We review literature about Canada’s oil sands, pertaining to Indigenous Peoples. We draw on a range of recent published and unpublished sources. We find that social science research on oil sands extraction has been inadequate, even as the region has undergone transformation. Available research suggests that Indigenous communities feel resigned to further loss of their subsistence landbase. Due to the rapid pace of expansion, emergent issues and questions exist that cannot be readily synthesized. Decision-makers are not specialists in Indigenous issues or social impacts, and are not always supported by experts within their organizations. There is a need to review the qualifications of some social science consultants who work on impact assessment and consultation. The most vulnerable Indigenous people and communities face worrying health risks and evident pollution as they lose access to special places and preferred sources of food and water, entailing loss of cultural, spiritual, and familial connections.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
ABMI (Alberta Biodiversity Monitoring Institute). (2013). The Status of Biodiversity in the Athabasca Oil Sands. Edmonton. http://www.abmi.ca/home/publications/1-50/20. Accessed 18 Feb 2019.
ABMI (Alberta Biodiversity Monitoring Institute). (2018). Status of Human Footprint in Alberta. Edmonton, AB. https://abmi.ca/home/reports/2018/human-footprint. Accessed 18 Feb 2019.
AEMP (Alberta Environmental Monitoring Panel). (2011). A World Class Environmental Monitoring, Evaluation and Reporting System for Alberta: The Report of the Alberta Environmental Monitoring Panel. Edmonton.
AER (Alberta Energy Regulator) and Alberta Health (2016). Recurrent Human Health Complaints Technical Information Synthesis: Fort McKay Area, Alberta Energy Regulator, Calgary.
Alberta. (2015). Lower Athabasca Region Tailings Management Framework for the Mineable Athabasca Oil Sands. 58pp. Retrieved 4 Sept 2017 from http://aep.alberta.ca/land/cumulative-effects/regional-planning/documents/LARP-TailingsMgtAthabascaOilsands-Mar2015.pdf.
Alberta Cancer Board. (2009). Cancer Incidence in Fort Chipewyan, Alberta 1995–2006. Division of Population Health and Information Surveillance. Prepared by Yiqun Chen for Alberta Health Services, Nunee Health Board Society, Alberta Health and Wellness, and Health Canada.
Amnesty International. (2016). Out of Sight, Out of Mind: Gender, Indigenous Rights, and Energy Development in Northeast British Columbia, Canada. London: Amnesty International Ltd. https://www.amnesty.ca/outofsight. Accessed 18 Feb 2019.
Auger, J. (2014). My People’s Blood: Indigenous Sexual Health Recovery, J. Charlton Publishing, Vernon.
Baker, J. (2013). Fort McKay Traditional Knowledge Berry Focus Group Completes Second Year of Field Work. Wood Buffalo Environmental Association Report to the Community. Fall, 2013: 1–2. https://janellemariebaker.files.wordpress.com/2013/03/wbea-fall-2013-community-report.pdf. Accessed 18 Feb 2019.
Baker, J. (2017). Research as Reciprocity: Northern Cree Community-Based and Community-Engaged Research on Wild Food Contamination in Alberta’s Oil Sands Region. Engaged Scholar Journal: Community-Engaged Research, Teaching, and Learning 2(1): 109–124. https://journalhosting.ucalgary.ca/index.php/esj/article/view/61481. Accessed 18 Feb 2019.
Baker, J. M., and Westman, C. N. (2018). Extracting Knowledge: Social Science, Environmental Impact Assessment, and Indigenous Consultation in the Oil Sands of Alberta, Canada. The Extractive Industries and Society 5(1): 144–153. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.exis.2017.12.008.
Barnetson, B., and Foster, J. (2012). Bloody Lucky: The Careless Worker Myth in Alberta, Canada. International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health 18(2): 135–146.
Bird, C. (2015). A Shallow Peace-Athabasca River Delta is Causing Transportation and Food Security Issues for Fort Chipewyan Residents and Other River Dwellers. Fort McMurray Today. 28 Aug 2015. http://www.fortmcmurraytoday.com/2015/08/25/low-water-levels-in-athabasca-river-delta-affecting-residents-wildlife.
Black, T., D’Arcy, S., Weis, T., and Russell, J. K. (eds.) (2014). A Line in the Tar Sands: Struggles for Environmental Justice, Between the Lines, Toronto.
Caldwell, W. (2009). Environmental Illness in Fort Chipewyan, Alberta. MSc Thesis, Royal Roads University.
Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP). (2014). “Aboriginal Peoples and the Oil Sands Industry.
Candler, C., Olson, R., DeRoy, S., and The Firelight Group Research Cooperative (2010). As Long as the Rivers Flow: Athabasca River Knowledge, Use and Change, Parkland Institute, Edmonton.
Carver, M.. (2016). How the Regulatory Regime is Bringing About Declining Water Levels in the Peace-Athabasca Delta and Degrading in the Outstanding Universal Value of Wood Buffalo National Park. Prepared by Aqua Environmental Associates for Mikisew Cree First Nation. Nelson.
CBC News. (2014). Oil Sands Company Given 4 Months to Halt Emissions: Poisonous Emissions Forced Seven Peace Country Families from Homes. Retrieved 20 Aug 2014 from http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/edmonton/oilsands-company-given-4-months-to-halt-emissions-1.2611523.
Checker, M. (2007). ‘But I Know It’s True’: Environmental Risk Assessment, Justice, and Anthropology. Human Organization 66(2): 112–124.
Clark, T. D.. (2015). McMurray Métis Cultural Impact Assessment of the Teck Frontier Oil Sands Mine Project. Prepared by Willow Springs Strategic Solutions for Fort McMurray Métis Local 1935.
Crowley, C. K.. (2016). How Context Affects Uncertainty Disclosure and Communication in Environmental Impact Assessment: A Case Study of Energy Development in Northern Alberta. MSc Thesis, University of Saskatchewan.
Davidson, D. J., and Gismondi, M. (2011). Challenging Legitimacy at the Precipice of Energy Calamity, Springer-Verlag, New York.
Dillon, Peter, George Dixon, Charles Driscoll, John Glesy, Stuart Hurlbert, and Jerome Nriagu. (2011). Contamination of the Athabasca River System by Oil Sands Operations: An Evaluation of Four Reports. Prepared by the Water Monitoring Data Review Committee for the Government of Alberta.
Dorow, S., and Mandizadza, S. (2018). Gendered Circuits of Care in the Mobility Regime of Alberta’s Oil Sands. Gender, Place and Culture: 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1080/0966369X.2018.1425287.
Druks, R. A. (2013). Oil sands, public health and politics in Fort Chipewyan: an analysis of the impact of oil sands extraction on public health and political institutions in Fort Chipewyan, Alberta. International Journal of Environmental Sustainability 8(1): 91–100.
Dylan, A., Smallboy, B., and Lightman, E. (2014). ‘Saying No to Resource Development is Not an Option’: Economic Development in Moose Cree First Nation. Journal of Canadian Studies 47(1): 59–90. https://muse.jhu.edu/article/535644. Accessed 18 Feb 2019.
Elias, P. D.. (2011). Mikisew Cree Use of Lands and Resources in the Vicinity of the Proposed Shell - Jack Pine and Shell - Pierre River Operations. Prepared for Mikisew Cree First Nation.
Elkaim, A., Gerbrandt, J. L., and Bouchier, N. (2016). Poke You in the Heart. Imaginations: Journal of Cross-Cultural Image Studies 7(1). http://imaginations.csj.ualberta.ca/?p=8774. Accessed 18 Feb 2019.
Environment Canada. (2008). “Scientific Review for the Identification of Critical Habitat for Woodland Caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou), Boreal Population, in Canada.” Ottawa: Government of Canada.
Environmental Defence (2013). Reality Check: Air Pollution and the Tar Sands, Environmental Defence Canada, Toronto.
Ferguson, N. (2011). From Coal Pits to Tar Sands: Labour Migration between an Atlantic Canadian Region and the Athabasca Oil Sands. Just Labour 17: 106–118.
Fisher, J. T., and Burton, C. A. (2018). Wildlife Winners and Losers in an Oil Sands Landscape. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 16(6): 323–328. https://doi.org/10.1002/fee.1807.
FMA Heritage Resources Consultants Inc. (2008a) . Fort McKay First Nation Traditional Knowledge Report: Total E & P Canada Ltd. Josyln North Mine Project Update. Prepared for McKay Industry Relations. Calgary: E & P Canada Ltd.
FMA Heritage Resources Consultants Inc. (2008b). Fort McKay First Nation Traditional Knowledge Report: Parsons Creek Resources Project Environmental Impact Assessment Application. Prepared for Fort McKay Industry Relations Corporation on behalf of Graymont Western Canada Inc. and Inland Aggregates Limited. Calgary: Graymont Western Canada Inc.
