Human Ecology

, Volume 45, Issue 2, pp 161–175 | Cite as

The Pursuit of Population Collapses: Long-Term Dynamics of Semi-Domestic Reindeer in Sweden

  • Bård-Jørgen BårdsenEmail author
  • Marius Warg Næss
  • Navinder J. Singh
  • Birgitta Åhman


Spatiotemporal reindeer population fluctuations are a result of multiple factors that working in concert affecting the structure and functioning of many Arctic and Sub-Arctic ecosystems. We investigated the population dynamics of Swedish semi-domestic reindeer from 1945 to 2012 at the reindeer herding district-level (Sameby) to identify possible population collapses or declines. We also explored spatial trends and synchrony in population dynamics across latitudinal-longitude gradients for two distinct periods: 1945–1965 and 1995–2012 but found no evidence of large-scale reindeer population declines and no visible synchrony across adjacent populations. Our findings were unexpected as both reindeer populations and the pastoral lifestyle face increased habitat loss, predation, fragmentation and climate change.


Climate change Historic time series Population collapse Rangifer tarandus Saami Sweden 



We thank Hans A. Tømmervik for pointing us to the data on reindeer counts from 1945 to 1965 and for valuable discussions during the development of the study. We also thank the Sami Parliament of Sweden, represented by Rickard Doj, for access to recent data (1995-2012). BJB and MWN were financed by 1) HIERARCHIES, funded by the Norwegian Research Council (project number: 240280); 2) the Fram Centre’s two flagships: ‘Effects of climate change on terrestrial ecosystems, landscapes, society and indigenous peoples’ and ‘Environmental impact of industrial development in the north (MIKON)’; as well as 3) WP2 and WP4 of the project “Reindeer Husbandry in a Globalizing North – Resilience, Adaptations and Pathways for Actions (ReiGN)”, which is a Nordforsk-funded “Nordic Centre of Excellence” (project number 76915). NS was supported by the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency funded programme “Beyond Moose”.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

The use and presentation of the data for the period 1995–2012 has been approved by the Sami Parliament of Sweden.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

10745_2016_9880_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (659 kb)
ESM 1 (PDF 658 kb)


  1. Aanes R., Sæther B.-E., and Øritsland N. A. (2000). Fluctuations of an Introduced Population of Svalbard Reindeer: the Effects of Density Dependence and Climatic Variation. Ecography 23(4): 437–443.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aanes R., Sæther B.-E., Smith F. M., Cooper E. J., Wookey P. A., and Øritsland N. A. (2002). The Arctic Oscillation Predicts Effects of Climate Change in Two Trophic Levels in a High-Arctic Ecosystem. Ecology Letters 5(3): 445–453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Adams L. G., Singer F. J., and Dale B. W. (1995). Caribou Calf Mortality in Denali National Park, Alaska. Journal of Wildlife Management 59(3): 584–594.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Åhman B. (1999). Transfer of Radiocaesium Via Reindeer Meat to Man — Effects of Countermeasures Applied in Sweden Following the Chernobyl Accident. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 46(1): 113–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Åhman B., Svensson K., and Rönnegård L. (2014). High Female Mortality Resulting in Herd Collapse in Free-Ranging Domesticated Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) in Sweden. PLoS ONE 9(10): e111509.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Albon S. D., Mitchell B., and Staines B. W. (1983). Fertility and Body Weight in Female Red Deer: a Density-Dependent Relationship. Journal of Animal Ecology 52(3): 969–980.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Albon S. D., Clutton-Brock T. H., and Guinness F. E. (1987). Early Development and Population Dynamics in Red Deer. II. Density-Independent Effects and Cohort Variation. Journal of Animal Ecology 56(1): 69–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Anderson D. R. (2008). Model Based inference in the Life Sciences: a Primer on Evidence, Springer Science, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Anderson D. R., Burnham K. P., and Thompson W. L. (2000). Null Hypothesis Testing: Problems, Prevalence, and an Alternative. Journal of Wildlife Management 64(4): 912–923.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Anderson D. R., Link W. A., Johnson D. H., and Burnham K. P. (2001). Suggestions for Presenting the Results of Data Analyses. Journal of Wildlife Management 65(3): 373–378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Anonymous (1971). Rennäringslag 1971:437 (Reindeer Husbandry Act) (in Swedish).
