Assessing lake typologies and indicator fish species for Italian natural lakes using past fish richness and assemblages
- 332 Downloads
In order to establish a fish-based typology of Italian lakes and identify possible reference and indicator fish species for each lake type, we analysed historical data on fish assemblages of all Italian natural lakes >0.5 km2 from the period prior to the major decline in water quality in the 1950s. General linear regression models showed the ecoregion and lake altitude being the best predictors of fish species richness. The number of species was significantly higher in the Alpine than in the Mediterranean ecoregion. Among Alpine lakes, the number of fish species increased significantly with lake volume whilst decreased with altitude. In the Mediterranean lakes, none of the selected parameters was significant. Cluster analysis of fish assemblages (presence/absence) divided the lakes of the Alpine and Mediterranean ecoregions into four and two types, respectively. Pike (Esox lucius), rudd (Scardinius erythrophthalmus) and tench (Tinca tinca) were the main indicator species for the small and mostly shallow lakes in both the Alpine (Type 1) and Mediterranean (Type 6) ecoregions, minnow (Phoxinus phoxinus) for the alpine high altitude lakes (Type 2) and landlocked shad (Alosa fallax lacustris), European whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus) and burbot (Lota lota) for the large and very deep alpine lakes (Type 4). The European whitefish was the only indicator species for the deep Mediterranean lakes (Type 5). These species and associated fish assemblages may be useful indicators in future assessments of the ecological status of Italian lakes according to the European Directives (2000/60/EC and 2008/105/EC).
KeywordsFish fauna Biodiversity Bioindicators Reference conditions Biomonitoring Pollutants
P. Volta (PV) and E. Jeppesen (EJ) were partially funded by the EU-FP7 WISER project; PV also by LIFE+ INHABIT and CIPAIS (Commissione Internazionale per la Protezione delle Acque Italo-Svizzere), and EJ also by EU-FP7 REFRESH, CRES and The Danish Council for Independent Research: Natural Sciences (272-08-0406). We thank Anne Mette Poulsen for most valuable editorial comments and the two anonymous referees for the valuable comments which improved the manuscript importantly.
- Abell, M., M. L. Thieme, C. Revenga, M. Bryer, M. Kottelat, N. Bugutskaya, B. Coad, N. Mandrak, S. Contreras Balderas, W. Bussing, M. L. J. Stiassny, P. Skelton, G. R. Allen, P. Unmack, A. Naseka, R. Ng, N. Sindorf, J. Robestson, E. Armijo, J. V. Higgins, T. J. Heibel, E. Wikramanayake, D. Olson, H. L. Lopez, R. E. Reis, J. G. Lundberg, M. H. Sabaj Perez & P. Petry, 2008. Freshwater ecoregions of the world: a new map of biogeographic units for freshwater biodiversity conservation. BioScience 403: 403–414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Albert, J. S. & W. G. Crampton, 2010. Geography and ecology of diversification in Neotropical freshwaters. Nature Education Knowledge 1: 13.Google Scholar
- Argillier, C., O. Pronier & P. Irz, 2002. A typology of fish communities in French lakes. II. Fish assemblages in lakes below 1500 m in altitude. Bulletin Francaise Pęche Pisciculture 365–366: 365–366.Google Scholar
- Becker, R. A., J. M. Chambers & A. R. Wilks, 1988. The New S Language: A Programming Environment for Data Analysis and Graphics. Wadsworth & Brooks/Cole, Pacific Grove, CA.Google Scholar
- Belpaire, C. & G. Goemans, 2007. The European eel Anguilla anguilla, a rapporteur of the chemical status for the water framework directive? Vie et Milieu – Life and Environment 57: 235–252.Google Scholar
- Bettinetti, R., S. Galassi, S. Quadroni, P. Volta, E. Ciccotti, F. Capoccioni & G. A. De Leo, 2010. Use of Anguilla anguilla for biomonitoring persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in brackish and riverine waters in Central and Southern Italy. Water Air & Soil Pollution. doi: 10.1007/s11270-010-0590-y.
