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Fortified Bomas and Vigilant Herding are Perceived to Reduce Livestock Depredation by Large Carnivores in the Tarangire-Simanjiro Ecosystem, Tanzania

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Human-carnivore conflict (HCC) is an increasingly important issue in Tanzania, especially where humans live adjacent to protected areas (PAs). We conducted semi-structured interviews (n = 300) to compile information on livestock husbandry practices and evaluate perceptions about the effectiveness of these methods in the Tarangire-Simanjiro ecosystem of northern Tanzania. Fortified bomas were perceived to be very effective (97.7%) in reducing nighttime depredations, while adult herders were perceived to be effective (71%) in reducing daytime depredations. Domestic dogs were perceived to be more effective at night, but an equal number of respondents found them to be effective during herding as those who found them to be not effective. Our results also show that boma type had a significant effect on livestock depredation. We recommend the use of fortified bomas as a long-term solution to prevent nocturnal livestock loss and adult herders for livestock during the day.

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Correspondence to Felix J. Mkonyi.

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The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

The Tanzania Commission for Science and Technology reviewed and approved the research protocol (Ref. # 2014–370-NA-97-20). This research also received further clearance and approval by the Joint Management Research Committee (JMRC) and Research Program Committee (RPC) of the Tanzania Wildlife Research Institute. Participants provided verbal informed consent to participate in the study and data were kept anonymously.


This study was funded by St. Louis Zoo’s Wildcare Institute, the Wildlife Conservation Society and Zoological Society of London. The lead author received a postgraduate scholarship from COSTECH through the Nelson Mandela African Institution of Science and Technology (NM-AIST).

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Mkonyi, F.J., Estes, A.B., Msuha, M.J. et al. Fortified Bomas and Vigilant Herding are Perceived to Reduce Livestock Depredation by Large Carnivores in the Tarangire-Simanjiro Ecosystem, Tanzania. Hum Ecol 45, 513–523 (2017).

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