Human Ecology

, Volume 43, Issue 3, pp 439–450 | Cite as

Tourism and Water Inequity in Bali: A Social-Ecological Systems Analysis

  • Stroma Cole
  • Mia Browne


This paper is a social-ecological systems (SES) analysis of tourism and water inequity in Bali. It uses Elinor Ostrom’s SES model to look at the particular niche of Bali’s tourism and water nexus. Re-analysis of previous qualitative research revealed that the vulnerability of the SES was due to numerous characteristics. In particular, user groups are highly diverse, transient and stratified, thereby inhibiting communication and knowledge sharing. This, in combination with weak governance systems and the economic power of the tourism industry, interact to affect declining water resources and the iniquitous impact of this. Whilst there are obvious indications that Bali’s water resources are over stretched, there is no feedback loop to the institutional structures that would help enable appropriate responses from the user groups or governance system.


Tourism Social-ecological system Water Bali 


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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of the West of EnglandBristolUK
  2. 2.University of St AndrewsFifeUK

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