Skip to main content

Advertisement

Log in

An Ecological Risk Management and Capacity Building Model

  • Published:
Human Ecology Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

Worldwide, natural and human ecosystems are increasingly subjected to natural hazards due to global environmental change. Because these threats reflect interaction between social and ecological systems, effective Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) can best be accomplished by increasing community capacity to mitigate, cope with, adapt to, and recover from hazard consequences by developing DRR strategies that accommodate natural and human ecosystem interdependency. One reason of the widespread ineffectiveness in preparedness has been the neglect of environment/community interactions, and how community and individual variables interact with each other. To address this gap an all-hazard and inter-disciplinary literature review was conducted that synergized and integrated individual-level and environment/community-level factors. Based on the review a social-ecological model was developed. This model identifies a multitude of variables operating across a wide range of dimensions (i.e., individual, historical, physical/natural, social, spiritual/religious, economic, political) and different scales (i.e., individual, household, community organisations, businesses, local government, state government). Based on the review a holistic ecological all-hazard inter-disciplinary risk management and capacity building model was developed that describes how these factors interact to influence risk management and adaptive capacities. This holistic model provides a foundation and rationale for facilitating the capacity of all stakeholders in at-risk areas to develop comprehensive social-ecological relationships and researchers to investigate human-environment interactions in depth.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4

Similar content being viewed by others

Notes

  1. At present individual and community preparedness are commonly confused and hence, often referred to interchangeably in the literature and practice. Often community preparedness measures do in fact refer to preparedness at the individual level or at aggregates of individual-level preparedness rather than real community-level preparedness.

References

  • Aten, J. D., Topping, S., Denney, R. M., and Bayne, T. G. (2010). Collaborating with African American churches to overcome minority disaster mental health disparities: What mental health professionals can learn from hurricane Katrina. Professional Psychology-Research and Practice 41(2): 167–173.

    Google Scholar 

  • Barbera, J. A., Yeatts, D. J., and Macintyre, A. G. (2009). Challenge of hospital emergency preparedness: Analysis and recommendations. Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness 3: S74–S82.

    Google Scholar 

  • Barnes, M. D., Hanson, C. L., Novilla, L. M. B., Meacham, A. I., McIntyre, E., and Erickson, B. C. (2008). Analysis of media agenda setting during and after Hurricane Katrina: Implications for emergency preparedness, disaster response, and disaster policy. American Journal of Public Health 98(4): 604–610.

    Google Scholar 

  • Basolo, V., Steinberg, L. J., Burby, R. J., Levine, J., Cruz, A. M., and Huang, C. (2009). The effects of confidence in government and information on perceived and actual preparedness for disasters. Environment and Behavior 41(3): 338–364.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bird, D. K., Gisladottir, G., and Dominey-Howes, D. (2010). Volcanic risk and tourism in southern Iceland: Implications for hazard, risk and emergency response education and training. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 189(1–2): 33–48.

    Google Scholar 

  • Birkmann, J., and von Teichman, K. (2010). Integrating disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation: key challenges-scales, knowledge, and norms. Sustainability Science 5(2): 171–184.

    Google Scholar 

  • Blanchard, B., and Ryan, R. L. (2003). Community perceptions of wildland fire risk and fire hazard reduction strategies at the wildland-urban interface in the northeastern United States. In Murdy, J. J. (Ed.), Proceedings of the 2003 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium (Vol. 317, pp. 285–294).

  • Blanchi R. Leonard J. E. and Leicester R. H. (2006). Lessons learned from post-bushfire surveys at the urban interface in Australia. Forest Ecology and Management, Supplement, 139.

  • Bonfield, T. J. (2009). Comments on “Assessing and managing environmental risk: Connecting local government management with emergency management.”. [Comment/Reply]. Public Administration Review 69(2): 194–197.

    Google Scholar 

  • Brennen, D. F., Barnes-Eley, M., and Poirier, M. P. (2009). Parental knowledge of disaster preparedness in schools. International Journal of Child and Adolescent Health 2(3): 405–414.

    Google Scholar 

  • Brody, S. D., Zahran, S., Highfield, W. E., Bernhardt, S. P., and Vedlitz, A. (2009). Policy learning for flood mitigation: A longitudinal assessment of the community rating system in Florida. Risk Analysis 29(6): 912–929.

