The Role of Homegardens for Food and Nutrition Security in Uganda
The contribution of homegardens to the food and nutrition security of rural farmers has rarely been explored empirically. Our study assesses the influence of homegarden agrobiodiversity, production system parameters, and socioeconomic factors on household dietary diversity and anthropometric conditions in southwest Uganda. Plant inventories of 102 homegardens were followed by two 24-h recalls (n = 589) and anthropometric measurements (n = 325) of household members, as well as household food insecurity questionnaires (n = 95). Regression models explained between 16 and 50% of variance in dietary diversity and between 21 and 75% in anthropometric measurements. Results indicate that supporting diverse homegarden systems can in part reduce food insecurity in Uganda. We conclude with recommendations for further strengthening the role of homegardens in improving dietary and anthropometric outcomes.
KeywordsFood security Dietary diversity Anthropometry HFIAS Plant species diversity Banyankole Bakiga Southwest Uganda
This study was part of the subproject 4, work package 2 (031A247B) within the collaborative research project “Reduction of Post-Harvest Losses and Value Addition in East African Food Value Chains” (RELOAD) of the initiative “GlobE - Research for the Global Food Supply” of the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF). Dr. Joseph Bahati of Makerere University, Uganda facilitated the support of the Ugandan National Science Foundation (Registration number: A 477), the office of President Museveni and the approval of the local Regional District Coordinators and Chief Administrative Officers of Bushenyi, Rubirizi, and Sheema. Ms. Carolyne Nakaketo of Slow Food Uganda provided field support through interpretation and facilitation of the unique research approach. We are extremely grateful to the chairpersons, other village members, and respondents, who all supported the work, offered food, housing, information, and good company throughout the research. We also acknowledge support from the CGIAR Research Program on ‘Water, Land and Ecosystems.’
Funding was provided by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
- Akinnifesi, F. K., Kwesiga, F. R., Mhango, J., Mkonda, A., Chilanga, T., and Swai, R. (2004). Domesticating priority miombo indigenous fruit trees as a promising livelihood option for small-holder farmers in Southern Africa. Acta Horticulturae (632): 15–30.Google Scholar
- Alkire, S., and Santos, M. E. (2010). Acute multidimensional poverty: A new index for developing countries, Oxford Poverty & Human Development Initiative (OPHI). Working Paper No. 38: 1–139.Google Scholar
- Altieri, M. A., and Koohafkan, P. (2008). Enduring farms: Climate change, smallholders and traditional farming communities, Third World Network (TWN), Penang, Malaysia.Google Scholar
- Atta-Krah, K., Kindt, R., Skilton, J. N., and Amaral, W. (2004). Managing biological and genetic diversity in tropical agroforestry. New Vistas in Agroforestry, Springer: 183–194.Google Scholar
- van Breugel, P, Kindt, R, Lillesø, JPB, Bingham, M, Demissew, S, Dudley, C, Friis, I, Gachathi, F, Kalema, J, Mbago, F., Moshi, HN, Mulumba, J, Namaganda, M, Ndangalasi HJ, Ruffo, C. K., Védaste, M, Jamnadass, R, and Graudal, L., (2015). Potential Natural Vegetation Map of Eastern Africa (Burundi, Ethiopia, Kenya,Malawi, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia). Version 2.0. http://vegetationmap4africa.org (accessed March 09, 2016).
- Chapman, C., (2018). Kibale Mobile Clinic. http://www.chapmancolin.com/mobile-health-and-conservation-clinic/ (accessed January 19th, 2018).