Friedel, T. L. (2008). (Not So) Crude Text and Images: Staging Native in ‘Big Oil’ Advertising. Visual Studies 23(3): 238–254. https://doi.org/10.1080/14725860802489908.
Galarneau, E., Hollebone, B. P., Yang, Z., and Schuster, J. (2014). Preliminary Measurement-based estimates of PAH Emissions from Oil Sands Tailings Ponds. Atmospheric Environment 97: 332–335. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2014.08.038.
Gentes, M.-L., McNabb, A., Waldner, C., and Smits, J. E. G. (2007). Increased Thyroid Hormone Levels in Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) on Reclaimed Wetlands of the Athabasca Oil Sands. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 53: 287–292.
Gerbrandt, J. L.. (2015). Energy Uncertainty: The Effects of Oil Extraction on the Woodland Cree First Nation. MA Thesis, University of Saskatchewan.
Gosselin, P., Hrudey, S. E., Naeth, A. M., Plourde, A., Therrien, R., Van Der Kraak, G., and Xu, Z. (2010). The Royal Society of Canada Expert Panel: Environmental and Health Impacts of Canada’s oil Sands Industry (Report), The Royal Society of Canada, Ottawa.
Gross, L. (Forthcoming). Wastelanding the Bodies, Wastelanding the Land Accidents as Evidence in the Alberta Oil Sands. In Westman, C. N., Joly, T. L., and Gross, L. (eds.), Extracting Home in the Oil Sands: Settler Colonialism and Environmental Change in Subarctic Canada, Routledge, New York.
Hebert, C. E., Campbell, D., Kindopp, R., MacMillan, S., Martin, P., Neugebauer, E., Patterson, L., and Shatford, J. (2013). Mercury Trends in Colonial Waterbird Eggs Downstream of the Oil Sands Region of Alberta, Canada. Environmental Science & Technology 47(20): 11785–11792. https://doi.org/10.1021/es402542w.
Huseman, J., and Short, D. (2012). ‘A Slow Industrial Genocide’: Tar Sands and the Indigenous Peoples of Northern Alberta. The International Journal of Human Rights 16(1): 216–237. https://doi.org/10.1080/13642987.2011.649593.
Jackson, M. S. (2013). Social Science Perspectives on Natural Hazards Risk and Uncertainty. In Rougier, J., Sparks, S., and Hills, L. J. (eds.), Risk and Uncertainty Assessment for Natural Hazards, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Jackson, C. H., Bojke, L., Thompson, S. G., Claxton, K., and Sharples, L. D. (2011). A Framework for Addressing Structural Uncertainty in Decision Models. Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making 31(4): 662–674. https://doi.org/10.1177/0272989X11406986.
Joly, T. (2017). Making Productive Land: Utility, Encounter, and Oil Sands Reclamation in Northeastern Alberta, Canada. PhD Dissertation, University of Aberdeen.
Joly, T., and Westman, C. N.. (2017). Taking Research Off the Shelf: Impacts, Benefits, and Participatory Processes around the Oil Sands Industry in Northern Alberta. Unpublished report prepared for SSHRC’s “Imagining Canada’s Future” Initiative.
Jordaan, S. M. (2011). Governance of Impacts to Land and Water Resources from Oil Sands Development in Alberta, Laboratory on International Law and Regulation, UC San Diego, La Jolla.
Kelly, E. N., Short, J. W., Schindler, D. W., Hodson, P. V., Ma, M., Kwan, A. K., and Fortin, B. L. (2009). Oil Sands Development Contributes Polycyclic Aromatic compounds to the Athabasca River and Its Tributaries. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106(52): 22346–22351. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0912050106.
Kelly, E. N., Schindler, D. W., Hodson, P. V., Short, J. W., Radmanovich, R., and Nielsen, C. C. (2010). Oil Sands Development Contributes Elements Toxic at Low Concentrations to the Athabasca River and Its Tributaries. PNAS 107(37): 16178–16183. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1008754107.
Keough, S. B. (2015). Planning for Growth in a Natural Resource Boomtown: Challenges for Urban Planners in Fort McMurray, Alberta. Urban Geography 36(8): 1169–1196.