    Google Scholar 

  • Brenkert-Smith, H., Champ, P., and Flores, N. (2006). Insights into wildfire mitigation decisions among wildland-urban interface residents. Society and Natural Resources 19: 759–768.

    Google Scholar 

  • Brunson, M. W., and Shindler, B. A. (2004). Geographic variation in social acceptability of wildland fuels management in the western United States. Society and Natural Resources 17(8): 661–678.

    Google Scholar 

  • Buergelt, P. T., Paton, D., and Johnson, D. (2009). Factors and processes influencing individual and community preparedness for a pandemic outbreak in New Zealand. Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences Limited, Lower Hutt.

    Google Scholar 

  • Burby, R. J. (2006). Hurricane Katrina and the paradoxes of government disaster policy: Bringing about wise governmental decisions for hazardous areas. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 604: 171–191.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bushnell, S., Balcombe, L., and Cottrell, A. (2007). Community and fires service perceptions of bushfire issues in Tamborine Mountain: What’s the difference? The Australian Journal of Emergency Management 22(3): 3–9.

    Google Scholar 

  • Calgaro, E., and Lloyd, K. (2008). Sun, sea, sand and tsunami: examining disaster vulnerability in the tourism community of KhaoLak, Thailand. Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography 29(3): 288–306.

    Google Scholar 

  • Carter, R. A. (2010). Catastrophic events, insurance and sufficient funding for fire services – A legal perspective. Bushfire CRC Fire Note, 1.

  • Cioccio, L., and Michael, E. J. (2007). Hazard or disaster: Tourism management for the inevitable in Northeast Victoria. Tourism Management 28(1): 1–11.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cottrell, A. (2005). Communities and bushfire Hazard in Australia: More questions than answers. Environmental Hazards 6: 109–114.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cottrell, A. (2009). Lessons in bushfire management. Government News, 5.

  • Covan, E. K., and Fugate-Whitlock, E. (2010). Emergency planning and long-term care: Least paid, least powerful, most responsible. Health Care for Women International 31(11): 1028–1043.

    Google Scholar 

  • Crompton, R. P., and McAneney, K. J. (2008). Normalised Australian insured losses from meteorological hazards: 1967-2006. Environmental Science and Policy 11(5): 371–378.

    Google Scholar 

  • Crowell, M., Hirsch, E., and Hayes, T. L. (2007). Improving FEMA’s coastal risk assessment through the National Flood Insurance Program: An historical overview. Marine Technology Society Journal 41(1): 18–27.

    Google Scholar 

  • DiGian, S. (2005). Socio-economic variables as indicators of preparedness level in cyclone events. Report for EV5606: Disasters, Vulnerability, Mitigation and Planning, James Cook University, Faculty of Science, Engineering and Information Technology, Australia.

  • Drottz-Sjoberg, B. M. (2000). Exposure to risk and trust in information: Implications for the credibility of risk communication. Australasian Journal of Disaster and Trauma Studies, 4(2). Retrieved on 24th November 2011 from http://www.massey.ac.nz/~trauma/issues/2000-2/drottz.htm.

  • Earle, T. C. (2004). Thinking aloud about trust: A protocol analysis of trust in risk management. Risk Analysis 24: 169–183.

    Google Scholar 

  • Eiser, J. R., Bostrom, A., Burton, I., Johnston, D. M., McClure, J., Paton, D., van der Pligt, J., and White, M. P. (2012). Risk interpretation and action: A conceptual framework for responses to natural hazards. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction 1: 5–16.

    Google Scholar 

  • Elliott, J. (2005). Using narrative in social research: Qualitative and quantitative approaches. Sage, Thousand Oaks.

    Google Scholar 

  • Estrada, L. C., Fraser, M. R., Cioffi, J. P., Sesker, D., Walkner, L., Brand, M. W., et al. (2005). Partnering for preparedness: The project public health ready experience. Public Health Reports 120: 69–75.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fairbank, H. E., and Jakeways, J. (2007). Preparing for climate change impacts at the coast: Identifying patterns of risk and prioritising a response. In McInnes, R., Jakeways, J., Fairbank, H., and Mathie, E. (eds.), Landslides and climate change: Challenges and solutions. Taylor and Francis, London, pp. 389–396.

