, Volume 599, Issue 1, pp 13–21 | Cite as

Pollen, diatom and plant macrofossil assemblages indicate a low water level phase of Lake Peipsi at the beginning of the Holocene

  • Tiit HangEmail author
  • Volli Kalm
  • Kersti Kihno
  • Martynas Milkevičius
ELLS 2007


During the Fennoscandian ice recession from the eastern Baltic area, the water level in the Lake Peipsi basin was decreasing and reached a minimum at the end of the Younger Dryas Chronozone. The low lake level episode is represented in the basal deposits by a ca. 0.8 m thick bed of coarse detritus gyttja dated to 9.6–9.1 ka 14C BP. The gyttja lies at an elevation of 20–21 m a.s.l., i.e. about 9 m below the present lake level (30 m a.s.l.), and is buried under a 1.5–2 m bed of fine to medium-grained sand. The overall pollen data indicate a shallow-water littoral environment during the gyttja accumulation in the area studied. The diatom flora in the gyttja is dominated by shallow-water benthic and epiphytic taxa, indicating eutrophic littoral conditions at the time of gyttja accumulation. In the uppermost portion of the gyttja sequence the pollen and diatom successions indicate a short period of land emergence when swampy conditions prevailed in the surroundings.


Diatoms Pollen Plant macrofossils Lake Peipsi Buried organic beds Lake level change Early Holocene 



This article derives from the project supported by Estonian Science Foundation Grant 5370, Estonian target funding project 0182530s03 and University of Tartu project PFLAJ 05909. We thank S. Hiie for identification of plant macrofossils and C.J. Caseldine and M. Kuura for improving the language. The journal reviewers and the guest editor of the current issue, H. Simola, are acknowledged for valuable criticisms.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tiit Hang
    • 1
    Email author
  • Volli Kalm
    • 1
  • Kersti Kihno
    • 2
  • Martynas Milkevičius
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of GeologyUniversity of TartuTartuEstonia
  2. 2.Department of HistoryUniversity of TartuTartuEstonia

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