Ecosystem Services and Disservices for a Vulnerable Population: Findings from Urban Waterways and Wetlands in an American Desert City
- 1.1k Downloads
Vulnerable human populations are exposed to social and biophysical stressors, but have limited capacity to mitigate them, and thus may access ecosystem services in unconventional ways. As a result of this access, they may also experience disservices (i.e., functions of ecosystems harmful to human wellbeing) in ways that are not well understood. We use a mixed-method socio-ecological approach to examine how persons experiencing homelessness in Phoenix, Arizona, access ecosystem services and encounter disservices in urban waterways. We find that urban waterways provide users with drinking and bathing water, and cooler, shaded areas, but potentially expose them to pathogens and legal persecution. The wetlands provide cultural services by affording a sense of place and safety; however, these locations can also be associated with restrictive ordinances and aggressive law enforcement. This study explores the role of ecosystem services and disservices in bridging the gap between biophysical and social vulnerability.
KeywordsEcosystem services and disservices Vulnerability Urban waterways Urban marginality Phoenix Arizona USA
- Arizona Department of Economic Security (ADES). (2013). Homelessness in Arizona 2013 Annual Report. Homeless Coordination Office, Department of Economic Security, Division of Aging and Adult Services.Google Scholar
- Arizona Department of Health Services (ADHS). (2014). Heat Safety - Heat-Related Illness. http://www.azdhs.gov/phs/oeh/extreme/heat/illness.php (Accessed 25 November, 2014).
- Bernard H. R. (2011). Research Methods in Anthropology: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches, Altamira Press, Rowman.Google Scholar
- Chuang W. C., and Gober P. (2015). Predicting hospitalization for heat-related illness at the census-tract level: accuracy of a generic heat vulnerability index in Phoenix, Arizona (USA). Environmental Health Perspectives 123(6): 606–612.Google Scholar
- Continuum of Care Regional Committee on Homelessness. (2014). Point in Time Homeless Report. https://www.azmag.gov/Documents/CoC_2014-05-21_2014-Point-in-Time-Homeless-Report-for-Maricopa-County-Presentation.pdf.
- Costanza R., and Folke C. (1997). Valuing ecosystem services with efficiency, fairness, and sustainability as goals. In Daily G. C. (ed.), Nature’s Services: Societal Dependence on Natural Ecosystems, Island Press, Washington, D.C., pp. 40–70.Google Scholar
- Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (1986). Ambient Water Quality for Bacteria. EPA440/5-84-002, Office of Water Regulations and Standards Division, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
- Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). (2001). Total Coliform Rule: A Quick Reference Guide. EPA 816-F-01-035.Google Scholar
- Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (2003). Bacterial Water Quality Standards for Recreational Waters (Freshwater and Marine Waters) Status Report. EPA-823-R-03-008, Office of Water (4305T), Washington, DC.Google Scholar
- Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (2012). Recreational Water Quality Criteria. EPA-820-F-12-061, Office of Water (4305T), Washington, DC.Google Scholar
- Fraser E. D. G. (2003). Social Vulnerability and Ecological Fragility: Building Bridges Between Social and Natural Sciences Using the Irish Potato Famine as a Case Study. Conservation Ecology 7(2): 9–17.Google Scholar
- Harlan S. L., Declet-Barreto J. H., Stefanov W. L., and Petitti D. B. (2013). Neighborhood Effect on Heat Deaths: Social and Environmental Vulnerability in Maricopa County, Arizona. Environmental Health Perspectives 121(2): 197–204.Google Scholar
- Hedberg, E. C., and Hart B. (2013). A New Look: A Survey of Arizona’s Homeless Population. Morrison Institute for Public Policy. Phoenix, AZ.Google Scholar
- Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Climate Change. (2007). Synthesis Report. https://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment-report/ar4/syr/ar4_syr.pdf.