Latifovic, R., and Pouliot, D. (2014). Monitoring Cumulative Long-Term Vegetation Changes over the Athabasca Oil Sands Region. Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing 7(8): 3380–3392. https://doi.org/10.1109/JSTARS.2014.2321058.
Lee-Jones, T. (Forthcoming). Living and Dying through Oil’s Promise: The Invisibility of Contamination and Power in Alberta’s Peace River Country. In Westman, C. N., Joly, T. L., and Gross, L. (eds.), Extracting Home in the Oil Sands: Settler Colonialism and Environmental Change in Subarctic Canada, Routledge, New York.
Liggio, J., Li, S.-M., Hayden, K., Taha, Y. M., Stroud, C., Darlington, A., Drollette, B. D., et al (2016). Oil Sands Operations as a Large Source of Secondary Organic Aerosols. Nature 534(7605): 91–94.
Longley, H., and Joly T.. (2018). Moccasin Flats Evictions: Métis Home, Forced Relocation, and Resilience in Fort McMurray, Alberta. Prepared for Fort McMurray Métis Local 1935. 116pp.
Makar, P. A., Akingunola, A., Aherne, J., Cole, A. S., Aklilu, Y.-a., Zhang, J., Wong, I., Hayden, K., Li, S.-M., Kirk, J., Scott, K., Moran, M. D., Robichaud, A., Cathcart, H., Baratzedah, P., Pabla, B., Cheung, P., Zheng, Q., and Jeffries, D. S. (2018). Estimates of Exceedances of Critical Loads for Acidifying Deposition in Alberta and Saskatchewan. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 18(13): 9897–9927. https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-18-9897-2018.
McCormack, P. A. (2016). Doing Credible Cultural Assessment: Applied Social Science. Environmental Practice 18: 148–156.
McCormack, P. A. (Forthcoming). Conclusion: Studying the Social and Cultural Impacts of “Extreme Extraction” in Northern Alberta. In Westman, C. N., Joly, T. L., and Gross, L. (eds.), Extracting Home in the Oil Sands: Settler Colonialism and Environmental Change in Subarctic Canada, Routledge, New York.
McHolm, T. (2017). A Formal Spilling: Leaking and Leaching in Warren Cariou’s Petrography and ‘Tarhands: A Messy Manifesto. Western American Literature 51(4): 429–446. https://doi.org/10.1353/wal.2017.0004.
McLachlan, S. M., and Riddell, C. H. (2014). ‘Water is a Living Thing’ Environmental and Human Health Implications for the Athabasca Oil Sands for the Mikisew Cree First Nation and Athabasca Chipewyan First Nation in Northern Alberta, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg.
McMahon, T. (2014). Bigstone’s Lost Opportunity. Maclean’s. http://site.macleans.ca/longform/bigstones-lost-opportunity/. Accessed 18 Feb 2019.
Mills, J. (2017). Destabilizing the Consultation Framework in Alberta’s Tar Sands. Journal of Canadian Studies 51(1): 153–185. https://doi.org/10.3138/jcs.51.1.153.
Mouallem, O.. (2017). Oil, Heartbreak, And Manhood: Behind the Mental Health Crisis of Alberta's Oil Workers. Buzzfeed News. Retrieved 4 Aug 2017 from https://www.buzzfeed.com/omarmouallem/oil-heartbreak-and-manhood?utm_term=.wwRbXlOOv#.jeoOgWVVX.
National Inquiry into Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women and Girls. (n.d.). “MMIWG — National Inquiry into Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women and Girls.” Accessed 1 Nov 2018. http://www.mmiwg-ffada.ca/.
Nero, V., Farwell, A., Lister, A., Van der Kraak, G., Lee, L. E. J., Van Meer, T., MacKinnon, M. D., and Dixon, D. G. (2006). Gill and Liver Histopathological Changes in Yellow Perch (Perca flavescens) and Goldfish (Carassius auratus) Exposed to Oil Sands Process-Affected Water. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 63: 365–377.
Nikiforuk, A.. (2017). On Oil Spills, Alberta Regulator Can’t be Believed: New Report. The Tyee. 9 Feb 2017. https://thetyee.ca/News/2017/02/09/Oil-Spills-Alberta-Regulator/.
Parajulee, A., and Wania, F. (2014). Evaluating Officially Reported Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Emissions in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region with a Multimedia Fate Model. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 111(9): 3344–3349. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1319780111.
Parson, S., and Ray, E. (2018). Sustainable Colonization: Tar Sands as Resource Colonialism. Capitalism Nature Socialism 29(3): 68–86. https://doi.org/10.1080/10455752.2016.1268187.
