Land-use Change Modeling in a Brazilian Indigenous Reserve: Construction of a Reference Scenario for the Suruí REDD Project

Abstract

Interactions of indigenous peoples with the surrounding non-indigenous society are often the main sources of social and environmental changes in indigenous lands. In the case of the Suruí in Brazilian Amazonia’s “arc of deforestation,” these influences are leading to deforestation and logging that threaten both the forest and the sustainability of the group’s productive systems. The Suruí tribal leadership has initiated a proposal for an economic alternative based on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD). This has become a key case in global discussions on indigenous participation in REDD. The realism of the baseline scenario that serves as a reference for determining the amount of deforestation and emissions avoided by the proposed project is critical to assuring the reality of the carbon benefits claimed. Here we examine the SIMSURUI model, its input parameters and the implications of the Suruí Forest Carbon Project for indigenous participation in climate mitigation efforts.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6

References

  1. ABIEC. (2012). Sobre a pecuária, a indústria brasileira de carne bovina e o desmatamento na Amazônia. <http://www.abiec.com.br/news_view.asp?id=%7BED72951E-0AA7-423B-9DBC-AF42F2364EDB%7D>. (accessed 27 October 2012).

  2. Aguiar, A. P. (2006). Modeling Land-Use Change in the Brazilian Amazon: Exploring Inter-Regional Heterogeneity. Ph.D. Thesis, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), São José dos Campos, SP, Brazil. 153 pp.

  3. Brazil, IBGE (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística) (1992). Manual Técnico da Vegetação Brasileira. Manuais Técnicos em Geociências no 1. IBGE, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. 92 pp.

  4. Brazil, IBGE (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística) (2010). Pesquisa de Orçamentos Familiares 2008–2009. IBGE, Rio de Janeiro.

    Google Scholar 

  5. Brazil, IBGE (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística) (2011). Malha Municipal e de Setores Censitários do Censo 2010. IBGE, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. <http://www.censo2010.ibge.gov.br/sinopseporsetores>.

  6. Brazil, INPE (Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais) (2010). Projeto PRODES, Brazilian Amazon Forest Monitoring. INPE, São José dos Campos, SP, Brazil. <http://www.obt.inpe.br/prodes/index.php>.

  7. Brazil, MMA (Ministério do Meio Ambiente) (2001). Seminário MACAPÁ- Avaliação de Ações Prioritárias Para A Conservação, Utilização Sustentável e Repartição dos Benefícios da Biodiversidade na Amazônia Brasileira. MMA, Brasília. http://www.mma.gov.br/estruturas/sbf_chm_rbbio/_arquivos/Sumario_Amazonia.pdf.

    Google Scholar 

  8. Brazil, MMA (Ministerio do Meio Ambiente). (2009). The Brazilian Redd Strategy. MMA, Brasília, DF, Brazil. 29 pp. <http://www.mma.gov.br/estruturas/168/_publicacao/168_publicacao19012010035219.pdf>.

  9. Brazil, MMA (Ministério do Meio Ambiente). (2012). REDD + nos estados da Amazônia: Mapeamento de iniciativas e desafios para integração com a estratégia brasileira. MMA, Brasília, DF, Brazil. 35 pp. <http://www.mma.gov.br/redd/images/stories/redd_estadosamazonicos_idesam_mma.pdf>.

  10. Cattaneo, A. (2010). Incentives to Reduce Emissions from Deforestation: A Stock-Flow Approach with Target Reductions. In Bosetti, V., and Lubowski, F. (eds.), Deforestation and Climate Change: Reducing Carbon Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation. Edward Elgar Publishing, Cheltenham, pp. 93–120.

    Google Scholar 

  11. Dougill, A. J., Fraser, E. D. G., and Reed, M. S. (2010). Anticipating Vulnerability to Climate Change in Dryland Pastoral Systems: Using Dynamic Systems Models for the Kalahari. Ecology and Society 15(2): 17.

    Google Scholar 

  12. Fearnside, P. M. (1986). Spatial Concentration of Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. Ambio 15(2): 72–79.

