Constructing Gender Incommensurability in Competitive Sport: Sex/Gender Testing and the New Regulations on Female Hyperandrogenism

Abstract

The segregation of the sexes in sport still seems to be regarded as a matter of course. In contrast to other performance classes, e.g., age and weight, which are constructed on the grounds of directly relevant performance features, in the case of gender it is dealt with the merely statistical factor that women on average perform less well than men. And yet unlike weight or age classes, which can be interchanged if the required performances are provided, the segregation between the sexes in many types of sport seems to be quite impermeable. Contrary to popular beliefs women were not excluded from the beginning of modern sport. Hence, the meaning of gender differences varies in the course of time and in types of sport. Thus, this paper firstly gives a short summary of the different relevance of gender differences in high performance competitions of various types of sport. Then the historical construction of gender as central dimension in modern sport will be illustrated by using the example of soccer. Here in this paper, the elaborate processes of reproducing this incommensurability between women and men in sport is the main focus: At first big sport organisations tried to exclude women whose performances were well above the expectations by establishing so called “Gender verifications” which suspected them of fraud. Although it became certain that there is no clear differentiation between the sexes, gender segregation was not abolished. Instead new regulations have been invented to treat and “normalise” people who are difficult to categorise, e.g., transsexuals and women with Hyperandrogenism, in order to subsume them into the existent gender categories. So finally, gender segregation in sport seems to be just another example for Goffman’s institutional reflexivity: While the separation of the competitions are said to be a natural consequence of the differences between men and women, it actually is just a tool to create those differences.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1

Notes

  1. 1.

    The principle of performance and the comparison of performances also play an important role in other sections of modern meritocracies, yet no other social field besides sports is mainly structured through the principle of performance. Thus, neither the field of science nor that of art are organised by performance classes. Although there are rankings in science and art, these are not primary and socially accepted goals which are pursued by scientists and artists, as both fields can basically work without competition.

  2. 2.

    On the contingency of a social categorization of people, see Lamont and Molnár (2002), Hirschauer (2014), and Jenkins (2000).

  3. 3.

    Furthermore, there are of course differences between countries or rather global regions.

  4. 4.

    Thus, for example in softball, which is the female version of baseball, consequently softer and slower balls need to be thrown in a different way. Another example is women’s ice hockey where tackling (physical contact) is forbidden, in contrast to the men’s version in which this is a constitutive part of the game.

  5. 5.

    Besides the differentiation between various types of sport, sports are usually subdivided into recreational sports or mass sports, fitness and exercise, competitive sports as well as high-performance sports.

  6. 6.

    Not the case in the USA, Norway and China (see Guttmann 2002).

  7. 7.

    Interestingly, in Germany, women’s football was not forbidden until 1955, shortly after the men won the world cup in 1954, which lead to a football euphoria (see Hoffmann and Nendza 2005: 26f.; Novak 1999: 493).

  8. 8.

    For a long time, the idea of men and women competing against each other was so inconceivable that formal provisions were not even necessary to enforce segregation. This gap only became apparent in 2004, when the Mexican female soccer player Maribel Dominguez signed a two-year-contract at a male second division club.

  9. 9.

    A basic alternative to create separate performance classes would be the handicap principle, which helps, for instance in golf or during horse racing, to level the different performances into a heterogenous field of participants.

  10. 10.

    Interestingly, however, not all categorisation features with a solid everyday life embedded benefit receipt are in fact used to form performance classes. While for example disabled athletes are almost entirely excluded and are confined to their own competitions (see Wedemeyer-Kolwe 2011), in many sports, a visual coherence between skin colour and athletic performance does not result in a so-called “colour line” (anymore) (see Miller 2004).

  11. 11.

    Until recently, this was also true for transsexuals (see 2.2 and Wiederkehr 2012: 37ff.).

  12. 12.

    Such stories and rumours in the world of sports were circulating especially since the 1930 s, and many cases have not been cleared to this day (see Bausenwein and Schwanitz 1975: 127). For instance, it remains unclear how many cases really existed and if these concerned men dressed up as women or maybe transsexual or intersexual people (see Wedemeyer-Kolwe 2014: 96f.). Famous and to this day unsolved examples are the British athlete Mary Weston, the Polish US-American runner Stella Walsh as well as the German high jumper Dora (alias Hermann) Ratjen (Dowling 2002: 201f.; Ferris 1992: 685f.; Jörgensen and Eberle 1975: 2ff.; Heggie 2010; Welzel 2000).