- Coates, J., Swindale, A., and Bilinsky, P. (2007). Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS) for measurement of food access: indicator guide, Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance Project, Academy for Educational Development, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
- FANTA-2, (2010). The Analysis of the Nutrition Situation in Uganda. Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance II Project (FANTA-2), Washington, DC.Google Scholar
- FAO (2011). Combating Micronutrient Deficiencies: Food-based Approaches. In Thompson, B., and Amoroso, L. (eds.), Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, p. 397.Google Scholar
- FAO (2016). Minimum Dietary Diversity for Women: A Guide to Measurement, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Rome.Google Scholar
- Galvin, K. A., Beeton, T. A., Boone, R. B., and BurnSilver, S. B. (2015). Nutritional Status of Maasai Pastoralists under Change. Human Ecology 43(3): 411–424.Google Scholar
- Gibson, R. S., and Ferguson, E. L. (2008). An Interactive 24-Hour Recall For Assessing The Adequacy Of Iron And Zinc Intakes In Developing Countries, International Food Policy Research Institute and International Center for Tropical Agriculture, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
- Goode, P. M. (1989). Edible plants of Uganda: The Value of Wild and Cultivated Plants as Food, Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), Rome.Google Scholar
- Harwood, R. R., (1979). Small farm development: understanding and improving farming systems in the humid tropics. Westview Press for International Agricultural Development Service, Boulder.Google Scholar
- Kabunga, N., Ghosh, S., and Griffiths, J. (2014). Can smallholder fruit and vegetable production systems improve household food security and nutritional status of women? Evidence from rural Uganda. IFPRI Discussion Papers, Paper 01346: 1–33.Google Scholar
- Kahle, D., and Wickham, H. (2013). ggmap: Spatial Visualization with ggplot2. R Journal 5(1): 144–161.Google Scholar
- Kehlenbeck, K., Arifin, H. S., and Maass, B. (2007). Plant diversity in homegardens in a socio-economic and agro-ecological context. In Tscharntke, T., Leuschner, C., Zeller, M., Guhardja, E., and Bidin, A. (eds.), Stability of Tropical Rainforest Margins, Springer Verlag, Berlin, pp. 297–319.Google Scholar
- Kehlenbeck, K., Asaah, E., and Jamnadass, R. (2013). Diversity of indigenous fruit trees and their contribution to nutrition and livelihoods in sub-Saharan Africa: Examples from Kenya and Cameroon. In Fanzo, J. H. D., Borelli, T., and Mattei, F. (eds.), Diversifying Food and Diets: Using Agricultural Biodiversity to Improve Nutrition and Health, Earthscan Routledge, London, UK, pp. 257–269.Google Scholar
- Kennedy, G., and Nantel, G. (2006). Basic Guidelines for Validation of a Simple Dietary Diversity Score as an Indicator of Dietary Nutrient Adequacy for Non-Breastfeeding Children 2–6 Years, Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), Rome.Google Scholar
- Kennedy, G., Ballard, T., and Dop, M. C. (2013). Guidelines for measuring household and individual dietary diversity, Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), Rome.Google Scholar
- Kharas, H., McArthur, J. W., and von Braun, J. (2017). An evidence-based approach to ending rural hunger. Economics 51: 1–13.Google Scholar
- Levine, S., Muwonge, J., and Batana, Y. M. (2012). A Robust Multi-Dimensional Poverty Profile for Uganda. The Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI). Working Paper No. 55: 369–390.Google Scholar
- Lwanga, F., Wanyenze, R. K., Matovu, J. K. B., and Garimoi Orach, C. (2015). Food Security and Nutritional Status of Children Residing in Sugarcane Growing Communities of East-Central Uganda: A Cross-sectional Study. Journal of Food Security 3(2): 34–39.Google Scholar
- Mair, P., Hatzinger, R., and Maier, M. J., (2016). eRm: Extended Rasch Modeling. R package version 0.15–7. http://erm.r-forge.r-project.org/
- Martens, H., and Naes, T., (1992). Multivariate calibration. John Wiley & Sons,Google Scholar
- Mevik, B. H., Wehrens, R., and Liland, K. H., (2015). Partial Least Squares and Principal Component Regression [R package version 2.3–0]. http://CRAN. R-project. org/package= pls (accessed Jun 23, 2016).
- NPA (2007). Uganda Vision 2040, Ugandan National Planning Authority (NPA), Government of Uganda, Kampala.Google Scholar
- NPA (2011). Uganda Nutrition Action Plan 2011-2016, Ugandan National Planning Authority (NPA), Government of Uganda, Kampala.Google Scholar
- de Onis, M. (2006). WHO Child Growth Standards based on length/height, weight and age. Acta Paediatrica 95(450): 76–85.Google Scholar
- Pohlert, T., (2014). The Pairwise Multiple Comparison of Mean Ranks Package (PMCMR) [R package version 4.1]. http://CRAN.R-project.org/package=PMCMR (accessed Feb 13, 2016).
