Skip to main content

Advertisement

Log in

Abiotic factors influencing cyanobacterial bloom development in the Gulf of Finland (Baltic Sea)

  • Primary research paper
  • Published:
Hydrobiologia Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

Blooms of cyanobacteria are a recurrent phenomenon in the Baltic Sea, including the Gulf of Finland. The spatial extension, duration, intensity and species composition of these blooms varies widely between years. Alg@line data collected regularly from ferries as well as weather service and marine monitoring data from 1997 to 2005 are analysed to determine the main abiotic factors influencing the intensity and species composition of cyanobacterial blooms in the Gulf of Finland. It is demonstrated that the development of the Nodularia spumigena Mertens bloom is highly dependent on weather conditions such as photosynthetically active radiation and water temperature. Nutrient conditions, especially the surplus of phosphorus (according to Redfield ratio) related to the pre-bloom upwelling events in the Gulf, affect the intensity of Aphanizomenon sp. (L.) Ralfs blooms. Differences in bloom timing and duration indicate that, if the preconditions (like nutrient ratio/concentration and weather conditions) for bloom formation are favourable, then the Aphanizomenon bloom starts earlier, the overall bloom period is longer and the Nodularia peak might appear in a wider time window.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  • Bianchi, T. S., P. Westman & C. Rolff, 2000. Cyanobacterial blooms in the Baltic Sea: natural or human induced? Limnology and Oceanography 45: 716–726.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • BMEPC, 1983. Guidelines for the Baltic monitoring programme for the second stage. Baltic Sea Environment Proceedings, Vol. 12. Baltic Marine Environment Protection Commission, Helsinki.

  • Clarke, K. R., & R. M. Warwik, 2001. Change in marine communities: an approach to statistical analysis and interpretation, 2nd edn. PRIMER-E, Plymouth.

  • Finni, T., K. Kononen, R. Olsonen & K. Wallström, 2001. The history of cyanobacterial blooms in the Baltic Sea. Ambio 30: 172–178.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Galat, D. L. & J. P. Verdin, 1989. Patchiness, collapse and succession of a cyanobacterial bloom evaluated by synoptic sampling and remote sensing. Journal of Plankton Research 11: 925–948.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Granéli, E., K. Wallström, U. Larsson, W. Granéli & R. Elmgren, 1990. Nutrient limitation of primary production in the Baltic Sea area. Ambio 19: 142–151.

    Google Scholar 

  • HELCOM, 2002. Environment of the Baltic Sea Area 1994–1998. Baltic Sea Environmental Proceedings 82B.

  • Huber, A. L., 1984. Nodularia (Cyanobacteriaceae) akinetes in the sediments of the Peel-Harvey estuary, Western Australia: potential inoculum source for Nodularia blooms. Applied Environmental Microbiology 47: 234–238.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Kahru, M., J.-M. Leppänen, O. Rud & O. P. Savchuk, 2000. Cyanobacteria blooms in the Gulf of Finland triggered by saltwater inflow into the Baltic Sea. Marine Ecology Progress Series 207: 13–18.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kanoshina, I., U. Lips & J.-M. Leppänen, 2003. The influence of weather conditions (temperature and wind) on cyanobacterial bloom development in the Gulf of Finland (Baltic Sea). Harmful Algae 2: 29–41.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kononen, K., J. Kuparinen, K. Mäkela, J. Laanemets, J. Pavelson & S. Nõmmann, 1996. Initiation of cyanobacterial blooms in a frontal region at the entrance of the Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea. Limnology and Oceanography 41: 98–112.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Kononen, K. & J.-M. Leppänen, 1997. Patchiness, scales and controlling mechanisms of cyanobacterial blooms in the Baltic Sea: application of a multiscale research strategy. In Kahru, M. & Ch. W. Brown (eds), Monitoring Algal Blooms: New Techniques for Detecting Large-Scale Environmental Change. Landes Biosience, Austin, TX USA: 63–84.