  13. 13.

    Correspondingly, the US-American author Nell Warren (2003: 1) states: “In the U.S., demand for gender testing came out of the same superheated conservative climate that produced the 1950 s McCarthy hearings, which aimed to root communists and homosexuals out of our society. In many Americans’ minds, there was a link between ‘not being a real American’ and ‘not being a real woman or man’”.

  14. 14.

    Athletes who did not pass the Barr Body Test and were disqualified from women’s contests were however also not allowed to compete against men (see Kessler and Mc Kenna 1978: 53).

  15. 15.

    There is no exact data about women who were tested negative, as presumably, in most cases other reasons were given for the withdrawal. According to the examinations of Ferguson-Smith and Ferris (1991), between 1972 and 1990, 13 out of 6561 tested athletes in seven international sports competitions did not pass the gender verification (see also Doig et al. 1997: 4; Simpson et al. 1993: 311; Ljungqvist and Simpson 1992: 851). Furthermore, one to two athletes are assumed to have been disqualified due to negative test results at each of the Olympic Games between 1968 and 1988 (Simpson et al. 1993: 309).

  16. 16.

    Moreover, in medical literature, there are the concepts of a psychological or psychosexual, a social, a practicable and a legal or rather civil gender (see Murken and Cleve 1996: 55; Buselmaier and Tariverdian 1999: 106).

  17. 17.

    Such is the effect of the Androgen insensitivity syndrome, the Swyer syndrome (44. XY), as well as the Turner syndrome (44, XO) (see Doig et al. 1997: 5).

  18. 18.

    An example of this is the Klinefelter Syndrom (Ferris 1992: 691). People with this genetic anomaly have three sex chromosomes (44, XXY), are infertile, but have male genitals and can have either a male or a female appearance.

  19. 19.

    As, e.g., the Congenital adrenal hyperplasia, in which the adrenal cortex of genetic women overly produces androgens, which then lead to a male outward appearance. An overview of special chromosome features and the expected results of persons concerned at different gender verification tests can be found in Simpson et al. 1993: 310.

  20. 20.

    The frequency of the Androgen insensitivity syndrome is suspected to be 1:20,000. In comparison: The frequency of trisomy 21, the Down syndrome, is 1:600.

  21. 21.

    This statement is limited to the gender politics of the IAAF and the IOC, as these have had a pioneering role in sports politics. Numerous other sports federations today still stick to the obligatory gender verification processes in laboratories, as, e.g., FIFA (2011).

  22. 22.

    A detailed written composition of these regulations concerning athletes who have undergone sex reassignment was passed under this title by the IAAF in 2001 (see IAAF 2011c).

  23. 23.

    The scandal about the female runner Caster Semenya in 2009 probably played a role that is not negligible in working out these new regulations (see Gunkel 2012: 44f.; Karkazis et al. 2012: 4f.).

  24. 24.

    „The normal male range of Total Testosterone“ was thereby set to ≥10 nmol/l (IAAF 2011b: 3).

  25. 25.

    By now, there is a modified Ferriman–Gallwey scoring system for hirsutism with an obviously more schematic and less ethnocentric representation of the female body.

  26. 26.

    The US-American volleyball player Flora Jean Hyman also suffered from Marfan Syndrome (see Reeser 2005: 698).

  27. 27.

    The claim was filed by a 19-year-old female athlete of Indian nationality who was identified as having hyperandrogenism and was therefore declared incapacitated and told to undergo medical treatment, among other things “an aesthetic (re)construction of the vagina” (see Pieper 2015).

  28. 28.

    For a discussion of abolishing gender segregation in sports, see Tännsjö 2000.

References

  1. Bausenwein, I., & Schwanitz, G. (1975). Intersexualität und Frauenleistungssport. In Deutscher Sportbund (Ed.), Sportmedizinische Grundlagen zum Leistungssport der Mädchen und Frauen (pp. 112–137). Berlin: Bartels & Wernitz KG.

    Google Scholar 

  2. Berlioux, M. (1967). Feminity. Lettre d’informations/Newsletter/Comité international olympique, 3, 1–2.

    Google Scholar 

  3. Buselmaier, W., & Tariverdian, G. (1999). Humangenetik (2nd ed.). Berlin: Springer.

    Google Scholar 

  4. Cachay, K., & Thiel, A. (2000). Soziologie des Sports: Zur Ausdifferenzierung und Entwicklungsdynamik des Sports der modernen Gesellschaft. Weinheim und München: Juventus.