  12. Anonymous (2014). Ressursregnskap for reindriftsnæringen for reindriftsåret 1. april 2012–1. mars 2013 Statens reindriftsforvaltning, Alta, Norway, pp. 112. (in Norwegian).Google Scholar
  13. Ballesteros M., Bårdsen B.-J., Fauchald P., Langeland K., Stien A., and Tveraa T. (2013). Combined Effects of Long-Term Feeding, Population Density and Vegetation Green-Up on Reindeer Demography. Ecosphere 4(4): 45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bårdsen, B.-J. (2009). Risk sensitive reproductive strategies: the effect of environmental unpredictability. Philosophiae Doctor thesis, University of Tromsø, Tromsø, Norway.Google Scholar
  15. Bårdsen B.-J., and Tveraa T. (2012). Density Dependence vs. Density Independence - Linking Reproductive Allocation to Population Abundance and Vegetation Greenness. Journal of Animal Ecology 81: 364–376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bårdsen B.-J., Fauchald P., Tveraa T., Langeland K., Yoccoz N. G., and Ims R. A. (2008). Experimental Evidence for a Risk Sensitive Reproductive Allocation in a Long-Lived Mammal. Ecology 89(3): 829–837.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bårdsen B.-J., Fauchald P., Tveraa T., Langeland K., and Nieminen M. (2009). Experimental evidence of Cost of Lactation in a Low Risk Environment for a Long-Lived Mammal. Oikos 118(6): 837–852.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bårdsen B.-J., Tveraa T., Fauchald P., and Langeland K. (2010). Observational Evidence of a Risk Sensitive Reproductive Allocation in a Long-Lived Mammal. Oecologia 162(3): 627–639.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bårdsen B.-J., Henden J.-A., Fauchald P., Tveraa T., and Stien A. (2011). Plastic Reproductive Allocation as a Buffer Against Environmental Stochasticity - Linking Life History and Population Dynamics to Climate. Oikos 20(2): 245–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bårdsen B.-J., Næss M. W., Tveraa T., Langeland K., and Fauchald P. (2014). Risk Sensitive Reproductive Allocation: Fitness Consequences of Body Mass Losses in Two Contrasting Environments. Ecology and Evolution 4(7): 1030–1038.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Benestad R. E. (2007). Novel Methods for Inferring Future Changes in Extreme Rainfall Over Northern Europe. Climate Research 34(3): 195–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Benítez-López A., Alkemade R., and Verweij P. A. (2010). The Impacts of Roads and Other Infrastructure on Mammal and Bird Populations: a Meta-Analysis. Biological Conservation 143(6): 1307–1316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Berhanu W., Colman D., and Fayissa B. (2007). Diversification and Livelihood Sustainability in a Semi-Arid Environment: a Case Study from Southern Ethiopia. The Journal of Development Studies 43(5): 871–889.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Bjørnstad, O. N. (2013). ncf: spatial nonparametric covariance functions.Google Scholar
  25. Bjørnstad O. N., Ims R. A., and Lambin X. (1999). Spatial Population Dynamics: Analyzing Patterns and Processes of Population Synchrony. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 14(11): 427–432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Bonenfant C., Gaillard J. M., Coulson T., Festa-Bianchet M., Loison A., Garel M., Loe L. E., Blanchard P., Pettorelli N., Owen-Smith N., Du Toit J., and Duncan P. (2009). Empirical Evidence of Density-Dependence in Populations of Large Herbivores. Advances in Ecological Research 41: 313–357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Burnham K. P., and Anderson D. R. (2002). Model Selection and Multimodel Inference: a Practical Information-Theoretic Approach, Second edn., Springer, New York.Google Scholar
  28. Chapron G., Kaczensky P., Linnell J. D. C., von Arx M., Huber D., Andrén H., López-Bao J. V., Adamec M., Álvares F., Anders O., Balčiauskas L., Balys V., Bedő P., Bego F., Blanco J. C., Breitenmoser U., Brøseth H., Bufka L., Bunikyte R., Ciucci P., Dutsov A., Engleder T., Fuxjäger C., Groff C., Holmala K., Hoxha B., Iliopoulos Y., Ionescu O., Jeremić J., Jerina K., Kluth G., Knauer F., Kojola I., Kos I., Krofel M., Kubala J., Kunovac S., Kusak J., Kutal M., Liberg O., Majić A., Männil P., Manz R., Marboutin E., Marucco F., Melovski D., Mersini K., Mertzanis Y., Mysłajek R. W., Nowak S., Odden J., Ozolins J., Palomero G., Paunović M., Persson J., Potočnik H., Quenette P.