- Jenerette G. D., Harlan S. L., Stefanov W. L., and Martin C. A. (2011). Ecosystem Services and Urban Heat Riskscape Moderation: Water, Green Spaces, and Social Inequality in Phoenix, USA. Ecological Society of America 21(7): 2637–2651.Google Scholar
- Keller T. (2014). Destruction of the ecosystem. 1914-1918-Online. International Encyclopedia of the First World War.Google Scholar
- Klinenberg E. (2003). Heat Wave: A Social Autopsy of Disaster in Chicago, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
- Liverman D. M. (1990). Vulnerability to global change. In Kasperson R. E., Dow K., Golding D., and Kasperson J. X. (eds.), Understanding Global Environmental Change: The Contributions of Risk Analysis and Management, The Earth Transformed Programme. Clark University, Worcester, MA, pp. 27–44.Google Scholar
- Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) (2005). Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Biodiversity Synthesis, World Resources Institute, Washington, D.C. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0921800907001462#bib39 Google Scholar
- National Research Council (NRC) (2005). National Research Council (NCR) Valuing Ecosystem Services: Toward Better Environmental Decision-Making, National Academy Press, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
- Oliver-Smith A. (2002). Theorizing disasters: nature, power, and culture. In Hoffman S. M., and Oliver-Smith A. (eds.), Catastrophe and Culture: The Anthropology of Disaster, School of American Research Press, Santa Fe, pp. 23–47.Google Scholar
- Phoenix Homeless Rising. Report 2011 Holding Shelters and Service Providers Accountable.Google Scholar
- Ruddell D. M., Harlan S. L., Grossman-Clarke S., and Buyantuyev A. (2010). Risk and exposure to extreme heat in microclimates of Phoenix, AZ. In Showalter P. S., and Yongmei L. (eds.), Geospatial Techniques in Urban Hazard and Disaster Analysis..., Springer, New York City, pp. 179–202.Google Scholar
- Sanchez, C. (2011). Tricks of the Shade: Heat Related Coping Strategies of Urban Homeless Persons in Phoenix, Arizona. Unpublished Master’s Thesis, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona.Google Scholar
- Schröter D., Cramer W., Rik L., Colin Prentice I., Araújo M. B., Arnell N. W., Bondeau A., Bugmann H., Carter T. R., Gracia C. A., de la Vega-Leinert A. C., Erhard M., Ewert F., Glendining M., House J. I., Kankaanpää S., Klein R. J. T., Lavorel S., Lindner M., Metzger M. J., Meyer J., Mitchell T. D., Reginster I., Rounsevell M., Sabaté S., Sitch S., Smith B., Smith J., Smith P., Sykes M. T., Thonicke K., Thuiller W., Tuck G., Zaehle S., and Zierl B. (2005). Ecosystem Service Supply and Vulnerability to Global Change in Europe. Science 310(5752): 1333–1337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Sen A. (1995). Poverty and Famines: An Essay on Entitlement and Deprivation, University Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
- Sermons, M. W. and White P. (2011). State of Homelessness in America. http://www.endhomelessness.org/page/-/files/4361_file_Appendix_One.pdf, accessed, Feb. 3, 2016.
- Susman P., O’Keefe P., and Wisner B. (1984). Global disasters: a radical interpretation. In Hewitt K. (ed.), Interpretations of Calamity from the Viewpoint of Human Ecology, Allen & Unwin, Boston, pp. 263–283.Google Scholar
- United Nations Finance Initiative. (2008). Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services: Bloom or Bust? http://www.unepfi.org/fileadmin/documents/bloom_or_bust_report.pdf .
- United States Council of Mayors (2013). Hunger and Homelessness Survey: A Status Report on Hunger and Homelessness in America’s Cities, City Policy Associates, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
- Wisner B., Blaikie P., Cannon T., and Davis I. (2004). At Risk: Natural Hazards, People’s Vulnerability, and Disasters, 2nd edn., Routledge, London.Google Scholar