Preston, J. (2017). Racial Extractivism and White Settler Colonialism: An Examination of the Canadian Tar Sands Mega-Projects. Cultural Studies 31(2–3): 353–375. https://doi.org/10.1080/09502386.2017.1303432.
Radović, J. R., Oldenburg, T. B. P., and Larter, S. R. (2018). Chapter 19 —Environmental Assessment of Spills Related to Oil Exploitation in Canada’s Oil Sands Region. In Stout, S. A., and Wang, Z. (eds.), Oil Spills Environmental Forensics Case Studies, Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, pp. 401–417.
RAMP (Regional Aquatics Monitoring Program). (2016). Final 2015 Program Report: Regional Aquatics Monitoring in Support of the Joint Oil Sands Monitoring Plan. Prepared for AEMERA. Prepared by Hatfield Consultants. Retrieved 5 Sept 2017 from http://www.ramp-alberta.org/UserFiles/File/AnnualReports/2015/JOSMP_2015_Final_TOC_and_Executive_Summary.pdf.
Rooney, R. C., Bayley, S. E., and Schindler, D. W. (2012). Oil Sands Mining and Reclamation Cause Massive Loss of Peatland and Stored Carbon. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 109(13): 4933–4937.
Ruddell, R., and Ortiz, N. R. (2015). Boomtown Blues: Long-Term Community Perceptions of Crime and Disorder. American Journal of Criminal Justice 40(1): 129–146. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12103-014-9237-7.
Schindler, D. (2010). Tar Sands Needs Solid Science. Nature 468(7323): 499–501. https://doi.org/10.1038/468499a.
Schindler, D. (2013). Water Quality Issues in the Oil Sands Region of the Lower Athabasca River, Alberta. Geoscience Canada 40(3): 202–214. https://doi.org/10.12789/geocanj.2013.40.012.
Schindler, D. (2014). Unravelling the Complexity of Pollution by the Oil Sands Industry. National Academy of Sciences 111(9): 3209–3210. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1400511111.
Schreyer, C. (2008). ‘Nehiyawewin Askihk’ - Cree Language on the Land: Language Planning through Consultation in the Loon River Cree First Nation. Current Issues in Language Planning: Language Planning and Minority Languages 9(4): 440–463.
Schwalb, A. N., Alexander, A. C., Paul, A. J., Cottenie, K., and Rasmussen, J. B. (2014). Changes in Migratory Fish Communities and Their Health, Hydrology, and Water Chemistry in Rivers of the Athabasca Oil Sands Region: A Review of Historical and Current Data. Environmental Reviews 23(2): 133–150. https://doi.org/10.1139/er-2014-0065.
Shields, R. (2012). Feral Suburbs: Cultural Topologies of Social Reproduction, Fort McMurray, Canada. International Journal of Cultural Studies 15(3): 205–215. https://doi.org/10.1177/1367877911433743.
Steward, G. (2017). Betting on Bitumen: Alberta’s Energy Policies from Lougheed to Klein, Parkland Institute and Centre for Policy Alternatives, Edmonton.
Tanner, T.. (2008). Rights Vs. Resources: Why the First Nations left the Cumulative Environmental Management Association. MA Thesis, Royal Roads University.
Taylor, A., and Friedel, T. (2011). Enduring Neoliberalism in Alberta’s Oil Sands: The Troubling Effects of Private-Public Partnerships for First Nation and Métis Communities. Citizenship Studies 15(6–7): 815–835.
Tenenbaum, D. J. (2009). Oil Sands Development: A Health Risk Worth Taking? Environmental Health Perspectives 117(4): A150–A156. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2679626/. Accessed 18 Feb 2019.
Thurton, D.. (2017). Syncrude Hits Indigenous Employment Milestone, But There’s More Room to Grow. CBC News. 23 June 2017. http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/edmonton/syncrude-indigenous-employment-milestone-oilsands-fort-mcmurray-1.4172465.
Timoney, K. P.. (2007). A Study of Water and Sediment Quality as Related to Public Health Issues, Fort Chipewyan, Alberta. On behalf of the Nunee Health Board Society, Fort Chipewyan, Alberta.
Timoney, K. P. (2015). Impaired Wetlands in a Damaged Landscape: The Legacy of Bitumen Exploitation in Canada, Springer International Publishing, New York.