-Y., Rauer G., Reinhardt I., Rigg R., Ryser A., Salvatori V., Skrbinšek T., Stojanov A., Swenson J. E., Szemethy L., Trajçe A., Tsingarska-Sedefcheva E., Váňa M., Veeroja R., Wabakken P., Wölfl M., Wölfl S., Zimmermann F., Zlatanova D., and Boitani L. (2014). Recovery of Large Carnivores in Europe’s Modern Human-Dominated Landscapes. Science 346(6216): 1517–1519.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Clutton-Brock T. H., and Coulson T. (2002). Comparative Ungulate Dynamics: the Devil is in the Detail. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B-Biological Sciences 357(1425): 1285–1298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Clutton-Brock T. H., Stevenson I. R., Marrow P., MacColl A. D., Houston A. I., and McNamara J. M. (1996). Population Fluctuations, Reproductive Costs and Life-History Tactics in Female Soay Sheep. Journal of Animal Ecology 65(6): 675–689.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Colman J., Eftestøl S., Tsegaye D., Flydal K., and Mysterud A. (2013). Summer Distribution of Semi-Domesticated Reindeer Relative to a New Wind-Power Plant. European Journal of Wildlife Research 59(3): 359–370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Coughenour M. B., Ellis J. E., Swift D. M., Coppock D. L., Galvin K., McCabe J. T., and Hart T. C. (1985). Energy Extraction and Use in a Nomadic Pastoral Ecosystem. Science 230(4726): 619–625.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Coulson T., Milner-Gulland E. J., and Clutton-Brock T. H. (2000). The Relative Roles of Density and Climatic Variation on Population Dynamics and Fecundity Rates in Three Contrasting Ungulate Species. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B-Biological Sciences 267(1454): 1771–1779.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Coulson T., Catchpole E. A., Albon S. D., Morgan B. J. T., Pemberton J. M., Clutton-Brock T. H., Crawley M. J., and Grenfell B. T. (2001). Age, Sex, Density, Winter Weather, and Population Crashes in Soay Sheep. Science 292(5521): 1528–1531.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Danell, Ö. (2010). Reindeer husbandry and the predators/Renskötseln och rovdjuren. In Haugerud R. E. (ed.), 16th Nordic Conference on Reindeer and Reindeer Husbandry Research, Tromsø, Rangifer Report 14:78–79.Google Scholar
  36. Fauchald P., Tveraa T., Henaug C., and Yoccoz N. (2004). Adaptive Regulation of Body Reserves in Reindeer, Rangifer tarandus: a Feeding Experiment. Oikos 107(3): 583–591.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Festa-Bianchet M., Gaillard J. M., and Jorgenson J. T. (1998). Mass- and Density-Dependent Reproductive Success and Reproductive Costs in a Capital Breeder. American Naturalist 152(3): 367–379.Google Scholar
  38. Flydal K., and Reimers E. (2002). Relationship Between Calving Time and Physical Condition in Three Wild Reindeer Rangifer tarandus Populations in Southern Norway. Wildlife Biology 8(2): 145–151.Google Scholar
  39. Flydal K., Korslund L., Reimers E., Johansen F., and Colman J. E. (2009). Effects of Power Lines on Area Use and Behaviour of Semi-Domestic Reindeer in Enclosures. International Journal of Ecology 2009: 14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Fratkin E., and Roth E. A. (1990). Drought and Economic Differentiation Among Ariaal Pastoralists of Kenya. Human Ecology 18(4): 385–402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Gaillard J. M., Festa-Bianchet M., Yoccoz N. G., Loison A., and Toïgo C. (2000). Temporal Variation in Fitness Components and Population Dynamics of Large Herbivores. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 31: 367–393.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hansen B. B., Aanes R., Herfindal I., Kohler J., and Saether B. E. (2011). Climate, Icing, and Wild Arctic Reindeer: Past Relationships and Future Prospects. Ecology 92(10): 1917–1923.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hanssen S. A., Moe B., Bårdsen B.-J., Hanssen F., and Gabrielsen G. W. (2013). A Natural Antipredation Experiment: Predator Control and Reduced Sea Ice Increases Colony Size in a Long-Lived Duck. Ecology and Evolution 3(10): 3554–3564.Google Scholar