    Google Scholar 

  5. Diem, C. (1960). Weltgeschichte des Sports und der Leibeserziehung. Stuttgart: Cotta.

    Google Scholar 

  6. Doig, P., Lloyd-Smith, R., Prior, J. C., & Sinclair, D. (1997). Position statement. Sex testing (gender verification) in sport: POSITION statement des gender verification subcommittee der kanadischen akademie für sportmedizin (CASM). http://www.casm-acms.org/PositionStatements/GendereVerifEng.pdf. Accessed 27 June, 2005.

  7. Douglas, M. (1966). Purity and danger. An analysis of concepts of pollution and taboo. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

    Google Scholar 

  8. Dowling, C. (2002). Hürdenlauf: Frauen, Sport und Gleichberechtigung. Frankfurt/M.: Fischer.

    Google Scholar 

  9. Duden, B. (1991). Geschichte unter der Haut. Ein Eisenacher Arzt und seine Patientinnen  um 1730. Stuttgart: Klett-Cotta.  

    Google Scholar 

  10. Edwards, D. A., & O’Neal, J. L. (2009). Oral contraceptive decrease saliva testosterone but do not affect the rise in testosterone associated with athletic competition. Hormones and Behavior, 56(2), 195–198.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Eichberg, H. (1979). Der Weg des Sports in die industrielle Zivilisation. Baden-Baden: Nomos.

    Google Scholar 

  12. Eisenberg, C. (1999). „English Sports“und deutsche Bürger: Eine Gesellschaftsgeschichte 1800-1939. Paderborn: Ferdinand Schöningh.

    Google Scholar 

  13. Eisenberg, C., Lanfranchi, P., Mason, T., & Wahl, A. (2004). FIFA 1904–2004: 100 Jahre Weltfussball. Göttingen: Die Werkstatt.

    Google Scholar 

  14. Elias, N. (1971). Die Genese des Sports als soziologisches Problem. In N. Elias & E. Dunning (Eds.), Sport im Zivilisationsprozeß: Studien zur Figurationssoziologie (pp. 9–46). Münster: Lit.

    Google Scholar 

  15. English, J. (1978). Sex equality in sports. Philosophy & Public Affairs, 7(3), 269–277.

    Google Scholar 

  16. Eynon, N., Birk, R., & Meckel, Y. (2011). The champions’mitochondria: Is it genetically determined? A review on mitochondrial DNA and elite athletic performance. Physiological Genomics, 43(13), 789–798.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Fausto-Sterling, A. (1985). Myths of gender: Biological theories about women and men. New York: Basic Books.

    Google Scholar 

  18. Fausto-Sterling, A. (1988). Gefangene des Geschlechts? Was biologische Theorien über Mann und Frau sagen. München: Piper.

    Google Scholar 

  19. Fausto-Sterling, A. (1993). The five sexes: Why male and female are not enough. The Sciences, 33(2), 20–24.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Fausto-Sterling, A. (2002). Sich mit Dualismen duellieren. In U. Pasero & A. Gottburgsen (Eds.), Wie natürlich ist Geschlecht? Gender und die Konstruktion von Natur und Technik (pp. 17–64). Wiesbaden: Westdeutscher Verlag.

    Google Scholar 

  21. Fechtig, B. (1995). Frauen und Fußball. Dortmund: eFeF.

    Google Scholar 

  22. Ferguson-Smith, M. A., & Ferris, E. A. E. (1991). Gender verification in sport: The need for change? British Journal of Sports Medicine, 25, 17–20.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Ferris, E. A. E. (1992). Gender verification testing in sport. British Medical Bulletin, 48(3), 683–697.

    Google Scholar 

  24. Frevert, U. (1995). Geschlecht – männlich/weiblich. Zur Geschichte der Begriffe (1730–1990). In U. Frevert (Ed.), „Mann und Weib, und Weib und Mann“. Geschlechterdifferenzen in der Moderne (pp. 13–60). Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp.

    Google Scholar 

  25. Garfinkel, H. (1967). Studies in ethnomethodology. Cambridge: Blackwell.

    Google Scholar 

  26. Genel, M. (2000). Gender Verification no more? Medscape Women’s Health 5(3). http://womenshealth.medscape.com/Medscape/womenshealth/journal/public/archive/2000/toc-0503.html. Accessed 20 October, 2005.