    Google Scholar 

  • Faber Taylor, A., and Kuo, F. E. (2006). Is contact with nature important for healthy child development? State of the evidence. In Spencer, C., and Blades, M. (eds.), Children and their environments. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 124–140.

  • Figley, K. R. (2009). Review of disaster spiritual care: Practical clergy responses to community, regional, and national tragedy. Traumatology 15(3): 72–73.

    Google Scholar 

  • Finnis, K. K., Johnston, D. M., Ronan, K. R., and White, J. D. (2010). Hazard perceptions and preparedness of Taranaki youth. Disaster Prevention and Management 19(2): 175–184.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gavilanes-Ruiz, J. C., Cuevas-Muniz, A., Varley, N., Gwynne, G., Stevenson, J., Saucedo-Giron, R., and Cortes-Cortes, A. (2009). Exploring the factors that influence the perception of risk: The case of Volcan de Colima, Mexico. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 186(3–4): 238–252.

    Google Scholar 

  • Glavovic, B. G. (2008). Waves of adversity, layers of resilience: Lessons for building sustainable, hazard-resilient coastal communities. In K. D. McLaughlin (Ed.), Mitigating impacts of natural hazards on fishery ecosystems. American Fisheries Society, Symposium 64, Bethesda, Maryland 64: 395–419.

  • Glavovic, B. C., Saunders, W. S. A., and Becker, J. S. (2010a). Land-use planning for natural hazards in New Zealand: The setting, barriers, ‘burning issues’ and priority actions. Natural Hazards 54(3): 679–706.

    Google Scholar 

  • Glavovic, B. C., Saunders, W. S., and Becker, J. S. (2010b). Realising the potential of land-use planning to reduce hazard risks in New Zealand. Australasian Journal of Disaster and Trauma Studies 2010(1): 1–14.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gordon, J. S., Matarrita-Cascante, D., Stedman, R. C., and Luloff, A. E. (2010). Wildfire perception and community change. Rural Sociology 75(3): 455–477.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gregg, C. E., Houghton, B. F., Paton, D., Swanson, D. A., Lachman, R., and Bonk, W. J. (2008). Hawaiian cultural influences on support for lava flow hazard mitigation measures during the January 1960 eruption of Kilauea volcano, Kapoho, Hawai’i. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 172: 300–307.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gunderson L. H., and Folke, C. (2005). Resilience—now more than ever. Ecology and Society. Retrieved on 21 April 2014 from http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol10/iss2/art22.

  • Gupta, A. K., and Singh, A. (2011). Traditional intellect in disaster risk mitigation: Indian outlook-rajasthan and bundelkhand icons. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge 10(1): 156–166.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hall, M. J., Ng, A., Ursano, R. J., Holloway, H., Fullerton, C., and Casper, J. (2004). Psychological impact of the animal-human bond in disaster preparedness and response. Journal of Psychiatric Practice 10(6): 368–374.

  • Handmer, J., and Tibbits, A. (2005). Is staying at home the safest option during bushfires? Historical evidence for an Australian approach. Environmental Hazards 6: 81–91.

    Google Scholar 

  • Harris, L. M., McGee, T. K., and McFarlane, B. L. (2011). Implementation of wildfire risk management by local governments in Alberta, Canada. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management 54(4): 457–475.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hart, C. (1998). Doing a literature review: Releasing the social science research imagination. London, England: Sage.

  • Harte, E. W., Childs, I. R. W., and Hastings, P. A. (2009). Imizamo Yethu: A case study of community resilience to fire hazard in an informal settlement in Cape Town, South Africa. Geographical Research 47(2): 142–154.

    Google Scholar 

  • Henstra, D. (2010). Evaluating local government emergency management programs: What framework should public managers adopt? Public Administration Review 70(2): 236–246.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hess, J. J., Malilay, J. N., and Parkinson, A. J. (2008). Climate change: The importance of place. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 35(5): 468–478.

    Google Scholar 

  • Integrated Research on Disaster Risk. (2011). Risk interpretation and action: A conceptual framework for research in the context of natural hazards. Retrieved on 13 March 2011from http://www.irdrinternational.org/about-irdr/scientific-committee/working-group/risk-interpretation-and-action/.

  • International Strategy for Disaster Risk Reduction (ISDR) (2005). Hyogo Framework for Action 2005–2015: Building the Resilience of Nations and Communities to Disasters. International Strategy for Disaster Reduction, Kobe.

