Advertisement

Human Ecology

, Volume 42, Issue 5, pp 753–768 | Cite as

Coping with Natural Hazards in a Conservation Context: Resource-Use Decisions of Maasai Households During Recent and Historical Droughts

  • Brian W. MillerEmail author
  • Paul W. Leslie
  • J. Terrence McCabe
Article

Abstract

Analyzing people’s decisions can reveal key variables that affect their behaviors. Despite the demonstrated utility of this approach, it has not been applied to livelihood decisions in the context of conservation initiatives. We used ethnographic decision modeling in combination with qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) to examine the herding decisions of Maasai households living near Tarangire National Park (TNP) during recent and historical droughts. The effects of the establishment of TNP on herding practices during drought were different than anticipated based on the size and reliability of several prominent resource areas that are now within the park. We found little evidence of people relying on these swamps and rivers for watering cattle during historical droughts; rather, these sites were more commonly used as grazing areas for small stock and wet-season grazing areas for cattle to avoid disease carried by calving wildebeest. Yet during the 2009 drought, many herders moved their livestock – especially cattle from outside of the study area – toward TNP in search of grazing. Our analysis of herding decisions demonstrates that resource-use decisions are complex and incorporate a variety of information beyond the size or reliability of a given resource area, including contextual factors (e.g., disease, conflict, grazing) and household factors (e.g., social capital, labor, herd size). More broadly, this research illustrates that pairing decision modeling with QCA is a structured approach to identifying these factors and understanding how opportunities, constraints, and perceptions influence how people respond to changes in resource access.

Keywords

Decision modeling East Africa Livelihoods National parks Pastoralism Protected areas Qualitative comparative analysis 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Data collection was supported by a National Science Foundation Doctoral Dissertation Research Improvement Grant (BCS-1030847), National Science Foundation grants BCS-0624265 and BCS-0624343, and funding from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and the Center for Global Initiatives. BWM is also grateful to the Carolina Population Center for training support (T32 HD007168) and for general support (5 R24 HD050924) from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. We would like to thank Gabriel Ole Saitoti and Isaya Rumas for their assistance in collecting data. This manuscript benefitted from the insights of Colin West, Pamela Jagger, Aaron Moody, Martin Doyle, and three anonymous reviewers.

