S. S. Uhlmann & C. D. Matthaei, 2008. Individual and combined responses of stream ecosystems to multiple stressors. Journal of Applied Ecology 45: 1810–1819.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  377. Turgut, C., 2003. The contamination with organochlorine pesticides and heavy metals in surface water in Kucuk Menderes River in Turkey, 2000–2001. Environment International 29: 29–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  378. Turner, A. A. & A. L. de Villiers, 2007. Amphibians. In Western Cape Province State of Biodiversity. CapeNature Scientific Services, Cape Town: 36–54.Google Scholar
  379. Underwood, E. C., J. H. Viers, K. R. Klausmeyer, R. L. Cox & M. R. Shaw, 2009. Threats and biodiversity in the mediterranean biome. Diversity and Distributions 15: 188–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  380. Urban, M. C., D. K. Skelly, D. Burchsted, W. Price & S. Lowry, 2006. Stream communities across a rural–urban landscape gradient. Diversity and Distributions 12: 337–350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  381. Urrea-Clos, G. 2010. Distribution of diatom communities in agricultural and mining watersheds of Southwest Spain. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Girona, Girona, Spain.Google Scholar
  382. Urrutia, R. B., A. Lara, R. Villalba, D. A. Christie, C. Le Quesne & A. Cuq, 2011. Multicentury tree ring reconstruction of annual streamflow for the Maule River watershed in south central Chile. Water Resources Research 47: W06527.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  383. Valdovinos, C., 2001. Riparian leaf litter processing by benthic macroinvertebrates in a woodland stream of central Chile. Revista Chilena de Historia Natural 74: 445–453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  384. Van de Wouw, P., C. Echeverria, J. M. Rey-Benayas & M. Holmgren, 2011. Persistent Acacia savannas replace Mediterranean sclerophyllous forests in South America. Forest Ecology and Management 262: 1100–1108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  385. van Ommen, T. D. & V. Morgan, 2010. Snowfall increase in coastal East Antarctica linked with southwest Western Australia drought. Nature Geoscience 3: 267–272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  386. Verkaik, I., M. Rieradevall, S. D. Cooper, J. M. Melack, T. L. Dudley & N. Prat, 2012. Fire as a disturbance in mediterranean climate streams. Hydrobiologia, this issue.Google Scholar
  387. Vidal, M. A., E. R. Soto & A. Veloso, 2009. Biogeography of Chilean herpetofauna: distributional patterns of species richness and endemism. Amphibia-Reptilia 30: 151–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  388. Vila-Gispert, A., E. García-Berthou & R. Moreno-Amich, 2002. Fish zonation in a Mediterranean stream: effects of human disturbances. Aquatic Science 64: 163–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  389. Von Schiller, D., E. Martí, J. L. Riera & F. Sabater, 2007. Effects of nutrients and light on periphyton biomass and nitrogen uptake in Mediterranean streams with contrasting land uses. Freshwater Biology 52: 891–906.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  390. Von Schiller, D., E. Martí, J. L. Riera, M. Ribot, J. C. Marks & F. Sabater, 2008. Influence of land use on stream ecosystem function in a Mediterranean catchment. Freshwater Biology 53: 2600–2621.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  391. Waite, I. R., L. R. Brown, J. G. Kennen, J. T. May, T. F. Cuffney, J. L. Orlando & K. A. Jones, 2010. Comparison of watershed disturbance predictive models for stream benthic macroinvertebrates for three distinct ecoregions in western US. Ecological Indicators 10: 1125–1136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  392. Walker, J. S., N. B. Grimm, J. M. Briggs, C. Gries & L. Dugan, 2009. Effects of urbanization on plant species diversity in central Arizona. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 7: 465–470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  393. Walsh, C. J. & J. Kunapo, 2009. The importance of upland flow paths in determining urban impacts on stream ecosystems. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 28: 977–990.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  394. Walsh, C. J., A. H. Roy, J. W. Feminella, P. D. Cottingham & P. M. Groffman, 2005. The urban stream syndrome: current knowledge and the search for a cure. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 24: 706–723.Google Scholar
  395. Walsh, C., M. Stewardson, J. Stein & S. Wealands, 2007. Sustainable rivers audit filters project stage 2. Report Prepared by the University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia for the Murray Darling Basin Commission, Canberra City, Australia.Google Scholar
  396. Walters, D. M., A. H. Roy & D. S. Leigh, 2009. Environmental indicators of macroinvertebrate and fish assemblage integrity in urbanizing watersheds. Ecological Indicators 9: 122–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  397. Wang, L., J. Lyons, P. Kanehl & R. Bannerman, 2001. Impacts of urbanization on stream habitat and fish across multiple scales. Environmental Management 28: 255–266.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  398. Wang, L., J. Lyons, P. Rasmussen, P. Seelbach, T. Simon, M. Wiley, P. Kanehl, E. Baker, S. Niemela & P. M. Stewart, 2003. Watershed, reach, and riparian influences on stream fish assemblages in the Northern Lakes and Forest Ecoregion, USA. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 60: 491–505.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  399. Warner, R. E. & K. M. Hendrix, 1984. California Riparian Systems: Ecology, Conservation, and Productive Management. UC Press, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  400. Williams, W. D., R. G. Taaffe & A. J. Boulton, 1991. Longitudinal distribution of macroinvertebrates in two rivers subject to salinization. Hydrobiologia 210: 151–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  401. Wohl, E., P. L. Angermeier, B. Bledsoe, G. M. Kondolf, L. MacDonnell, D. M. Merritt, M. A. Palmer, N. L. Poff & D. Tarboton, 2005. River restoration. Water Resources Research 41: W10301.Google Scholar
  402. Woodford, D. J., N. D. Impson, J. A. Day & R. Bills, 2010. The predatory impact of invasive alien smallmouth bass, Micropterus dolomieu (Teleostei: Centrarchidae), on indigenous fishes in a Cape Floristic Region mountain stream. African Journal of Aquatic Science 30: 167–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  403. Wright, J. F., D. Moss, P. D. Armitage & M. T. Furse, 1984. A preliminary classification of running-water sites in Great Britain based on macro-invertebrate species and the prediction of community type using environmental data. Freshwater Biology 14: 221–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  404. Yates, A. G. & R. C. Bailey, 2010. Covarying patterns of macroinvertebrate and fish assemblages along natural and human activity gradients: implications for bioassessment. Hydrobiologia 637: 87–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  405. Yates, A. G. & R. C. Bailey, 2011. Effects of taxonomic group, spatial scale and descriptor on the relationship between human activity and stream biota. Ecological Indicators 11: 759–771.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  406. Zogaris, S., A. N. Economou & P. Dimopoulos, 2009. Ecoregions in the southern Balkans: should their boundaries be revised? Environmental Management 43: 682–697.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Scott D. Cooper
    • 1
  • P. Sam Lake
    • 2
  • Sergi Sabater
    • 3
    • 4
  • John M. Melack
    • 1
  • John L. Sabo
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Ecology, Evolution and Marine BiologyUniversity of CaliforniaSanta BarbaraUSA
  2. 2.Australian Centre for Biodiversity, School of Biological SciencesMonash UniversityMelbourneAustralia
  3. 3.Institute of Aquatic EcologyUniversity of GironaGironaSpain
  4. 4.Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA)GironaSpain
  5. 5.School of Life SciencesArizona State UniversityTempeUSA

Personalised recommendations