Timoney, K. P., and Lee, P. (2001). Environmental Management in Resource-Rich Alberta, Canada: First World Jurisdiction, Third World Analogue? Journal of Environmental Management 63(4): 387–405.
Timoney, K. P., and Lee, P. (2009). Does the Alberta Tar Sands Industry Pollute? The Scientific Evidence. Open Conservation Biology Journal 3: 65–81.
Timoney, K. P., and Ronconi, R. A. (2010). Annual Bird Mortality in the Bitumen Tailings Ponds in Northeastern Alberta, Canada. The Wilson Journal of Ornithology 122(3): 569–576. https://doi.org/10.1676/09-181.1.
Urquhart, I. (2018). Costly Fix: Power, Politics, and Nature in the Tar Sands, University of Toronto Press, Toronto.
Vanderklippe, N.. (2012). In Oil Sands, a Native Millionaire Sees ‘Economic Force’ for First Nations. The Globe and Mail. 13 Aug. https://www.theglobeandmail.com/report-on-business/industry-news/energy-and-resources/in-oil-sands-a-native-millionaire-sees-economic-force-for-first-nations/article4479795/.
Weinhold, B. (2011). Alberta’s Oil Sands: Hard Evidence, Missing Data, New Promises. Environmental Health Perspectives 119(3): A126–A131. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3060017/. Accessed 18 Feb 2019.
Westman, C. N. (2013). Social Impact Assessment and the Anthropology of the Future in Canada’s Tar Sands. Human Organization 72(2): 111–120. https://doi.org/10.17730/humo.72.2.e0m6426502384675.
Westman, C. N. (2017). Cultural Politics of Land and Animals in Treaty 8 Territory (Northern Alberta, Canada). In Dussart, F., and Poirier, S. (eds.), Entangled Territorialities: Negotiating Indigenous Lands in Australia and Canada, University of Toronto Press, Toronto, pp. 117–139.
Westman, C. N., Joly, T. L., and Gross, L. (Forthcoming). Introduction: At Home in the Oil Sands. In Extracting Home in the Oil Sands: Settler Colonialism and Environmental Change in Subarctic Canada, Routledge, New York.
Wheatley, K., and Westman, C. N. (Forthcoming). Reclaiming Nature? Watery Transformations and Mitigation Landscapes in the Oil Sands Region. In Westman, C. N., Joly, T. L., and Gross, L. (eds.), Extracting Home in the Oil Sands: Settler Colonialism and Environmental Change in Subarctic Canada, Routledge, New York.
Willow, A. J. (2016). Indigenous ExtrACTIVISM in Boreal Canada: Colonial Legacies, Contemporary Struggles and Sovereign Futures. Humanities 5(3): 55. https://doi.org/10.3390/h5030055.
Willow Springs Strategic Solutions, Inc. (WSSS). (2014). Métis Traditional Land Use and Occupancy Study: Teck Resources Limited — Frontier Oil Sands Mine Project. Fort McMurray: Fort McMurray Métis Local Council 1935. http://www.ceaa.gc.ca/050/documents/p65505/100848E.pdf. Accessed 18 Feb 2019.
We extend our gratitude for library and archival support provided by Bigstone Cree Nation, Mikisew Cree First Nation, the Government of Alberta, Athabasca University, the University of Alberta, the University of Calgary, and the University of Saskatchewan. We thank Josie Auger, Janelle Baker, Jesse Cardinal, Melanie Dene, Patricia McCormack, Joanne Muzak, Mary Richardson, Glenn Stuart, Jim Waldram, and Katherine Wheatley for their comments on this draft and a previous draft. We also acknowledge comments from an anonymous reviewer. This research was funded by the Social Science and Humanities Research Council of Canada. This article contains excerpts from a larger report (Joly and Westman 2017).
This study was funded by the Social Science and Humanities Research Council of Canada (grant number 872–2016-004).
Conflict of Interest
Tara Joly works for Willow Springs Strategic Solutions Inc., a consulting firm with clients including the Fort McMurray Métis. Westman has worked for Mikisew Cree First Nation, Woodland Cree First Nation, and for the Government of Canada.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Westman, C.N., Joly, T.L. Oil Sands Extraction in Alberta, Canada: a Review of Impacts and Processes Concerning Indigenous Peoples. Hum Ecol 47, 233–243 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10745-019-0059-6
- Oil sands
- Indigenous communities
- Impact assessment