Columbia Basin Heritage Fish Consumption Rates
- 279 Downloads
The distinction between contemporary Native American fish consumption rates and original baseline heritage rates is important as heritage rates have long been recognized as a baseline relevant to the fishing tribes of the Pacific Northwest, and are generally protected by Treaties and case law. This paper reviews two approaches to accurately defining heritage fish consumption rates in the Columbia Basin. One approach is dietary reconstruction based on several lines of evidence (ethnographic, archaeological, historical ecology, nutritional) to estimate overall dietary composition and the caloric contribution of fish, especially salmon. The second approach is review of abundance, harvest, and consumption rates augmented with ethnographic and archaeological evidence over the same geographical area. The two methods independently arrive at the same range for heritage rates, and the wealth of evidence that has accumulated over 75 years of investigation suggests that these are robust conclusions.
KeywordsFish consumption rates Heritage consumption rates Columbia Basin Columbia River Pacific Northwest Native American Ethnographic surveys
The authors with to thank Catherine O’Neil, Jamie Donatuto, Pat Cirone, Craig McCormack, and Diane Barton for their thoughtful insights and comments.
The material presented in this article represents the opinions of the author and does not necessarily reflect official tribal or university policy.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest. This paper is a companion paper to Harper and Walker, “Comparison of Contemporary and Heritage Fish Consumption Rates in the Columbia River Basin.” No animal research or human subjects were involved in the development of this paper. This work was not supported by a grant or consultation fees. A portion of this work was presented as:
B Harper. Heritage or Rights-Based Fish consumption Rates in the Columbia Basin. 2013 Tribal Leaders Summit, October 7–11, 2013. Northern Quest Resort & Casino, Spokane WA. Invited presentation, posted at http://tels.kalispeltribe.com/
- [CRITFC] Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission (1994). A Fish Consumption Survey of the Umatilla, Nez Perce, Yakama, and Warm Springs Tribes of the Columbia River Basin. Technical Report no. 94–3. Columbia River Intertribal Fish Commission, Oregon. Abstract posted at: http://www.critfc.org/reports/a-fish-consumption-survey-of-the-umatilla-nez-perce-yakama-and-warm-springs-tribes-of-the-columbia-river-basin/.Google Scholar
- [NPPC] Northwest Power Planning Council. (1986). Compilation of information on salmon and steelhead total run size, catch, and hydropower related losses in the upper Columbia River Basin, above Grand Coulee Dam. Upper Columbia United Tribes Fisheries Technical Report #2 http://www.nwcouncil.org/reports/1985/ucut-fisheries-technical-report/ Last accessed 10/20/14.
- [USEPA] US Environmental Protection Agency. (1989). Assessing Human Health Risjs fro Chemically Contaminated Fish and Shellfish: A Guidance Manual. EPA-503/8-89-002. Available online from http://nepis.epa.gov/EPA/ Last accessed 10/20/14.
- [USEPA] US Environmental Protection Agency. (1992). Consumption Surveys for Fish and Shellfish: A Review and Analysis of Survey Methods. EPA 822/R-92-001. Posted at http://nepis.epa.gov/Exe/ZyPDF.cgi?Dockey=20003KQE.PDF Last accessed 10/20/14.
- [USEPA] US Environmental Protection Agency. (1998). Guidance for Conducting Fish and Wildlife Consumption Surveys. EPA-823-B-98-007. EPA Office of Water, November 1998. Posted at http://water.epa.gov/scitech/swguidance/fishshellfish/techguidance/upload/1999_11_03_fish_survey methods.pdf Last accessed 10/20/14.
- [USEPA] US Environmental Protection Agency. (2000). Methodology for Deriving Ambient Water Quality Criteria for the Protection of Human Health. http://water.epa.gov/scitech/swguidance/standards/criteria/health/methodology/ Last accessed 10/20/14.
- [USEPA] US Environmental Protection Agency. (2011). Exposure Factors Handbook 2011 Edition (Final). USEPA National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development EPA/600/R-09/052F. http://cfpub.epa.gov/ncea/risk/recordisplay.cfm?deid=236252. First published in 1989 and later updated in 1997. Last accessed 10/20/14.
- [USEPA] US Environmental Protection Agency, Region 10. Correspondence to The Honorable Rudy People, Chairman of the Spokane Tribe of Indians, from Danial Opalski, Director, Office of Water and Watersheds, December 19, 2013. http://www.epa.gov/region10/pdf/water/wqs/spokane_cover_letter_TSD_Dec192013.pdf Last accessed 10/20/14.