  27. Goffman, E. (1994 [1977]). Das Arrangement der Geschlechter. In E. Goffman, Interaktion und Geschlecht (pp. 105–158). Frankfurt/M.: Campus.

  28. Gunkel, H. (2012). Queer times indeed? Südafrikas Reaktionen auf die mediale Inszenierung der 800-Meter-Läuferin Caster Semenya. Feministische Studien, 30(1), 44–53.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Guttmann, A. (1979). Vom Ritual zum Rekord. Schorndorf: Hofmann.

    Google Scholar 

  30. Guttmann, A. (2002). Maskulin oder Feminin? Die Entwicklung des Fußballs in den USA. In Zentrum für Europa- und Nordamerika-Studien (Ed.), Fußballwelten: Zum Verständnis von Sport, Politik, Ökonomie und Gesellschaft (pp. 205–218). Opladen: Leske+Budrich.

  31. Hausen, K. (1976). Die Polarisierung der „Geschlechtscharaktere“– Eine Spiegelung der Dissoziation von Erwerbs- und Familienleben. In W. Conze (Ed.), Sozialgeschichte der Familie in der Neuzeit Europas (pp. 363–393). Stuttgart: Klett.

    Google Scholar 

  32. Heggie, V. (2010). Testing sex and gender in sports. Reinventing, reimagining and reconstructing histories. Endeavour, 34(4), 157–163.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. Heineken, P. (1993). [1889]: Das Fußballspiel. Association und Rugby, Hannover: Verlag Th. Schäfer.

    Google Scholar 

  34. Heintz, B. (2010). Numerische Differenz. Überlegungen zu einer Soziologie des (quantitativen) Vergleichs. Zeitschrift für Soziologie, 39(3), 162–181.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  35. Heintz, B. (2014). Bewerten und Vermessen. Die verborgenen Mechanismen des Vergleichs. Presentation given on October 7th at the Congress of the German Sociological Association (GSA) (unpublished manuscript).

  36. Hirschauer, S. (1989). Die interaktive Konstruktion der Zweigeschlechtlichkeit. Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie, 18, 100–118.

    Google Scholar 

  37. Hirschauer, S. (2014). Un/doing differences. Die Kontingenz sozialer Zugehörigkeiten. Zeitschrift für Soziologie, 43(3), 170–191.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. Hoffmann, E., & Nendza, J. (2005). Verlacht, verboten und gefeiert. Zur Geschichte des Frauenfußballs in Deutschland. Weilerswist: Landpresse.

    Google Scholar 

  39. Honegger, C. (1992). Die Ordnung der Geschlechter. Die Wissenschaften vom Menschen und das Weib, 1750–1850. Frankfurt/M.: Campus.

    Google Scholar 

  40. Jenkins, R. (2000). Categorization: Identity social processes and epistomology. Current Sociology, 48(7), 7–25.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  41. Jordan-Young, R. M. (2010). Brains storm: The flaws in the science of sex differences. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  42. Jörgensen, G., & Eberle, P. (1975). Intersexualität und Sport. Stuttgart: G. Thieme.

    Google Scholar 

  43. Karkazis, K., Jordan-Young, R., Davis, G., & Camporesi, S. (2012). Out of bounds? A critique of the new policies on hyperandrogenism in elite female athletes. The American Journal of Bioethics, 12(7), 3–16.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  44. Kessler, S., & Mc Kenna, W. (1978). Gender—An ethnomethodological approach. New York: Wiley.

    Google Scholar 

  45. Lamont, M., & Molnár, V. (2002). The study of boundaries in the social sciences. Annual Review of Sociology, 28, 167–195.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  46. Laqueur, T. (1992). Auf den Leib geschrieben: Die Inszenierung der Geschlechter von der Antike bis Freud. Frankfurt/M.: Campus.

    Google Scholar 

  47. Ljungqvist, A., Simpson, J. L. (1992). Medical examination for health of all athletes replacing the need for gender verification in international sports. JAMA, 287(6), 850–852. 

    Article  Google Scholar 

  48. Ljungqvist, A., Cohen-Haguenauer, O., Genel, M., Simpson, J. L., Ritzen, M., Fellous, M., & Schamasch, P. (1993). Statement of the Stockholm consensus on sex reassignment in sports. http://multimedia.olympic.org/pdf/en_report_905.pdf. Accessed 24 June, 2005.