References

  1. Baird, T. D. (2014). Conservation and Unscripted Development: Proximity to Park Associated With Development and Financial Diversity. Ecology and Society 19(1): 4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Baird, T. D., and Leslie, P. W. (2013). Conservation as Disturbance: Upheaval and Livelihood Diversification Near Tarangire National Park, Northern Tanzania. Global Environmental Change 23: 1131–1141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baird, T. D., Leslie, P. W., and McCabe, J. T. (2009). The Effect of Wildlife Conservation on Local Perceptions of Risk and Behavioral Response. Human Ecology 37: 463–474.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barrett, C. B., Reardon, T., and Webb, P. (2001). Nonfarm Income Diversification and Household Livelihood Strategies in Rural Africa: Concepts, Dynamics, and Policy Implications. Food Policy 26: 315–331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Beck, K. A. (2005). Ethnographic Decision Tree Modeling: A Research Method for Counseling Psychology. Journal of Counseling Psychology 52: 243–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bernard, H. R. (2002). Research Methods in Anthropology: Qualitative and Quantitative Methods. AltaMira Press, Walnut Creek.Google Scholar
  7. Birch-Thomsen, T., Frederiksen, P., and Sano, H. O. (2001). A Livelihood Perspective on Natural Resource Management and Environmental Change in Semiarid Tanzania. Economic Geography 77: 41–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bryceson, D. F. (2002). The Scramble in Africa: Reorienting Rural Livelihoods. World Development 30: 725–739.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Butt, B., Shortridge, A., and WinklerPrins, A. (2009). Pastoral Herd Management, Drought Coping Strategies, and Cattle Mobility in Southern Kenya. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 99: 309–334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Campbell, D. J., Gichohi, H., Mwangi, A., and Chege, L. (2000). Land use Conflict in Kajiado District, Kenya. Land Use Policy 17: 337–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chambers, R., and Conway, G. R. (1992). Sustainable Rural Livelihoods: Practical Concepts for the 21st Century, IDS Discussion Paper 296. Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex, Brighton.Google Scholar
  12. Coughenour, M. B., Ellis, J. E., Swift, D. M., Coppock, D. L., Galvin, K., McCabe, J. T., and Hart, T. C. (1985). Energy Extraction and Use in a Nomadic Pastoral Ecosystem. Science 230: 619–625.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dahl, G., and Hjort, A. (1976). Having Herds: Pastoral Herd Growth and Household Economy. Stockholm Studies in Social Anthropology. University of Stockholm, Department of Social Anthropology.Google Scholar
  14. de Haan, A. (1999). Livelihoods and Poverty: The Role of Migration - a Critical Review of the Migration Literature. Journal of Development Studies 36: 1–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. de Sherbinin, A., VanWey, L. K., McSweeney, K., Aggarwal, R., Barbieri, A., Henry, S., Hunter, L. M., Twine, W., and Walker, R. (2008). Rural Household Demographics, Livelihoods and the Environment. Global Environmental Change 18: 38–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dyson-Hudson, R., and Dyson-Hudson, N. (1980). Nomadic Pastoralism. Annual Review of Anthropology 9: 15–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ellis, F. (1998). Household Strategies and Rural Livelihood Diversification. Journal of Development Studies 35: 1–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ellis, J. E., and Swift, D. M. (1988). Stability of African Pastoral Ecosystems - Alternate Paradigms and Implications for Development. Journal of Range Management 41: 450–459.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Fratkin, E. (2001). East African Pastoralism in Transition: Maasai, Boran, and Rendille Cases. African Studies Review 44: 1–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Galaty, J. G. (1993). ‘The eye that wants a person, where can it not see?’: inclusion, exclusion, and boundary shifters in Maasai identity. In Spear, T., and Waller, R. (eds.), Being Maasai. Ohio University Press, Athens, pp. 174–194.Google Scholar
  21. Galvin, K. A., Thornton, P. K., Boone, R. B., and Sunderland, J. (2004). Climate Variability and Impacts on East African Livestock Herders: the Maasai of Ngorongoro Conservation Area, Tanzania. African Journal of Range & Forage Science 21: 183–189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gichohi, H., Gakahu, C., and Mwangi, E. (1996). Savanna ecosystems. In McClanahan, T. R., and Young, T. P. (eds.), East African Ecosystems and Their Conservation. Oxford University Press, New York, pp. 273–298.Google Scholar
