The recent spread of Artemia parthenogenetica in Western Australia
In Western Australia, populations of Artemia parthenogenetica in coastal salt lakes at Rottnest Island and Lake Hayward, and in salterns at Port Hedland and Shark Bay, are widely accepted to have been introduced by humans. Further, within the past 10 years, populations of A. parthenogenetica have been found in inland playa salt lakes in the wheatbelt of south-west Western Australia, where none had been recorded in previous salt lake studies. Here we hypothesise that birds act as transport vectors for Artemia cysts both within Australia and between the Asian and Australian continents. Allozyme analysis was used to identify clonal types (multi-locus genotypes), clonal frequencies, genotypic diversities and genotypic identity of six populations (three coastal, three inland).
Overall, the inland populations displayed almost identical genotypic structure to the coastal population from Lake Hayward, indicating that Lake Hayward could be the major source for dispersal and colonisation of inland populations. Results support the hypothesis of dispersal inland by nomadic bird species. Furthermore, evidence suggests that the inland and Lake Hayward populations may be an example of a metapopulation.
The greater variety of genotypes present in the Rottnest population indicates that this population has received a large number of small immigrations, or that it received one large introduction. The former may indicate a long period of suitable salinities, providing a greater time-span over which migration and succession of clonal types could occur in comparison to other populations. While we cannot rule out the possibility of human introduction of A. parthenogenetica to Rottnest, the hypothesis of cyst dispersal along the Austral-Asian flyway remains possible.
KeywordsClones Genotypes Immigration Secondary salinisation
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Anon., 1999. “Shark Bay Salt Production” (CWR Contract Research), (Last updated 17.9.99), Available: http://www.cwr.uwa.edu.au/~contract/Current_projects/sharkbay.html (Accessed: 01.11.01).
- Anon., 2001a. “Australian Dryland Salinity Assessment 2000: Western Australia” (Program of the Natural Heritage Trust, Commonwealth of Australia), (Last updated Jan 2001), Available: http://audit.ea.gov.au/ANRA/land/docs/national/Salinity_Contents.html (Accessed 13.12.02).
- Anon., 2001b. “Salt” (Chamber of Minerals and Energy), Available: http://www.mineralswa.asn.au/~cmesalt/page2.html (Accessed: 02.11.01).
- Abreu-Grobois, F. A. & J. A. Beardmore, 1980. International study on Artemia II. Genetic characterisation of Artemia populations – an electrophoretic approach. In Persoone, G., P. Sorgeloos, O. Roels & E. Jaspers (eds), The Brine Shrimp Artemia Vol. 1. Morphology, Genetics, Radiobiology, Toxicology. Universa Press, Wetteren, Belgium, 133–146.Google Scholar
- Blakers, M., S. J. J. F. Davies & P. N. Reilly, 1984. The Atlas of Australian Birds. Melbourne University Press, Melbourne.Google Scholar
- Browne, R. A., 1992. Population genetics and ecology of Artemia: insights into parthenogenetic reproduction. TREE 7: 232–237.Google Scholar
- Edward, D. H. & J. A. L. Watson, 1959. Fresh water and brackish water swamps of Rottnest Island. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 42: 85–86.Google Scholar
- Elphick, J. (eds), 1995. Collins Atlas of Bird Migration: Tracing the Great Journeys of the World’s Birds. Harper Collins Publishers, United Kingdom.Google Scholar
- Geddes, M. C. & W. D. Williams, 1987. Comments on Artemia introductions and the need for conservation. In Sorgeloos, P., D. A. Bengtson, W. Decleir & E. Jaspers (eds), Artemia Research and its Applications. Vol. 3. Ecology, Culturing, Use in Aquaculture. Universa Press, Wetteren, Belgium, 19–26.Google Scholar
- Gilpin, M. E., 1991. The genetic effective size of a metapopulation. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 42: 165–175.Google Scholar
- Hebert, P. D. N. & M. J. Beaton, 1993. Methodologies for Allozyme Analysis Using Cellulose Acetate Electrophoresis. Department of Zoology, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario.Google Scholar
- Higgins, P. J. & S. J. J. F. Davies (eds), 1996. Handbook of Australian, New Zealand & Antarctic Birds, Vols. 2&3. Oxford University Press, Melbourne.Google Scholar
- Lawrence, C., 1993. The introduction and translocation of fish, crustaceans and molluscs in Western Australia. Fisheries Management Paper No. 58. Fisheries Department of Western Australia.Google Scholar
- Jaensch, R. & R. Vervest, 1987. Waterbirds at Lake MacLeod and Shark Bay W.A. Western Australian Bird Notes 44: 1–3.Google Scholar
- Levins, R., 1969. Some demographic and genetic consequences of environmental heterogeneity for biological control. Bulletin of the Entomological Society 15: 237–240.Google Scholar
- Levins, R., 1970. Lecture notes on mathematics in the life sciences. In Gerstenhaber, M. (ed), Some Mathematical Questions in Biology. The American Mathematical Society, 75–107.Google Scholar
- Pringle, J. D., 1987. The Shorebirds of Australia. Angus and Robertson Publishers, London.Google Scholar
- Richardson, B. J., P. R. Baverstock & M. Adams, 1986. Allozyme Electrophoresis. Academic Press, Sydney.Google Scholar
- Sayce, O. A., 1903. The Phyllopoda of Australia, including descriptions of some new genera and species. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria, 15: 224–261 + 10 plates.Google Scholar
- Stoddart, J. A., 1983. A genotypic diversity measure. Journal of Heredity 74: 489–490.Google Scholar
- Vanhaecke, P., W. Tackaert & P. Sorgeloos, 1987. The biogeography of Artemia: an updated review. In Sorgeloos, P., D. A. Bengtson, W. Decleir & E. Jaspers (eds), Artemia Research and its Applications, Vol. 1. Universa Press, Wetteren, Belgium: 129–155.Google Scholar