  49. Lopez, S. (1988). Women on the ball: A guide to women’s football. London: Scarlett Press.

    Google Scholar 

  50. Markovity, A., Tomlinson, A., Young, C. (Eds.) (2003). Sport and cultural space. Special issue of American Behavioral Scientist 46, Number 11.

  51. Maurer, M. (2002). Sexualdimorphismus, Geschlechtskonstruktion und Hirnforschung. In U. Pasero & A. Gottburgsen (Eds.), Wie natürlich ist Geschlecht? Gender und die Konstruktion von Natur und Technik (pp. 65–108). Wiesbaden: Westdeutscher Verlag.

    Google Scholar 

  52. Meier, M. (2004). „Zarte Füsschen am harten Leder…“Frauenfussball in der Schweiz 1970–1999. Frauenfeld: Huber.

    Google Scholar 

  53. Miller, P. B. (2004). The anatomy of scientific racism. Racialist responses to athletic achievement. In P. B. Miller & D. K. Wiggins (Eds.), Sport and the color line. Black athletes and race relations in twentieth-century America (pp. 383–404). New York/London: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  54. Müller, M. (2007). Das Geschlecht des Fußballs – „Zur Polarisierung der Geschlechtscharaktere“im Fußball. Sport und Gesellschaft, 4(2), 113–141.

    Google Scholar 

  55. Müller, M. (2009). Fußball als Paradoxon der Moderne: Historische und ethno-graphische Analysen zur Bedeutung ethnischer, nationaler und geschlechtlicher Differenzen im Profifußball. Wiesbaden: VS.

    Google Scholar 

  56. Murken, J., & Cleve, H. (1996). Humangenetik (6th ed.). Stuttgart: Enke.

    Google Scholar 

  57. Nell Warren, P. (2003). The rise and fall of gender testing: How the Cold War and two “masculine” soviet sisters led to propaganda campaign. http://www.outsports.com/history/gendertesting.htm. Accessed 20 June, 2005.

  58. Newsham, G. J. (1994). In a league of their own! Dick Kerr Ladies Football Club 1917–1965. Chorley: Pride of Place Publishing.

    Google Scholar 

  59. Novak, M. (1999). Frauen am Ball. Eine dreißigjährige Erfolgsbilanz. In DFB (Ed.), 100 Jahre DFB: Die Geschichte des Deutschen Fußball-Bundes (pp. 489–496). Berlin: Sportverlag.

  60. Pfister, G. (1983). Körperkultur und Weiblichkeit. Ein historischer Beitrag zur Entwicklung des modernen Sports in Deutschland bis zur Zeit der Weimarer Republik. In M. Klein (Ed.), Sport und Geschlecht (pp. 35–59). Reinbek bei Hamburg: Rowohlt.

    Google Scholar 

  61. Pfister, G. (1988). Die Anfänge des Frauensports im Spiegel der Sportmedizin. In H. J. Medau & P. E. Nowacki (Eds.), Frau und Sport III. Die Bedeutung der nichtolympischen Disziplinen für die sporttreibende Frau (pp. 39–52). Erlangen: Perimed.

    Google Scholar 

  62. Pfister, G. (1989). Körperkultur und Weiblichkeit. Ein historischer Beitrag zur Entwicklung des modernen Sports in Deutschland bis zur Zeit der Weimarer Republik. In C. Peyton & G. Pfister (Eds.), Frauensport in Europa. Informationen – Materialien (pp. 37–67). Ahrensburg bei Hamburg: Ingrid Czwalina.

    Google Scholar 

  63. Pfister, G. (1995). Ausnahmen von der Regel – Frauen im Sport. Chancen und Barrieren für Frauen in der Geschichte des Turnens und des Sports. In Fair-Play-Initiative des deutschen Sports (pp. 4–15). Frankfurt/M: Eigenverlag.

  64. Pieper, L. P. (2015). Hyperandrogenism regulations in sport. http://ussporthistory.com/2015/09/17/hyperandrogenism-regulations-in-sport/ Accessed 27 September, 2015.

  65. Reeser, J. C. (2005). Gender identity and sport: is the playing field level? British Journal of Sports Medicine, 39, 695–699.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  66. Reimers, T. (1994). Die Natur des Geschlechterverhältnisses. Campus: Frankfurt/M. und New York.

    Google Scholar 

  67. Saleem, R. (2010). The Olympic Meddle: The international olympic committee’s intrusion of athletes’ privacy through the discriminatory practice of gender verification testing. Journal of Computer & Information Law, 28(1), 49–80.