- Anastasio, A. (1985). The Southern Plateau: An Ecological analysis of Intergroup Relations. Northwest Anthropology Research Notes (no citation). Second textbook edition, University of Idaho: Revised from Northwest Anthropological Research Notes 6: 109–229, 1972.Google Scholar
- Baumhoff, M. A. (1963). Ecological determinants of aboriginal California populations. University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology 49(2): 155–236. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
- Benson, L. V., Berry, M. S., Jolie, E. A., Spangler, J. D., Stahle, D. W., and Hattori, E. M. (2007). Possible Impacts of Early-11th-, Middle-12th-, and Late-13th-Century Droughts on Western Native Americans and the Mississippian Cahokians. Quaternary Science Reviews 26: 336–350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Berkes, F. (1983). Quantifying the Harvest of Native Subsistence Fisheries. In Wein, R. W., Riewe, R. R., and Methven, L. R. (eds.), Resources and Dynamics of the Boreal Zone. Association of Canadian Universities for Northern Studies, Ottawa, pp. 346–363.Google Scholar
- Boone, J. L. (2002). Subsistence Strategies and Early Human Population History: an Evolutionary Ecological Perspective. World Archaeology 34(1): 6–25.Google Scholar
- Boyd, R. (1996). People of The Dalles: The Indians of Wascopam Mission. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln.Google Scholar
- Cannon, A. (1991). The Economic Prehistory of Namu: Patterns in Vertebrate Fauna. Department of Archaeology, Simon Fraser University, Publication 19. Simon Fraser University, Burnaby.Google Scholar
- Carlson, C. C. (1979). The Early Component at Bear Cove. Canadian Journal of Archaeology 3: 177–194.Google Scholar
- Carlson, R. (1998). Coastal British Columbia in the Light of North Pacific Maritime Adaptations. Arctic Anthropology 35: 23–35.Google Scholar
- Cohen, M. N. (1989). Health and the Rise of Civilization. Yale University Press, New Haven.Google Scholar
- Cohen, M. N., and Armelago, G. J. (eds.) (1984). Paleopathology and the Origins of Agriculture. Academic Press, Orlando.Google Scholar
- Craig, J. A., and Hacker, R. L. (1940). History and Development of the Fisheries of the Columbia River. Bulletin No. 32 in Bulletin of the U. S. Bureau of Fisheries 49: 133–216. Available online at http://docs.lib.noaa.gov/rescue/Fish_Commission_Bulletins/data_rescue_fish_commission_bulletins.html.Google Scholar
- Cressman, L. S. (1977). Prehistory of the Far West: Homes of Vanished Peoples. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City.Google Scholar
- Donald, L., and Mitchell, D. H. (1996). Nature and Culture on the Northwest Coast of North America: The Case of Wakashan Salmon Resources. In Burch, E. S., and Ellanna, L. J. (eds.), Key Issues in Hunter-Gatherer Research. Berg Publishing, Washington, D.C, pp. 95–117.Google Scholar
- Fulton, L. A. (1968). Spawning areas and abundance of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Columbia River Basin – past and present. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Special Scientific Report: Fisheries, No. 571.Google Scholar
- Fulton, L. A. (1970). Spawning areas and abundance of steelhead trout and coho, sockeye, and chum salmon in the Columbia River Basin – past and present. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Special Scientific Report: Fisheries No. 618.Google Scholar
- Galloway, P. (2006). Practicing Ethnohistory: Mining Archives, Hearing Testimony, Constructing Narrative. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, NE.Google Scholar