- EU, 2000. Directive 2000/60/EC of the European Parliament and the Council of 23 October 2000 establishing a framework for community action in the field of water policy. The European Parliament and the Council of the European Union, Brussels: 72 pp.Google Scholar
- EU, 2008. Directive 2008/105/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 December 2008 on environmental quality standards in the field of water policy, amending and subsequently repealing Council Directives 82/176/EEC, 83/513/EEC, 84/156/EEC, 84/491/EEC, 86/280/EEC and amending Directive 2000/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council. The European Parliament and the Council of the European Union, Brussels: 14 pp.Google Scholar
- Galassi, S. & R. Cassi, 2001. Key species for monitoring persistent and bioaccumulable pesticides. Fresenius Environmental Bulletin 10: 451–454.Google Scholar
- Gandolfi, G., S. Zerunian, P. Torricelli & A. Marconato, 1991. I Pesci delle acque interne italiane. Istituto Poligrafico e Zecca dello Stato (Eds), Rome.Google Scholar
- Gassner, H. & J. Wanzenböck, 2007. Application of population size structure indices to Austrian whitefish (Coregonus sp.) stocks. Fundamental and Applied Limnology. Special Issues: Advances in Limnology 60: 377–384.Google Scholar
- Guilizzoni, P., G. Bonomi, G. Galanti & D. Ruggiu, 1982. Basic trophic status and recent development of some Italian Lakes as revealed by plant pigments and other chemical components in sediment cores. Memorie dell’Istituto italiano di Idrobiologia 40: 79–98.Google Scholar
- Heino, J., T. Eros, J. Kotanen & M. Rask, 2010. Describing lake fish communities: do presence-absence and biomass data show similar spatial and environmental relationships? Boreal Environmental Research 15: 69–80.Google Scholar
- Lorenzoni, M., R. Pace, G. Pedicillo, P. Viali & A. Carosi, 2009. Growth, catches and reproductive biology of ruffe Gymnocephalus cernuus in Lake Piediluco (Umbria, Italy). Folia Zoologica 58: 420–435.Google Scholar
- Marchetto, F., S. Zaccara, F. M. Muenzel & W. Salzburger, 2010. Phylogeography of the Italian vairone (Telestes muticellus, Bonaparte 1837) inferred by microsatellite markers: evolutionary history of a freshwater fish species with a restricted and fragmented distribution. BMC Evolutionary Biology 10: 111.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Margaritora, F. G., 1992. Limnology in Latium: the volcanic lakes. Memorie dell’Istituto Italiano di Idrobiologia 50: 319–336.Google Scholar
- R Development Core Team, 2010. R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. ISBN 3-900051-07-0, URL:http://www.R-project.org.
- Reyjol, Y., B. Hugueny, D. Pont, P. G. Bianco, U. Beier, N. Caiola, F. Casals, I. Cowx, A. Economou, T. Ferreira, G. Haidvogl, R. Noble, A. de Sostoa, T. Vigneron & T. Virbickas, 2007. Patterns in species richness and endemism of European freshwater fish. Global Ecology and Biogeography 16: 65–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Steedman, R. J., T. H. Whillans, A. P. Behm, K. E. Bray, K. I. Cullis, M. M. Holland, S. J. Stoddart & R. J. White, 1996. Use of historical information for conservation and restoration of Great Lakes aquatic habitat. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 53: 415–423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Tartari, G., E. Buraschi, C. Monguzzi, A. Marchetto, D. Copetti, L. Previtali, S. Taiti, G. Barbiero & R. Pagnotta, 2004. Progetto Limno: Qualità delle Acque Lacustri italiane, Vol. 1. Sintesi dei risultati. Quaderni IRSA 120: 1–333.Google Scholar
- Tortonese, E., 1971. Osteichthyes, parte I. Fauna d’Italia, Vol. X. Calderini, Bologna.Google Scholar
- Tortonese, E., 1975. Osteichthyes, parte II. Fauna d’Italia, Vol. XI. Calderini, Bologna.Google Scholar
- Volta, P., 2010. Analysis of the population structure of Coregonus lavaretus (Linneus 1758) in three deep Italian lakes using stock density indexes. Studi Trentini Scienze Naturali 87: 257–260.Google Scholar
- Volta, P. & G. Giussani, 2010. Weight–length relationships (WLRs) and von Bertalanffy growth function (VBGF) parameters of Alosa agone, Rutilus pigus and the anadromous Salmo trutta from a deep south-alpine lake: Lago Maggiore (northern Italy). Journal of Applied Ichthyology 26: 474–476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Volta, P. & N. Jepsen, 2008. The recent invasion of Rutilus rutilus (L.) (Pisces: Cyprinidae) in a large South-Alpine lake: Lago Maggiore. Journal of Limnology 67: 163–170.Google Scholar
- Volta, P. & A. Oggioni, 2010. Key- and type-specific fish species in natural lakes of Italian Alpine ecoregion reconstructed from historical data: a preliminary index to assess the quality status of fish fauna according to WFD 2000/60/CE. Studi Trentini Scienze Naturali 87: 97–104. in Italian.Google Scholar
- Wetzel, R. G., 1975. Limnology. W. B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia/London/Toronto.Google Scholar
- WFD CIS, 2003. Rivers and lakes – typology, reference conditions and classification systems. In: Guidance Document No. 10. Published by the Directorate General Environment the European Commission, Brussels.Google Scholar