    Google Scholar 

  68. Schiebinger, L. (1993). Schöne Geister: Frauen in den Anfängen der modernen Wissenschaft. Stuttgart: Klett-Cotta.

    Google Scholar 

  69. Schimank, U. (1988). Die Entwicklung des Sports zum gesellschaftlichen Teilsystem. In R. Mayntz, B. Rosewitz, U. Schimank, & R. Stichweh (Eds.), Differenzierung und Verselbständigung. Zur Entwicklung gesellschaftlicher Teilsysteme (pp. 181–232). Frankfurt/M. und New York: Campus.

    Google Scholar 

  70. Simpson, J. L., Ljungqvist, A., de la Chapelle, A., Ferguson-Smith, M., Genel, M., Carlson, A. S., et al. (1993). Gender verification in competitive sports. Sports Medicine, 16(5), 305–315.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  71. Spanier, B. (1995). Im/Partial science: Gender ideology in molecular biology. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  72. Stichweh, R. (1990). Sport – Ausdifferenzierung, Funktion, Code. Sportwissenschaft, 20(4), 373–389.

    Google Scholar 

  73. Stichweh, R. (1995). Sport und Moderne. In J. Hinsching & F. Borkenhagen (Eds.), Modernisierung und Sport (pp. 13–27). Sankt Augustin: Academia.

    Google Scholar 

  74. Tännsjö, T. (2000). Against sexual discrimination in sports. In T. Tännsjö & C. Tamburrini (Eds.), Values in sport. Elitism, nationalism, gender equality and the scientific manufacture of winners (pp. 101–115). London and New York: E&FN SPON.

    Google Scholar 

  75. Tännsjö, T. (2007). Against sexual discrimination in sports. In W. J. Morgan (Ed.), Ethics in sport (2nd ed., pp. 347–358). Champaign: Human Kinetics.

    Google Scholar 

  76. Théberge, N. (1991). Women and the Olympic Games: A consideration of gender, sport and social change. In F. Landry, M. Landry, & M. Yerles (Eds.), Sport… The third millennium (pp. 385–395). Sainte Foy: Les Presses de l’Universite Laval.

    Google Scholar 

  77. Vertinsky, P. (1994). The eternally wounded woman: Women, doctors and exercise in the late nineteenth century. Manchester und New York: Manchester University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  78. von Krockow, C. G. (1974). Sport: Eine Soziologie und Philosophie des Leistungsprinzips. Hoffmann und Campe: Hamburg.

    Google Scholar 

  79. Wedemeyer-Kolwe, B. (2011). Vom „Versehrtenturnen“zum Deutschen Behindertensportverband (DBS): Eine Geschichte des deutschen Behindertensports. Hildesheim: Arete.

    Google Scholar 

  80. Wedemeyer-Kolwe, B. (2014). Geschlechtergrenzen und Sport. Sporthistorische Anmerkungen zu einem aktuellen Thema mit (nord-)deutschen und internationalen Beispielen. In Jahrbuch 2013/14 des Niedersächsischen Instituts für Sportgeschichte Hoya, 16/17, 91–104.

  81. Welzel, P. (2000). Olympias “schöne” Töchter. Freitag 38 vom 15. September 2000. http://www.freitag.de/2000/38/00381801.htm. Accessed 7 December, 2005.

  82. West, C., & Zimmerman, D. H. (1991). Doing gender. In J. Lorber & S. A. Farell (Eds.), The social construction of gender (pp. 13–37). London: Sage.

    Google Scholar 

  83. Wiederkehr, S. (2007). „Unsere Mädchen sind alle einwandfrei.“Die Kłobuskowska-Affäre von 1967 in der zeitgenössischen Presse (Polen, BRD, Schweiz). In A. Malz, S. Rohdewald, & S. Wiederkehr (Eds.), Sport zwischen Ost und West. Beiträge zur Sportgeschichte Osteuropas im 19. Und 20. Jahrhundert (pp. 269–286). Osnabrück: Fibre.

    Google Scholar 

  84. Wiederkehr, S. (2009). ‘We shall never know the exact number of men who have competed in the Olympics posing as women’. Sport, gender verification and the Cold War. The International Journal of the History of Sport, 26, 556–572.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  85. Wiederkehr, S. (2010). “… if Jarmila Kratochvilova is the future of women’s sports, I’m not sure I’m ready for it.” Media, gender, and the Cold War. In N. Katzer, et al. (Eds.), Euphoria and exhaustion: Modern sport in soviet culture and society (pp. 315–335). Frankfurt/M., New York: Campus.