    Google Scholar 

  • IRF (International Recovery Forum). (2013). ‘Summary of Consultations Recommendations for Recovery and Reconstruction in Post 2015 Global Framework for DRR (HFA2),’ Kobe, Japan, 22 January.

  • Jakes, P., Kruger, L., Monroe, M., Nelson, K., and Sturtevant, V. (2007). Improving wildfire preparedness: Lessons from communities across the U.S. Human Ecology Review 14(2): 188–197.

    Google Scholar 

  • Johannesdottir, G., and Gisladottir, G. (2010). People living under threat of volcanic hazard in southern Iceland: vulnerability and risk perception. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences 10(2): 407–420.

    Google Scholar 

  • Johnston, D., Paton, D., Crawford, G., Ronan, K., Houghton, B., and Buergelt, P. T. (2005). Measuring tsunami preparedness in coastal Washington, United States. Natural Hazards 35: 173–184.

    Google Scholar 

  • Keim, M. E. (2008). Building human resilience: The role of public health preparedness and response as an adaptation to climate change. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 35(5): 508–516.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kelkar, U., James, C. R., and Kumar, R. (2006). The Indian insurance industry and climate change: exposure, opportunities and strategies ahead. Climate Policy 6(6): 658–671.

    Google Scholar 

  • Klein, R., Nicholls, R., and Thomalla, F. (2003). Resilience to natural hazards: How useful is this concept? Environmental Hazards 5: 35–45.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kirkpatrick, D. V., and Bryan, M. (2007). Hurricane emergency planning by home health providers serving the poor. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved 18(2): 299–314.

    Google Scholar 

  • Klaiman, T., Knorr, D., Fitzgerald, S., DeMara, P., Thomas, C., Heake, G., and Hausman, A. (2010). Locating and communicating with at-risk populations about emergency preparedness: The vulnerable populations outreach model. Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness 4(3): 246–251.

    Google Scholar 

  • Landy, F. J., and Conte, J. M. (2010). Work in the 21st century: An introduction to industrial and organisational psychology, 3rd ed. Wiley, Chichester.

    Google Scholar 

  • Langer, N. (2004). Natural disasters that reveal cracks in our social foundation. Educational Gerontology 30(4): 275–285.

    Google Scholar 

  • Langlieb, A. M. (2006). The emerging role of workplace preparedness for disaster and terrorism. [Editorial]. International Journal of Emergency Mental Health 8(2): 81–82.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lerner, E. B., Cronin, M., Schwartz, R. B., Sanddal, T. L., Sasser, S. M., Czapranski, T., et al. (2007). Linking public health and the emergency care community: 7 model communities. Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness 1(2): 142–145.

    Google Scholar 

  • Levine, M., and Perkins, D. V. (1997). Principles of community psychology: Perspectives and applications, 2nd ed. Oxford University Press, New York.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lindell, M. K., Arlikatti, S., and Prater, C. S. (2009). Why do people do what they do to protect against earthquake risk: Perception of hazard adjustment attributes. Risk Analysis 29: 1072–1088.

    Google Scholar 

  • Loeffler, R., and Steinicke, E. (2007). Amenity migration in the U.S. Sierra Nevada. The Geographical Review 97(1): 67–88.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lopez-Marrero, T., and Yarnal, B. (2010). Putting adaptive capacity into the context of people’s lives: a case study of two flood-prone communities in Puerto Rico. Natural Hazards 52(2): 277–297.

    Google Scholar 

  • Margolin, G., Ramos, M. C., and Guran, E. L. (2010). Earthquakes and children: The role of psychologists with families and communities. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice 41(1): 1–9.

    Google Scholar 

  • Martin, I. M., Bender, H., and Raish, C. (2007). What motivates individuals to protect themselves from risks: The case of wildlandfires. Risk Analysis 27(4): 887–900.

    Google Scholar 

  • Marton, R., and Phillips, S. K. (2005). Modernising policy for public value: Learning lessons from the management of bushfires. Australian Journal of Public Administration 64(1): 75–82.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mathbor, G. M. (2007). Enhancement of community preparedness for natural disasters - The role of social work in building social capital for sustainable disaster relief and management. International Social Work 50(3), 357-+.

  • McCarthy, S. S. (2007). Contextual influences on national level flood risk communication. Environmental Hazards 7: 128–140.