- Powell, B., Ikowitz, A., McMullin, S., Jamnadass, R., Padoch, C., Pinedo-Vasquez, M., and Sunderland, T. (2013). The Role of Forests, Trees and Wild Biodiversity for Nutrition-Sensitive Food Systems and Landscapes. Food and Agriculture Organization, FAO, Rome.Google Scholar
- R Core Team, (2015). R: A language and environment for statistical computing [R version 3.2.3 “Wooden Christmas Tree”]. https://www.R-project.org/ (accessed Feb 13, 2016).
- Rambeloson, Z., Omar Dary, J., Fiedler, J. L., and Franklin, N. (2012). Comparison of estimates of the nutrient density of the diet of women and children in Uganda by Household Consumption and Expenditures Surveys (HCES) and 24-hour recall. Food and Nutrition Bulletin 33(3): 5199–5207.Google Scholar
- Reinbott, A., Schelling, A., Kuchenbecker, J., Jeremias, T., Russell, I., Kevanna, O., Krawinkel, M. B., and Jordan, I. (2016b). Nutrition education linked to agricultural interventions improved child dietary diversity in rural Cambodia. The British Journal of Nutrition 116(8): 1457.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ssewakiryanga, R. (2015). Citizen’s Survey on Uganda Vision 2040, Uganda National NGO Forum, Kampala.Google Scholar
- Swindale, A., and Bilinsky, P. (2006). Household Dietary Diversity Score (HDDS) for Measurement of Household Food Access: Indicator Guide, Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance Project, Academy for Educational Development, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
- Turi, K., Christoph, M., and Grigsby-Toussaint, D. (2013). Spatial Distribution of Underweight, Overweight and Obesity among Women and Children: Results from the 2011 Uganda Demographic and Health Survey. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 10: 4967–4981.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- UBOS (2014). National Population and Housing Census 2014, Uganda Bureau of Statistics (UBOS), Kampala.Google Scholar
- UBOS, and ICF (2012). Uganda Demographic and Health Survey 2011, Uganda Bureau of Statistics (UBOS), MEASURE DHS, ICF International Inc., Calverton, Maryland.Google Scholar
- UBOS, and ICF (2017). Uganda Demographic and Health Survey 2016, Uganda Bureau of Statistics (UBOS), MEASURE DHS, ICF International Inc., Rockville, Maryland.Google Scholar
- UNDP, (2016). Human Development Report 2015 – “Sustaining Human Progress: Reducing Vulnerabilities and Building Resilience”. http://hdr.undp.org/en/2015-report (accessed November 12, 2016).
- UNICEF (2003). Strategy to Reduce Maternal and Child Undernutrition, UNICEF East Asia and Pacific Regional Office, Bangkok.Google Scholar
- United Nations (2015). Transforming Our World: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, United Nations, New York.Google Scholar
- WHO, (2006). Global database on child growth and malnutrition. http://www.who.int/nutgrowthdb/en/ (accessed June 21, 2016).
- WHO, (2007). WHO AnthroPlus R macro package. http://www.who.int/growthref/tools/en/ (accessed June 20, 2016).
- WHO (2008). Indicators for Assessing Infant and Young Child Feeding Practices, World Health Organization, Geneva.Google Scholar
- WHO, (2011). WHO Child Growth Standards R igrowup package. http://www.who.int/childgrowth/software/en/ (accessed June 6, 2016).
- WHO, (2016). Global Database on Body Mass Index. http://apps.who.int/bmi/index.jsp (accessed June 20, 2016).
- WHO and UNICEF (2009). WHO Child Growth Standards and the Identification of Severe Acute Malnutrition in Infants and Children: Joint Statement by the World Health Organization and the United Nations Children’s Fund, World Health Organization, Geneva.Google Scholar