    Google Scholar 

  86. Wiederkehr, S. (2012). Jenseits der Geschlechtergrenzen. Intersexuelle und transsexuelle Menschen im Spitzensport. Feministische Studien, 30(1), 31–43.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  87. Wiesner, H. (2002). Die Inszenierung der Geschlechter in den Naturwissenschaften: Wissenschafts- und Genderforschung im Dialog. Frankfurt/M., New York: Campus.

    Google Scholar 

  88. Williamson, D. J. (1991). Belles of the ball: The early history of women’s football. Devon: R&D Associates.

    Google Scholar 

  89. Zerubavel, E. (1996). Lumping and splitting: Notes on social classification. Sociological Forum, 11(3), 421–433.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Source References

  1. CAS. (2015). Interim Arbitral Award, CAS 2014/A/3759 Dutee Chand vs. Athletic Federation of India (AFI) and The International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF). http://www.tas-cas.org/fileadmin/user_upload/award_internet.pdf. Accessed 27 September, 2015.

  2. FIFA. (2011). Regulations FIFA gender verifications. http://www.fifa.com/mm/document/footballdevelopment/medical/01/45/42/02/genderverification_efsd.pdf. Accessed 20 August, 2015.

  3. IAAF. (2011a). Regulations governing eligibility of females with hyperandrogenism to compete in women’s competition. http://www.iaaf.org/download/download?filename=58438613-aaa7-4bcd-b730-70296abab70c.pdf&urlslug=IAAF%20Regulations%20Governing%20Eligibility%20of%20Females%20with%20Hyperandrogenism%20to%20Compete%20in%20Women%E2%80%99s%20Competition%20-%20In%20force%20as%20from%201st%20May%202011?utm_source=GCSResults&utm_medium=googlecse&utm_campaign=Search%20term:%20%27hyperandrogenism%27,%20Page1&utm_content=Slot4. Accessed 8th September, 2015.

  4. IAAF. (2011b). Hyperandrogenism regulations. Explanatory notes. http://www.iaaf.org/download/download?filename=fd073e9a-e217-431f-b06b-73e5349bd874.pdf&urlslug=IAAF%20Hyperandrogenism%20Regulations%20-%20Explanatory%20Notes%20-%20In%20force%20as%20from%201st%20May%202011. Accessed 8 September, 2015.

  5. IAAF. (2011c). IAAF regulations governing eligibility of athletes who have undergone sex reassignment to compete in women’s competition. http://www.iaaf.org/download/download?filename=e08ef22e-09ff-43eb-a338-fe127e99fc28.pdf&urlslug=IAAF%20Regulations%20Governing%20Eligibility%20of%20Athletes%20Who%20Have%20Undergone%20Sex%20Reassignment%20to%20Compete%20in%20Women%27s%20Competitions%20. Accessed 8 September, 2015.

  6. IAAF. (2011d). IAAF hyperandrogenism regulations—Appendices. http://www.iaaf.org/download/download?filename=9c881ba8-c89e-4b64-90e9-5fecc4d6602f.pdf&urlslug=IAAF%20Hyperandrogenism%20Regulations%20-%20Appendices. Accessed 23 September, 2015.

  7. IAAF Medical and Anti-Doping Commission. (2006). IAAF policy on gender verification. https://oii.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2009/01/iaaf_policy_on_gender_verification.pdf. Accessed 17 August, 2015.

  8. IOC. (2012). IOC regulations on female hyperandrogenism. http://www.olympic.org/Documents/Commissions_PDFfiles/Medical_commission/2012-06-22-IOC-Regulations-on-Female-Hyperandrogenism-eng.pdf. Accessed 20 August, 2015.

  9. IOC Medical Commission. (2003). Statement of the Stockholm consensus on sex reassignment in sports. http://www.olympic.org/documents/reports/en/en_report_905.pdf. Accessed 18 August, 2015.

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Marion Müller.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Müller, M. Constructing Gender Incommensurability in Competitive Sport: Sex/Gender Testing and the New Regulations on Female Hyperandrogenism. Hum Stud 39, 405–431 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10746-016-9397-1

Download citation

Keywords

  • Gender differences
  • Gender verifications
  • Institutional reflexivity
  • Sociology of sport