  23. Gladwin, C. H. (1976). A View of the Plan Puebla: An Application of Hierarchical Decision Models. American Journal of Agricultural Economics 58: 881–887.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gladwin, C. H. (1989). Ethnographic Decision Tree Modeling. Sage Publications, Newbury Park.Google Scholar
  25. Gladwin, C. H. (1992). Gendered Impacts of Fertilizer Subsidy Removal Programs in Malawi and Cameroon. Agricultural Economics 7: 141–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Goldman, M. (2003). Partitioned Nature, Privileged Knowledge: Community-Based Conservation in Tanzania. Development and Change 34: 833–862.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Goldman, M. (2006). Sharing Pastures, Building Dialogues: Maasai and Wildlife Conservation in Northern Tanzania (Dissertation). University of Wisconsin, Madison.Google Scholar
  28. Goldman, M. (2011). Strangers in Their Own Land: Maasai and Wildlife Conservation in Northern Tanzania. Conservation and Society 9: 65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Goldman, M. J., and Riosmena, F. (2013). Adaptive capacity in Tanzanian Maasailand: Changing Strategies to Cope with Drought in Fragmented Landscapes. Global Environmental Change 23: 588–597.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hodgson, D. L. (2001). Once Intrepid Warriors: Gender, Ethnicity, and the Cultural Politics of Maasai Development. Indiana University Press, Bloomington.Google Scholar
  31. Homewood, K. (2008). Ecology of African Pastoralist Societies. Ohio University Press, Athens.Google Scholar
  32. Homewood, K., Kristjanson, P., and Chenevix, T. P. (eds.) (2009). Staying Maasai? Livelihoods, Conservation and Development in East African Rangelands. Springer, New York.Google Scholar
  33. Homewood, K. M., and Rodgers, W. A. (1991). Maasailand Ecology: Pastoralist Development and Wildlife Conservation in Ngorongoro, Tanzania. Cambridge University Press, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Igoe, J. (2002). National parks and human ecosystems: the challenge to community conservation, a case study from simanjiro Tanzania. In Chatty, D., and Colchester, M. (eds.), Conservation and Mobile Indigenous Peoples. Berghahn Books, New York, pp. 77–96.Google Scholar
  35. Igoe, J. (2004). Conservation and Globalization: A Study of National Parks and Indigenous Communities from East Africa to South Dakota. Thomson/Wadsworth, Belmon.Google Scholar
  36. Igoe, J., and Brockington, D. (1999). Pastoral Land Tenure and Community Conservation: A Case Study from North-East Tanzania. International Institute for Environment and Development, London.Google Scholar
  37. Johnson, J., and Williams, M. L. (1993). A Preliminary Ethnographic Decision Tree Model of Injection Drug Users’ (IDUs) Needle Sharing. Substance Use & Misuse 28: 997–1014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Koponen, J. (1988). People and Production in Late Precolonial Tanzania: History and Structures. Monographs of the Finnish Society for Development Studies, Finnish Society of Development Studies.Google Scholar
  39. Little, P. D., Smith, K., Cellarius, B. A., Coppock, D. L., and Barrett, C. B. (2001). Avoiding Disaster: Diversification and Risk Management Among East African Herders. Development and Change 32: 401–433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Masanjala, W. (2007). The Poverty-HIV/AIDS Nexus in Africa: A Livelihood Approach. Social Science & Medicine 64: 1032–1041.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. McCabe, J. T. (2003). Sustainability and Livelihood Diversification Among the Maasai of Northern Tanzania. Human Organization 62: 100–111.Google Scholar
  42. McCabe, J. T. (2004). Cattle Bring Us to Our Enemies. The University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor.Google Scholar
