Effects of travertine and flow on leaf retention in Fossil Creek, Arizona
Leaf retention is important in transferring energy from riparian trees to stream food webs. Retention increases with geomorphic complexity such as substrate coarseness, sinuosity, and the presence of debris dams. High discharge can reduce retention, particularly when streams lack physical trapping features. Travertine formations, caused by calcium carbonate deposition, can alter stream morphology. To date, however, we know of no study testing the effect of travertine on leaf retention. This study capitalized on a river restoration project in Fossil Creek, Arizona, where water was returned to the channel after a century of diversion. We examined how the fixed factors Flow (before and after restoration) and Morphology (travertine and riffle-pool sites) affected leaf retention. Leaf retention was higher in sites where travertine forms barriers across the river, relative to sites with riffle-pool morphology. Most leaves retained in travertine reaches were concentrated at the bottom of pools formed between dams. Although flow restoration did not alter retention rates across all sites, it diminished them at travertine sites, indicating an interaction between stream flow and morphology. We conclude that stream complexity and leaf retention are enhanced by travertine deposition but that high discharge can reduce the retentive capacity of in-stream structures.
KeywordsLeaf retention Flow restoration Travertine CPOM Fossil Creek
We thank the following organizations for financial support: National Science Foundation (Ecosystem and Ecology Panels), Nina Mason Pulliam Charitable Trust, and the Ecological Restoration Institute at Northern Arizona University. The Meriam-Powell Center for Environmental Research provided access to their lab and equipment and The Arboretum at Flagstaff kindly contributed a portion of our leaves. Additionally, Leonard Sklar’s research group at San Francisco State University helped with morphological measurements. Finally, the project could not have been completed without help from James Weatherill, Greg Hitzroth, Katherine Sides, Stephen Penrod, David Sides, Hadley Austin, Brenda Harrop, Ken and Tina Adams, Eric Dinger, Jacob and Matthew Higgins, Kathryn Skinner, Chris Cooper, Mari Olson, Rhett, Catherine, Josh and Nancy Eisenberg, Jerry Harris, James Roemer, Olive Mier-Holland and Robert, Sandra, Cady, and Wright Mier.
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