  44. Hausner V. H., Fauchald P., Tveraa T., Pedersen E., Jernsletten J. L., Ulvevadet B., Ims R. A., Yoccoz N. G., and Brathen K. A. (2011). The Ghost of Development Past: the Impact of Economic Security Policies on Saami Pastoral Ecosystems. Ecology and Society 16(3): 4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hausner V. H., Fauchald P., and Jernsletten J. L. (2012). Community-Based Management: Under what Conditions do Sami Pastoralists Manage Pastures Sustainably? Plos One 7(12): e51187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hewison A. J. M., Gaillard J. M., Angibault J. M., Van Laere G., and Vincent J. P. (2002). The Influence of Density on Post-Weaning Growth in Roe Deer Capreolus Capreolus Fawns. Journal of Zoology 257: 303–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hobbs N. T., Andrén H., Persson J., Aronsson M., and Chapron G. (2012). Native Predators Reduce Harvest of Reindeer by Sami Pastoralists. Ecological Applications 22(5): 1640–1654.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Horstkotte, T. (2013). Contested landscapes: social-ecological interactions between forestry and reindeer husbandry. Filosofie doktor, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Umeå University, Sweden.Google Scholar
  49. Jernsletten J.-L. L., and Klokov K. (2002). Sustainable Reindeer Husbandry: Arctic Council 2000–2002, Centre for Saami Studies, University of Tromsø, Tromsø.Google Scholar
  50. Kivinen S., Moen J., Berg A., and Eriksson Å. (2010). Effects of Modern Forest Management on Winter Grazing Resources for Reindeer in Sweden. AMBIO 39(4): 269–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Kivinen S., Berg A., Moen J., Östlund L., and Olofsson J. (2012). Forest Fragmentation and Landscape Transformation in a Reindeer Husbandry Area in Sweden. Environmental Management 49(2): 295–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Kumpula, J. (2001). Productivity of the semidomesticated reindeer (Rangifer t. tarandus L.) stock and carrying capacity of pastures in Finland during 1960–1990's. Doctoral Dissertation, Department of Biology, University of Oulu, Finland.Google Scholar
  53. Lenvik D., Bø E., and Fjellheim A. (1988). Relationship Between the Weight of Reindeer Calves in Autumn and their Mother's Age and Weight in the Previous Spring. Rangifer 8(1): 20–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Lindquist, J. (2009). Reindeer herding: a traditional indigenous livelihood. Macquarie Journal of International and Comparative Environmental Law 6(1):83–127.Google Scholar
  55. Löf A. (2013). Examining Limits and Barriers to Climate Change Adaptation in an Indigenous Reindeer Herding Community. Climate and. Development 5(4): 328–339.Google Scholar
  56. Lummaa V., and Clutton-Brock T. H. (2002). Early Development, Survival and Reproduction in Humans. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 17(3): 141–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Lundqvist H., Norell L., and Danell Ö. (2007). Relationships Between Biotic and Abiotic Range Characteristics and Productivity of Reindeer Husbandry in Sweden. Rangifer 27(1): 5–23.Google Scholar
  58. Lundqvist H., Norell L., and Danell Ö. (2009). Relationships Between Biotic and Abiotic Range Characteristics and Productivity of Reindeer Husbandry in Sweden. Rangifer 29(1): 1–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. McPeak J. (2005). Individual and Collective Rationality in Pastoral Production: Evidence from Northern Kenya. Human Ecology 33(2): 171–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Moen J., and Danell O. (2003). Reindeer in the Swedish Mountains: an Assessment of Grazing Impacts. Ambio 32(6): 397–402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Moen J., and Keskitalo E. C. H. (2010). Interlocking Panarchies in Multi-Use Boreal Forests in Sweden. Ecology and Society 15(3): 17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Morris W. F., and Doak D. F. (2002). Quantitative Conservation Biology - Theory and Practice of Population Viability Analysis, Sinauer, USA.Google Scholar
  63. Næss M. W. (2010). Contradictory Evidence as a Guide for Future Research: Investigating the Relationship Between Pastoral Labour and Production. Nomadic Peoples 14(1): 51–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Næss M. W., and Bårdsen B.-J. (2010). Environmental Stochasticity and Long-Term Livestock Viability - Herd-Accumulation as a Risk Reducing Strategy. Human Ecology 38: 3–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Næss M. W., and Bårdsen B.-J. (2013). Why Herd Size Matters – Mitigating the Effects of Livestock Crashes. Plos One 8(8): e70161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Næss M. W., and Bårdsen B.-J. (2015). Market Economy vs. Risk Management: How do Nomadic Pastoralists Respond to Increasing Meat Prices? Human Ecology 38.Google Scholar
