Human Ecology

, Volume 46, Issue 2, pp 259–268 | Cite as

Damage Control Strategies Affecting Crop-Raiding Japanese Macaque Behaviors in a Farming Community

  • Yosuke Ueda
  • Mieko Kiyono
  • Takanori Nagano
  • Shota Mochizuki
  • Takuhiko Murakami


In recent years, human-wildlife conflict has intensified in Japan. Animals caused direct crop losses valued at about 20 billion Japanese yen between 2004 and 2014. This damage has caused some farmers to abandon their land (MAFF 2015). Population control is the main method of damage management for middle- and large-sized mammals such as wild boar (Sus scrofa), sika deer (Cervus nippon), and Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata). However, using only population control to manage crop damage by Japanese macaques has led to a case in which a troop that had not previously raided crops became a crop-raiding troop (Izumiyama 2010). Damage control mechanisms that keep troops away from the human settlement and reduce raiding activities (e.g., using loud sounds or building fences) are required in addition to population management because of their species-specific characteristics (MAFF and MOE 2014).

Japanese macaques display grouping and dispersal (Thierry 2007). While female Japanese...


Human-wildlife conflict Wildlife management Damage control Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscataLandscape ecology Japan 



This study would have been impossible without help from the residents who cooperated with our research and Sasayama City Hall providing the information about damage control. Special thanks to them. We are grateful to the members of Rural Planning Lab at Kobe University and Geospatial Information Lab at Niigata University. We appreciate two anonymous reviewers who provided us very helpful comments and suggestions to develop the argument in this paper.


This study was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant number 17 K12841.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Graduate School of Science and TechnologyNiigata UniversityNiigataJapan
  2. 2.Graduate School of Human Development and EnvironmentKobe UniversityKobeJapan
  3. 3.Graduate School of Agricultural ScienceKobe UniversityKobeJapan
  4. 4.Faculty of AgricultureNiigata UniversityNiigataJapan

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