- Grier, C., Flanigan, K., Winters, M., Jordan, L. G., Lukowski, S., and Kemp, B. M. (2013). Using Ancient DNA Identification and Osteometric Measures of Archaeological Pacific Salmon Vertebrae for Reconstructing Salmon Fisheries and Site Seasonality at Dionisio Point, British Columbia. Journal of Archaeological Science 40: 544–555.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Griswold, F. (1953). Aboriginal patterns of trade between the Columbia Basin and the Northwest Plains. M.A. Theses, Montana State University, Missoula, MT.Google Scholar
- Harris, S. G., and Harper BL. (1997). A Native American Exposure Scenario. Risk Analysis 17: 789–795.Google Scholar
- Hewes, G. W. (1947). Aboriginal use of fishery resources in northwestern North America. Doctoral dissertation, University of California Berkeley.Google Scholar
- Hewes, G. W. (1973). Indian Fisheries Productivity in pre-Contact Times in the Pacific Salmon Area. Northwest Anthropological Research Notes 7(2): 133–155.Google Scholar
- Hewes, G. W. (1998). Fishing. In Walker Jr., D. E. (ed.), Handbook of North American Indians, Volume 12: Plateau. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, pp. 620–640.Google Scholar
- Hunn, E. S. (1981). On the Relative Contribution of Men and Women to Subsistence Among Hunter-Gatherers of the Columbia Plateau: A Comparison With Ethnographic Atlas Summaries. Journal of Ethnobiology 1(1): 124–134.Google Scholar
- Hunn, E. S. (1990). NCh’i-Wana, The Big River: Mid-Columbia Indians and Their Land. University of Washington Press, Seattle.Google Scholar
- Idler, D. R., Clemens, W. A. (1959). The energy expenditure of Fraser River sockeye salmon during the spawning migration to Chilko and Stuart Lakes. Internation Pacific Salmon fisheries Commission, Progress report No. 6, New Westminster, British Columbia.Google Scholar
- Jenicke, M. R. (2001). Nutritional ecology: Diet, Physical Activities, and Body Size. In Painter-Brick, C., Layton, R. H., and Rowley-Conwy (eds.), Hunter-gatherers: and Interdisciplinary Perspective. Cambridge University Press: New York and Cambridge UK, pp. 205–238Google Scholar
- Kelly, K. (1986). Navajo Land Use: An Ethnoarchaeological Study. Academic, Orlando, FL.Google Scholar
- Kelly, R. L. (1995). The Foraging Spectrum: Diversity in Hunter-Gatherer Lifeways. Smithsonian Press, Washington DC.Google Scholar
- Kuhnlein, H. V., Smitasiri, S., Yesudas, S., Bhattacharjee, L., Dan, L., and Ahmid, S. (2006). Documenting Traditional Food Systems of Indigenous Peoples: International Case Studies. Centre for Indigenous Peoples’ Nutrition and Environment. McGill University, Toronto. Posted at: http://www.cine.mcgill.ca/documents/manual.pdf.Google Scholar
- Lee, R. B., et al. (1968). What Hunters do for a Living, or, How to Make out on Scarce Resources. In Lee, R. B., and DeVore, I. (eds.), Man the Hunter. Aldine, Chicago, pp. 30–42.Google Scholar
- Lichatowich, J. (1999). Salmon Without Rivers: A History of the Pacific Salmon Crisis. Island Press, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
- Lovell, N. C., Chisholm, B. S., Nelson, D. E., and Schwarcz, H. P. (1986). Prehistoric Salmon Consumption in Interior British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Archaeology 10: 99–106.Google Scholar
- Marshall, A. G. (1977). Nez Perce social groups: An ecological interpretation. Doctoral dissertation, Washington State University, Pullman WA.Google Scholar
- NEJAC (2002). Fish consumption and environmental justice. USEPA: National Environmental Justice Advisory Council. Posted at http://www.epa.gov/environmentaljustice/resources/publications/nejac/fish-consump-report_1102.pdf.