    Google Scholar 

  • McCool, S. F., Burchfield, J. A., Williams, D. R., and Carroll, M. S. (2006). An event-based approach for examining the effects of wildland fire decisions on communities. Environmental Management 37(4): 437–450.

    Google Scholar 

  • McDaniels, T., Chang, S., Cole, D., Mikawoz, J., and Longstaff, H. (2008). Fostering resilience to extreme events within infrastructure systems: Characterizing decision contexts for mitigation and adaptation. Global Environmental Change-Human and Policy Dimensions 18(2): 310–318.

    Google Scholar 

  • McGee, T. K., and Russell, S. (2003). “It’s just a natural way of life…” an investigation of wildfire preparedness in Australia. Environmental Hazards 5: 1–12.

    Google Scholar 

  • McGuire, W. (2012). Waking the giant: How a changing climate triggers earthquakes, tsunamis, and volcanoes. Oxford University Press, London.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mendez, S. R., Carroll, M. S., Blatner, K. A., Findley, A. J., Walker, G. B., and Daniels, S. E. (2003). Smoke on the hill: A comparative study of wildfire and two communities. Western Journal of Applied Forestry 18(1): 60–70.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mercer, J., Kelman, I., Taranis, L., and Suchet-Pearson, S. (2010). Framework for integrating indigenous and scientific knowledge for disaster risk reduction. Disasters 34(1): 214–239.

    Google Scholar 

  • Miceli, R., Sotgiu, I., and Settanni, M. (2008). Disaster preparedness and perception of flood risk: A study in an alpine valley in Italy. Journal of Environmental Psychology 28(2): 164–173.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mishra, S., Mazumdar, S., and Suar, D. (2010). Place attachment and flood preparedness. Journal of Environmental Psychology 30(2): 187–197.

    Google Scholar 

  • Moritz, M. A., and Stephens, S. L. (2008). Fire and sustainability: considerations for California’s altered future climate. Climatic Change 87: S265–S271.

    Google Scholar 

  • Moss, L. A. G. (ed.) (2006). The amenity migrants: Seeking and sustaining mountains and their cultures. GABI, Cambridge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Motoyoshi, T., Takao, K., and Ikeda, S. (2004). Determinant factors of community-based disaster preparedness: A case study of flood prone area. Japanese Journal of Psychology 75(1): 72–77.

    Google Scholar 

  • Motoyoshi, T., Takao, K., and Ikeda, S. (2008). Determinants of household- and community-based disaster preparedness. The Japanese Journal of Social Psychology 23(3): 209–220.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mozumder, P., Helton, R., and Berrens, R. P. (2009). Provision of a wildfire risk map: Informing residents in the Wildland Urban Interface. Risk Analysis 29(11): 1588–1600.

    Google Scholar 

  • Nelson, G., and Prilleltensky, I. (Eds.). (2010). Community psychology: In pursuit of liberation and well-being, 2nd ed. Palgrave Macmillan, New York.

  • Niemeyer, S., Petts, J., and Hobson, K. (2005). Rapid climate change and society: Assessing Responses and Thresholds. Risk Analysis 25(6): 1443–1456.

    Google Scholar 

  • Norris, F. H., Friedman, M. J., Watson, P. J., Byrne, C. M., Diaz, E., and Kaniasty, K. (2002). 60,000 disaster victims speak: Part I. An empirical review of the empirical literature, 1981-2001. Psychiatry: Interpersonal and Biological Processes 65(3): 207–239.

    Google Scholar 

  • Norris, F. H., Stevens, S. P., Pfefferbaum, B., Wyche, K. F., and Pfefferbaum, R. L. (2008). Community resilience as a metaphor, theory, set of capacities, and strategies for disaster readiness. American Journal of Community Psychology 41: 127–150.

    Google Scholar 

  • Park, Y., and Miller, J. (2006). The social ecology of hurricane Katrina: Re-writing the discourse of “natural” disasters. Smith College Studies in Social Work 76(3): 9–24.

    Google Scholar 

  • Paton, D., and McClure, J. (2013). Preparing for Disaster: Building household and community capacity. Charles C. Thomas, Springfield.

    Google Scholar 

  • Paton, D. (2008). Risk communication and natural hazard mitigation: How trust influences its effectiveness. International Journal of Global Environmental Issues 8: 2–16.