  43. McCabe, J. T., Leslie, P. W., and DeLuca, L. (2010). Adopting Cultivation to Remain Pastoralists: The Diversification of Maasai Livelihoods in Northern Tanzania. Human Ecology 38: 321–334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Miller, B. W., Breckheimer, I., McCleary, A., Guzmán-Ramirez, L., Caplow, S., Jones-Smith, J., and Walsh, S. (2010). Using Stylized Agent-Based Models for Population–Environment Research: A Case Study from the Galápagos Islands. Population & Environment 31: 401–426.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Miller, B. W., Caplow, S. C., and Leslie, P. W. (2012). Feedbacks Between Conservation and Social-Ecological Systems. Conservation Biology 26: 218–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Miller, B. W., and Doyle, M. W. (2014). Rangeland Management and Fluvial Geomorphology in Northern Tanzania. Geomorphology 214: 366–377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Ndagala, D. (1982). Operation “Impamati”: the Sedentarization of the Pastoral Maasai in Tanzania. Nomadic Peoples 10: 28–39.Google Scholar
  48. Ndagala, D. K. (1992). Territory, pastoralists, and livestock: resource control among the Kisongo Maasai. Dissertation, Uppsala University.Google Scholar
  49. Normile, D. (2008). Driven to Extinction. Science 319: 1606–1609.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. O’Malley, M. E. (2000). Cattle and Cultivation: Changing Land Use and Labor Patterns in Pastoral Maasai Livelihoods, Loliondo Division, Ngorongoro District, Tanzania. Dissertation, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO.Google Scholar
  51. Pedersen, J., and Benjaminsen, T. A. (2008). One Leg or Two? Food Security and Pastoralism in the Northern Sahel. Human Ecology 36: 43–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Prins, H. H. T., and Loth, P. E. (1988). Rainfall Patterns as Background to Plant Phenology in Northern Tanzania. Journal of Biogeography 15: 451–463.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Ragin, C. C. (2006). Set Relations in Social Research: Evaluating Their Consistency and Coverage. Political Analysis 14: 291–310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Redpath, S. M., Arroyo, B. E., Leckie, F. M., Bacon, P., Bayfield, N., Gutiérrez, R. J., and Thirgood, S. J. (2004). Using Decision Modeling with Stakeholders to Reduce Human–Wildlife Conflict: A Raptor-Grouse Case Study. Conservation Biology 18: 350–359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Rihoux, B., and Ragin, C. (eds.) (2009). Configurational Comparative Methods: Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) and Related Techniques. Sage Publications Inc., Los Angeles.Google Scholar
  56. Robbins, P. (2004). Political Ecology. Blackwell Publishing, Malden.Google Scholar
  57. Ryan, G., and Martínez, H. (1996). Can We Predict What Mothers Do? Modeling Childhood Diarrhea in Rural Mexico. Human Organization 55: 47–57.Google Scholar
  58. Ryan, G. W., and Bernard, H. R. (2006). Testing an Ethnographic Decision Tree Model on a National Sample: Recycling Beverage Cans. Human Organization 65: 103–114.Google Scholar
  59. Sachedina, H. (2006). Conservation, Land Rights and Livelihoods in the Tarangire Ecosystem of Tanzania. Pastoralism and Poverty Reduction in East Africa: A Policy Research Conference. Nairobi, Kenya.Google Scholar
  60. Smith, N. M. (2012). Maasai and the Tanzanite Trade: New Facets of Livelihood Diversification in Northern Tanzania. Dissertation, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO.Google Scholar
  61. Spear, T., and Waller, R. (eds.) (1993). Being Maasai. Ohio University Press, Athens.Google Scholar
  62. Sutton, J. E. G. (1993). Becoming Maasailand. In Spear, T., and Waller, R. (eds.), Being Maasai. Ohio University Press, Athens, pp. 38–60.Google Scholar
  63. Thompson, M., and Homewood, K. (2002). Entrepreneurs, Elites, and Exclusion in Maasailand: Trends in Wildlife Conservation and Pastoralist Development. Human Ecology 30: 107–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Waller, R. (1988). Emutai: Crisis and Response in Maasailand 1883-I902. In Johnson, D., and Anderson, D. (eds.), The Ecology of Survival: Case Studies from Northeast African History. Westview Press, Boulder, pp. 73–114.Google Scholar
  65. Western, D., and Manzolillo-Nightingale, D. L. (2004). Environmental Change and the Vulnerability of Pastoralists to Drought: A Case Study of the Maasai in Amboseli, Kenya. Africa Environment Outlook Case Studies: Human Vulnerability to Environmental Change, UNEP. Nairobi, Kenya, pp. 35–50.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Brian W. Miller
    • 1
    Email author
  • Paul W. Leslie
    • 2
  • J. Terrence McCabe
    • 3
  1. 1.Natural Resource Ecology Laboratory and North Central Climate Science CenterColorado State UniversityFort CollinsUSA
  2. 2.Department of Anthropology and Carolina Population CenterUniversity of North Carolina at Chapel HillChapel HillUSA
  3. 3.Department of Anthropology and Institute of Behavioral ScienceUniversity of Colorado at BoulderBoulderUSA

Personalised recommendations