  67. Næss M. W., Bårdsen B.-J., Pedersen E., and Tveraa T. (2011). Pastoral Herding Strategies and Governmental Management Objectives: Predation Compensation as a Risk Buffering Strategy in the Saami Reindeer Husbandry. Human Ecology 39(4): 489–508.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Næss M. W., Bårdsen B.-J., and Tveraa T. (2012). Wealth Dependent and Interdependent Strategies in the Saami Reindeer Husbandry, Norway. Evolution and Human Behavior 33(6): 696–707.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Norsk-svensk reinbeitekommisjon av 28. februar 1964 (1967). Innstilling fra den norsk-svenske reinbeitekommisjon av 1964. – Utenriksdepartementet, Oslo, Norway, pp. 267 (in Norwegian).Google Scholar
  70. Pape R., and Löffler J. (2012). Climate Change, Land Use Conflicts, Predation and Ecological Degradation as Challenges for Reindeer Husbandry in Northern Europe: What do We Really Know After Half a Century of Research? Ambio 41(5): 421–434.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Pettorelli N., Gaillard J. M., Van Laere G., Duncan P., Kjellander P., Liberg O., Delorme D., and Maillard D. (2002). Variations in Adult Body Mass in Roe Deer: the Effects of Population Density at Birth and of Habitat Quality. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B-Biological Sciences 269(1492): 747–753.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Pinheiro J. C., and Bates D. M. (2000). Mixed Effect Models in S and S-PLUS. Statistics and Computing, Springer, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Pinheiro, J. C., Bates, D. M., DebRoy, S., Deepayan, S., and Team, R. D. C. (2012). nlme: linear and nonlinear mixed effects model.Google Scholar
  74. R Core Team (2013). R: a Language and Environment for Statistical Computing, R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna.Google Scholar
  75. Rees W., Stammler F., Danks F., and Vitebsky P. (2008). Vulnerability of European Reindeer Husbandry to Global Change. Climatic Change 87(1): 199–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Reimers E. (1972). Growth in Domestic and Wild Reindeer in Norway. Journal of Wildlife Management 36(2): 612–619.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Rönnegård L., Forslund P., and Danell Ö. (2002). Lifetime Patterns in Adult Female Mass, Reproduction, and Offspring Mass in Semidomestic Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus). Canadian Journal of Zoology 80(12): 2047–2055.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Rose K. E., Clutton-Brock T. H., and Guinness F. E. (1998). Cohort Variation in Male Survival and Lifetime Breeding Success in Red Deer. Journal of Animal Ecology 67(6): 979–986.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Sæther B.-E. (1997). Environmental Stochasticity and Population Dynamics of Large Herbivores: a Search for Mechanisms. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 12(4): 143–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Sæther B.-E., Andersen R., Hjeljord O., and Heim M. (1996). Ecological Correlates of Regional Variation in Life History of the Moose Alces Alces. Ecology 77(5): 1493–1500.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Sand H. (1996). Life History Patterns in Female Moose (Alces alces): the Relationship Between Age, Body Size, Fecundity and Environmental Conditions. Oecologia 106(2): 212–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Sandström, P. (2015). A toolbox for co-production of knowledge and improved land use dialogues: the perspective of reindeer husbandry, Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.Google Scholar
  83. Shigaeva J., Kollmair M., Niederer P., and Maselli D. (2007). Livelihoods in Transition: Changing Land Use Strategies and Ecological Implications in a Post-Soviet Setting (Kyrgyzstan). Central Asian Survey 26(3): 389–406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Sinclair A. R. E., and Pech R. P. (1996). Density Dependence, Stochasticity, Compensation and Predator Regulation. Oikos 75(2): 164–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Skarin A., and Åhman B. (2014). Do Human Activity and Infrastructure Disturb Domesticated Reindeer? The Need for the Reindeer’s Perspective. Polar Biology 37(7): 1041–1054.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Skogland T. (1985). The Effects of Density-Dependent Resource Limitations on the Demography of Wild Reindeer. Journal of Animal Ecology 54(2): 359–374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Solberg E. J., Jordhoy P., Strand O., Aanes R., Loison A., Sæther B.-E., and Linnell J. D. C. (2001). Effects of Density-Dependence and Climate on the Dynamics of a Svalbard Reindeer Population. Ecography 24(4): 441–451.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Staaland H., and Sletten H. (1991). Feeding reindeer in Fennoscandia: the use of artificial food. In Renecker L. A., and Hudson R. J. (eds.), Wildlife Production: Conservation and Sustainable Development, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, pp. 227–242.Google Scholar