    Google Scholar 

  • Paton, D. (2013). Disaster Resilient Communities: Developing and testing an all-hazards theory. Journal of Integrated Disaster Risk Management 3: 1–17.

    Google Scholar 

  • Paton, D., Buergelt, P. T., and Prior, T. (2008). Living with Bushfire Risk: Social and environmental influences on preparedness. Australian Journal of Emergency Management 23(3): 41–48.

    Google Scholar 

  • Paton, D., McClure, J., and Buergelt, P. T. (2006a). Natural hazard resilience: The role of individual and household preparedness. In Paton, D., and Johnston, D. (eds.), Disaster resilience: An integrated approach. Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, pp. 105–127.

    Google Scholar 

  • Paton, D., and Johnston, D. (2006). Disaster Resilience: An integrated approach. Charles C. Thomas, Springfield.

    Google Scholar 

  • Paton, D., Kelly, G., Buergelt, P. T., and Doherty, M. (2006b). Preparing for bushfires: Understanding intentions. Disaster Prevention and Management 15: 566–575.

    Google Scholar 

  • Paton, D., Sagala, S., Okada, N., Jang, L. J., Buergelt, P. T., and Gregg, C. E. (2010). Making sense of natural hazard mitigation: Personal, social and cultural influences. Environmental Hazards-Human and Policy Dimensions 9(2): 183–196.

    Google Scholar 

  • Paton, D., and Buergelt, P. T. (2012). Community engagement and wildfire preparedness: The influence of community diversity. In Paton, D., and Pedrosa, F. (eds.), Wildfire and community: Facilitating preparedness and resilience. Springfield, Ill., Charles C. Thomas.

  • Peak, H., Hilyard, K., Freimuth, V., Barge, J. K., and Mindlin, M. (2010). Theory-based approaches to understanding public emergency preparedness: Implications for effective health and risk communication. Journal of Health Communication 15(4): 428–444.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pelling, M., and High, C. (2005). Understanding adaptation: What can social capital offer assessment of adaptive capacity? Global Environmental Change 15: 308–319.

    Google Scholar 

  • Poortinga, W., and Pidgeon, N. F. (2004). Trust, the asymmetry principle, and the role of prior beliefs. Risk Analysis 24: 1475–1486.

    Google Scholar 

  • Posey, J. (2009). The determinants of vulnerability and adaptive capacity at the municipal level: Evidence from floodplain management programs in the United States. Global Environmental Change-Human and Policy Dimensions 19(4): 482–493.

    Google Scholar 

  • Preston, B. L., Brooke, C., Measham, T. G., Smith, T. F., and Gorddard, R. (2009). Igniting change in local government: lessons learned from a bushfire vulnerability assessment. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 14(3): 251–283.

    Google Scholar 

  • Priyanka, J. (2009). Managing flooding in Bangladesh: The role of NGO networks, government-NGO partnerships and learning communities in disaster management. Macro Center Working Papers, Paper 25.

  • Raaijmakers, R., Krywkow, J., and van der Veen, A. (2008). Flood risk perceptions and spatial multi-criteria analysis: An exploratory research for hazard mitigation. Natural Hazards 46(3): 307–322.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rees P., and Bartolomei. (2005). Waves of Violence - Women in Post-Tsunami Sri Lanka. The Australasian Journal of Disaster and Trauma Studies, 2. Retrieved on 24th November 2011 from http://www.massey.ac.nz/~trauma/issues/2005-2/rees.htm.

  • Renaud, F. G., Birkmann, J., Damm, M., and Gallopin, G. C. (2010). Understanding multiple thresholds of coupled social-ecological systems exposed to natural hazards as external shocks. Natural Hazards 55(3): 749–763.

    Google Scholar 

  • Reyes, G. (2010). Review of helping families and communities recover from disaster: Lessons learned from Hurricane Katrina and its aftermath. Journal of Loss and Trauma 15(6): 576–579.

    Google Scholar 

  • Robinson, E. (2009). Psychological influences on preparedness. Family Relationships Quarterly 14: 11–13.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ronan, K. R., Crellin, K., and Johnston, D. (2010). Correlates of hazard education for youth: A replication study. Natural Hazards 53: 503–526.

    Google Scholar 

  • Schouten, R., and Callahan, V. (2004). Community Response to Disaster: The Role of the Workplace. Harvard Review Psychiatry 12(4): 229–237.