    Google Scholar 

  • Laanemets, J., K. Kononen, J. Pavelson & E.-L. Poutanen, 2004. Vertical location of seasonal nutriclines in the western Gulf of Finland. Journal of Marine Systems 52: 1–13.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Laanemets, J., M.-J. Lilover, U. Raudsepp, R. Autio, E. Nyman, I. Lips & U. Lips, 2006. A fuzzy logic model to describe the cyanobacteria Nodularia spumigena bloom in the Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea. Hydrobiologia 554: 31–45.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Larsson, U., S. Hajdu, J. Walve & R. Elmgren, 2001. Baltic Sea nitrogen fixation estimated from the summer increase in upper mixed layer total nitrogen. Limnology and Oceanography 46: 811–820.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Lehtimäki, J., P. Moisander, K. Sivonen & K. Kononen, 1997. Growth, nitrogen fixation and nodularin production by two Baltic Sea cyanobacteria. Applied Environmental Microbiology 63: 1647–1656.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lignell, R., J. Seppälä, P. Kuuppo, T. Tamminen, T. Andersen & I. Gismervik, 2003. Beyond bulk properties: responses of coastal summer plankton communities to nutrient enrichment in the northern Baltic Sea. Limnology and Oceanography 48(1): 189–209.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lips, U., H. Pitkänen, E.-L. Poutanen, P. Kauppila & S. Basova, 2002. Hydrochemistry of the Gulf of Finland. In: Environment of the Baltic Sea area 1994–1998. Baltic Sea Environment Proceedings 82B: 76–78.

  • Myrberg, K. & O. Andrejev, 2003. Main upwelling regions in the Baltic Sea–a statistical analysis based on three-dimensional modelling. Boreal Environment Research 8: 97–112.

    Google Scholar 

  • Niemi, Å., 1979. Blue-green algal blooms and N:P ratio in the Baltic Sea. Acta Botanica Fennica 110: 57–61.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Niemistö, L., I. Rinne, T. Melvasalo & Å. Niemi, 1989. Blue-green algae and their nitrogen fixation in the Baltic Sea in 1980, 1982 and 1984. Meri 17: 1–59.

    Google Scholar 

  • Poutanen, E.-L. & K. Nikkilä, 2001. Carotenoid pigments as tracers of cyanobacterial blooms in recent and post-glacial sediments of the Baltic Sea. Ambio 30: 179–183.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Russak, V. & A. Kallis, 2003. Handbook of Estonian Solar Radiation. Iloprint, Tallinn: 384.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sellner, K. G., 1997. Physiology, ecology, and toxic properties of marine cyanobacteria blooms. Limnology and Oceanography 42: 1089–1104.

    Google Scholar 

  • Stal, L. J., P. Albertano, B. Bergman, K. von Bröckel, J. R. Gallon, P. K. Hayes, K. Sivonen & A. E. Walsby, 2003. BASIC: Baltic Sea Cyanobacteria. An investigation of the structure and dynamics of water blooms of cyanobacteria in the Baltic Sea–responses to a changing environment. Continental Shelf Research 23: 1695–1714.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Utermöhl, H., 1958. Zur Vervollkommnung der quantitativen Phytoplanktonmetodic. Mittelungen des Internationale Vereinigung für Theoretische und Angewandte Limnologie 9: 1–38.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wasmund, N., 1997. Occurrence of cyanobacterial blooms in the Baltic Sea in relation to environmental conditions. International Revues Gesamten Hydrobiol 82: 69–184.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

This work was financially supported by the Estonian Ministry of Environment, the Finnish Ministry of Environment, and the EU projects FerryBox (EVK2-2001-00230) and HABES (EVK2-CT-2000-00092). The support of Silja Line and Tallink Group made ferry recordings accessible. The authors sincerely thank colleagues who participated in the Alg@line project. We wish to thank an anonymous reviewer and Associated Editor David Hamilton for valuable comments on the manuscript.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Inga Lips.

Additional information

Handling editor: K. Martens

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Lips, I., Lips, U. Abiotic factors influencing cyanobacterial bloom development in the Gulf of Finland (Baltic Sea). Hydrobiologia 614, 133–140 (2008). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10750-008-9449-2

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10750-008-9449-2

Keywords

Navigation