- Newell, D. (1993). Tangled Webs of History: Indians and the Law in Canada’s. Pacific Coast Fisheries. University of Toronto Press, Toronto.Google Scholar
- O’Neil, C. (2000). Variable Justice: Environmental Standards, Contaminated Fish, and “Acceptable” Risk to Native Peoples. Stanford Envtl. Law Journal 19, issue 3.Google Scholar
- O’Neill, C. (2013). Fishable Waters. American Indian Law Journal 1(2): 181–284.Google Scholar
- Ray, V. F. (1939). Cultural Relations in the Plateau of Northwestern America. Publications of the Frederick Webb Hodge Anniversary Publication Fund, Vol. III. Los Angeles.Google Scholar
- Ray, V. F. (1977). Ethnic Impact of the events incident to federal power development on the Colville and Spokane Indian reservations. Report prepared for the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation and the Spokane Tribe of Indians, Nespelem, WA. Also cited in Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation v. United States, 43 Indian Claims Commission 505: 592–605 (1978).Google Scholar
- Schalk, R. F. (1986). Estimating Salmon and Steelhead Usage in the Columbia Basin Before 1850: The Anthropological Perspective. Northwest Environmental Journal 2(2): 1–26.Google Scholar
- Scholz, A., O’Laughlin, K., Geist, D., Peone, D., Uehara, J., Fields, L., Kleist, T., Zozaya, I., Peone, T., Teesatuskie, K. (1985). Compilation of information on salmon and steelhead total run size, catch and hydropower related losses in the upper Columbia Basin above Grand Coulee dam. Fisheries Technical Report No. 2. Upper Columbia United Tribes fisheries Center, Eastern Washington University, Cheney, WA.Google Scholar
- Schwarcz, H. P., Stafford, T. W., Knyf, M., Chisholm, B., Longstaffe, F. J., Chatters, J. C., and Owsley, D. W. (2014). Stable Isotopic Evidence for Diet and Origin. In Owsley, D. W., and Jantz, R. L. (eds.), Kennewick Man: The Scientific Investigation of an Ancient American Skeleton. Texas A&M University Press, College Station, pp. 310–322.Google Scholar
- Schwede, M. L. (1966). An ecological Sstudy of Nez Perce settlement patterns. Masters thesis, Washington State University, Pullman.Google Scholar
- Schwede, M. L. (1970). The Relationship of Aboriginal Nez Perce Settlement Patterns to Physical Environment and to Generalized Distribution of Food Resources. Northwest Anthropological Research Notes 4: 129–136.Google Scholar
- Swindell, E. G. (1942). Report on the Source, Nature, and Extent of the Fishing, Hunting, and Miscellaneous Related Rights of Certain Indian Tribes in Washington and Oregon Together With Affidavits Showing Location of a Number of Usual and Accustomed Fishing Grounds and Stations. United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Indian Affairs, Branch of Land Services, Portland, Oregon.Google Scholar
- Thwaites, R. (1905). Original Journals of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, 1804–1805, vol. 8. Arthur H. Clark Co., New York.Google Scholar
- Ulrich, R. (1999). Empty Nets: Indians, Dams, and the Columbia River. University of Oregon Press, Corvallis.Google Scholar
- Walker, D. E. (1967). Mutual cross-utilization of economic resources in the Plateau: an example from aboriginal Nez Perce fishing practices. Washington State University Laboratory of Anthropology Report of Investigations No. 41.Google Scholar
- Walker, D. E. (1992). Productivity of Tribal Dipnet Fishermen at Celilo Falls: Analysis of the Joe Pinkham Fish Buying Records. Northwest Anthropological Research Notes 26(2): 123–135.Google Scholar
- Walker, D. E. (1993a). The Shoshone-Bannock: An Anthropological Reassessment. Northwest Anthropological Research Notes 27(2): 139–160.Google Scholar
- Walker, D. E. (1993b). Lemhi Shoshone-Bannock Reliance on Anadromous and other Fish Resources. Northwest Anthropological Research Notes 27(2): 215–250. Use for riverine grouping along with Anastasio.Google Scholar
- Walker, D. E. (1997). The Yakama System of Trade and Exchange. Northwest Anthropological Research Notes 31(1-2): 71–95.Google Scholar
- Walker, D. E. (1998). Nez Perce. In Walker Jr., D. E. (ed.), Handbook of North American Indians, Volume 12: Plateau, vol. 12. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, pp. 420–438.Google Scholar
- Walker, D. E. (2010). Traditional Fishing Practices Among the Northern Shoshone, Northern Paiute, and Bannock of the Duck Valley Indian Reservation: A Progress Report. Journal of Northwest Anthropology 44(1): 53–62.Google Scholar
- White, C. D. (1999). Introduction: Ancient Maya diet. Pages ix – xxvii in CD White, ed. Reconstructing Ancient Maya Diet. The University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City.Google Scholar
- Winterhalder, B. (1981). Foraging Strategies in the Boreal Forest: An Analysis of Cree Hunting and Gathering. In Winterhalder, B., and Smith, E. A. (eds.), Hunter-Gatherer Foraging Strategies: Ethnographic and Archaeological Analyses. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp. 66–98.Google Scholar
- Wolfe, R. J., and Walker, R. J. (1987). Subsistence Economics in Alaska: Productivity, Geography, and Development Impacts. Arctic Anthropology 24: 56–81.Google Scholar