    Google Scholar 

  • Shiu-Thornton, S., Balabis, J., Senturia, K., Tamayo, A., and Oberle, M. (2007). Disaster preparedness for limited English proficient communities: Medical interpreters as cultural brokers and gatekeepers. Public Health Reports 122(4): 466–471.

    Google Scholar 

  • Shinn, M., and Toohey, S. M. (2003). Community contexts of human welfare. Annual Review of Psychology 54: 427–459.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sjöberg, L. (1999). Risk perception by the public and by experts: A dilemma in risk management. Human Ecology Review 6(2): 1–9.

  • Smith, D. L., and Notaro, S. J. (2009). Personal emergency preparedness for people with disabilities from the 2006-2007 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Disability and Health Journal 2(2): 86–94.

    Google Scholar 

  • Smith, B. W., Pargament, K. I., Brant, C., and Oliver, J. M. (2000). Noah revisited: Religious coping by church members and the impact of the 1993 Midwest flood. Journal of Community Psychology 28(2): 169–186.

    Google Scholar 

  • Stevens, M. R., Berke, P. R., and Song, Y. (2010a). Creating disaster-resilient communities: Evaluating the promise and performance of new urbanism. Landscape and Urban Planning 94(2): 105–115.

    Google Scholar 

  • Stevens, M. R., Berke, P. R., and Song, Y. (2010b). Public participation in local government review of development proposals in hazardous locations: Does it matter, and what do local government planners have to do with It? Environmental Management 45(2): 320–335.

    Google Scholar 

  • Surjan, A., and Shaw, R. (2009). Enhancing disaster resilience through local environment management Case of Mumbai, India. Disaster Prevention and Management 18(4): 418–433.

    Google Scholar 

  • Taylor-Clark, K. A., Viswanath, K., and Blendon, R. J. (2010). Communication inequalities during public health disasters: Katrina’s wake. Health Communication 25(3): 221–229.

    Google Scholar 

  • Troy, D. A., Carson, A., Vanderbeek, J., and Hutton, A. (2008). Enhancing community-based disaster preparedness with information technology. Disasters 32(1): 149–165.

  • Ursano, R. J., Fullerton, C. S., Benedek, D. M., and Hamaoka, D. A. (2007). Hurricane Katrina: Disasters teach us and we must learn. Academic Psychiatry 31(3): 180–182.

    Google Scholar 

  • Vogt, C. A., Winter, G., and Fried, J. S. (2005). Predicting homeowners’ approval of fuel management at the wildland-urban interface using the theory of reasoned action. Society and Natural Resources 18: 337–354.

    Google Scholar 

  • Williams, R., Alexander, D. A., Bolsover, D., and Bakke, F. K. (2008). Children, resilience and disasters: Recent evidence that should influence a model of psychosocial care. Current Opinion in Psychiatry 21(4): 338–344.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wineman, N. V., Braun, B. I., Barbera, J. A., and Loeb, J. M. (2007). Assessing the integration of health center and community emergency preparedness and response planning. Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness 1(2): 96–105.

    Google Scholar 

  • Zhang, Y. (2010). Residential housing choice in a multi hazard environment: Implications for natural hazards mitigation and community environmental justice. Journal of Planning Education and Research 30(2): 117–131.

    Google Scholar 

  • Zolin, R., and Kropp, F. (2007). How governments can help businesses weather a cataclysmic disaster. In Gibbons, D. E. (ed.), Communicable crises – prevention, response, and recovery in the global arena. Information Age Publishing, Charlotte.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Petra T. Buergelt.

Additional information

Highlights

• An ecological all-hazard inter-disciplinary risk management and capability building model is proposed.

• There is a need to conceptualize DRR a multi-faceted phenomenon in which diverse human and environmental factors interact to influence each other in complex ways over time.

• A multitude of human and environmental factors, and their interactions over time are discussed.

• The environmental-level variables are operating across a wide range of dimensions and scales.

• Creating safe communities requires empowering and enabling individuals and communities.

• Effective risk management and capability building requires key players in all community dimensions and scales to collaborate.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Buergelt, P.T., Paton, D. An Ecological Risk Management and Capacity Building Model. Hum Ecol 42, 591–603 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10745-014-9676-2

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10745-014-9676-2

Keywords

Navigation