  89. Swenson J. E., Sandegren F., Bjärvall A., Söderberg A., Wabakken P., and Franzén R. (1994). Size, Trend, Distribution and Conservation of the Brown Bear Ursus arctos Population in Sweden. Biological Conservation 70(1): 9–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Tebaldi C., Hayhoe K., Arblaster J. M., and Meehl G. A. (2006). Going to the Extremes. Climatic Change 79(3–4): 185–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Templer G., Swift J., and Payne P. (1993). The Changing Significance of Risk in the Mongolian Pastoral Economy. Nomadic Peoples 33: 105–122.Google Scholar
  92. Tømmervik, H., and Riseth, J. Å. (2011). Historiske tamreintall i Norge fra 1800-tallet fram til i dag. NINA Rapport 672, Tromsø, Norway, p. 36 (in Norwegian).Google Scholar
  93. Turchin P. (1995). Population regulation: old arguments and a new synthesis. In Cappuccino N., and Price P. W. (eds.), Population Dynamics - New Approaches and Synthesis, Academic, San Diego, pp. 19–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Turunen M. T., Rasmus S., Bavay M., Ruosteenoja K., and Heiskanen J. (2016). Coping with Difficult Weather and Snow Conditions: Reindeer Herders’ Views on Climate Change Impacts and Coping Strategies. Climate Risk Management 11: 15–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Tveraa T., Fauchald P., Henaug C., and Yoccoz N. G. (2003). An Examination of a Compensatory Relationship Between Food Limitation and Predation in Semi-Domestic Reindeer. Oecologia 137(3): 370–376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Tveraa T., Fauchald P., Yoccoz N. G., Ims R. A., Aanes R., and Høgda K. A. (2007). What Regulate and Limit Reindeer Populations in Norway? Oikos 116(4): 706–715.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Tveraa T., Stien A., Bårdsen B.-J., and Fauchald P. (2013). Population Densities, Vegetation Green-Up, and Plant Productivity: Impacts on Reproductive Success and Juvenile Body Mass in Reindeer. Plos One 8(2): e56450.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Tveraa T., Stien A., Brøseth H., and Yoccoz N. G. (2014). The Role of Predation and Food Limitation on Claims for Compensation, Reindeer Demography and Population Dynamics. Journal of Applied Ecology 51(5): 1264–1272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Uboni A., Horstkotte T., Kaarlejärvi E., Sévêque A., Stammler F., Olofsson J., Forbes B. C., and Moen J. (2016). Long-Term Trends and Role of Climate in the Population Dynamics of Eurasian Reindeer. PLoS ONE 11: e0158359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Ulvevadet B., and Hausner V. H. (2011). Incentives and Regulations to Reconcile Conservation and Development: Thirty Years of Governance of the Sami Pastoral Ecosystem in Finnmark, Norway. Journal of Environmental Management 92(10): 2794–2802.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Vors L. S., and Boyce M. S. (2009). Global Declines of Caribou and Reindeer. Global Change Biology 15(11): 2626–2633.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Wabakken P., Sand H., Liberg O., and Bjärvall A. (2001). The Recovery, Distribution, and Population Dynamics of Wolves on the Scandinavian Peninsula, 1978-1998. Canadian Journal of Zoology 79(4): 710–725.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Zuur A. F., Ieno E. N., Walker N. J., Saveliev A. A., and Smith G. M. (2009). Mixed Effects Models and Extensions in Ecology with R. Statistics for Biology and Health, Springer, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bård-Jørgen Bårdsen
    • 1
    Email author
  • Marius Warg Næss
    • 2
  • Navinder J. Singh
    • 3
  • Birgitta Åhman
    • 4
  1. 1.Arctic Ecology DepartmentNorwegian Institute for Nature Research (NINA)TromsøNorway
  2. 2.High NorthNorwegian Institute for Cultural Heritage (NIKU)TromsøNorway
  3. 3.Department of Wildlife, Fish and Environmental SciencesSwedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU)UmeåSweden
  4. 4.Department of Animal Nutrition and ManagementSLUUppsalaSweden

Personalised recommendations