    Google Scholar 

  13. Fearnside, P. M. (1989). A Ocupação Humana de Rondônia: Impactos, Limites e Planejamento. Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq), Brasília. 76 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  14. Fearnside, P. M. (2009). Carbon Benefits from Amazonian Forest Reserves: Leakage Accounting and the Value of Time. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 14(6): 557–567 doi:10.1007/s11027-009-9174-9.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Fearnside, P. M. (2012a). Brazil's Amazon Forest in Mitigating Global Warming: Unresolved Controversies. Climate Policy 12(1): 70–81 doi:10.1080/14693062.2011.581571.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Fearnside, P. M. (2012b). The Theoretical Battlefield: Accounting for the Climate Benefits of Maintaining Brazil’s Amazon Forest. Carbon Management 3(2): 145–148 doi:10.4155/CMT.12.9.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. FUNASA (Fundação Nacional da Saúde). (2010). Sistema de Informação da Atenção à Saúde Indígena-SIASI. 27/01/2010. FUNASA, Brasília, DF, Brazil. (data obtained from Metareilá).

  18. GEF (Global Environment Facility). (2009). Catalyzing the contribution of Indigenous Lands to the Conservation of Brazil Forest Ecosystems. United Nations Development Program (UNDP)/Brazilian Ministry of Environment (MMA)/Brazilian National Foundation of the Indians (FUNAI). Project document. GEF, World Bank, Washington, DC, U.S.A. 128 pp. <https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&pid=sites&srcid=ZGVmYXVsdGRvbWFpbnxwaWdhdGlmdW5haXxneDo2YTZiNGZhMjFkMzk2NTc5>.

  19. Greenbaum, L. (1989). Plundering the Timber on Brazilian Indian Reservations. Cultural Survival Quarterly 13(1): 23–26.

    Google Scholar 

  20. Greenpeace. (2012). JBS – still involved in Amazon destruction. http://www.greenpeace.org/international/Global/international/publications/forests/2012/Amazon/JBS-summary-26June.pdf. (accessed 27 October 2012).

  21. Huettner, M., Leemans, R., Kok, K., and Ebeling, J. (2009). A Comparison of Baseline Methodologies for 'Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation'. Carbon Balance and Management 4: 4.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. IDESAM (Instituto de Conservação e Desenvolvimento Sustentável do Amazonas). (2009). Projeto de Redução de Emissões de GEE Provenientes do Desmatamento na Reserva de Desenvolvimento Sustentável do Juma, Amazonas, Brasil. Documento de Concepção do Projeto (DCP), versão 5.1. Instituto de Conservação e Desenvolvimento Sustentável do Amazonas (IDESAM), Manaus, AM, Brazil. <http://www.idesam.org.br/documentos/pdf/PDD_Projeto%20 Juma_portugues.pdf > (accessed 20 June 2011).

  23. IDESAM (Instituto de Conservação e Desenvolvimento Sustentável do Amazonas), and Metareilá. (2011). Projeto de Carbono Florestal Suruí. 2011. IDESAM, Manaus, AM, Brazil. 129 pp. <http://www.idesam.org.br/publicacoes/pdf/PCFS_PDD_portugues_V1.pdf>

  24. ISA (Instituto Socioambiental), and Forest Trends. (2010). Avoided Deforestation (REDD) and Indigenous Peoples: experiences, challenges and opportunities in the Amazon context. ISA, Brasília, DF, Brazil and ForestTrends, Washington, DC, U.S.A. 142 pp. <http://www.forest-trends.org/documents/files/doc_2626.pdf>.

  25. JBS. (2012). JBS repudia falsas acusações do Greenpeace e tomará medidas judiciais cabíveis. <http://www.jbs.com.br/Resposta%20JBS%20ao%20relatorio%20Green%20Peace%20Scorecard%2006_06_2012%20port.pdf> (accessed 27 October 2012).

  26. Kemper, L. (2006). Cacoal, sua Historia, sua Gente. Grafopel, Goiânia. 186 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  27. Luizão, F. J., Fearnside, P. M., Cerri, C. E. P., and Lehmann, J. (2009). The Maintenance of Soil Fertility in Amazonian Managed Systems. In Keller, M., Bustamante, M., Gash, J., and da Silva Dias, P. (eds.), Amazonia and Global Change, Geophysical Monograph Series, vol. 186. American Geophysical Union (AGU), Washington, DC, pp. 311–336 doi:10. 029/2008GM000742.

    Google Scholar 

  28. Metareilá (2010). Plano de Ação Participativo Para o Desenvolvimento de Uma Economia Racional e de Manejo Sustentável dos Recursos Naturais da Terra Indígena Sete de Setembro. Cacoal, RO, Brazil. 252 pp.

  29. Mindlin, B. (2003). Surui Paiter. Povos Indígenas no Brasil. Instituto Socioambiental (ISA), Brasilia. http://pib.socioambiental.org/pt/povo/surui-paiter/846.

    Google Scholar 

  30. Mindlin, B. (2008). Carnets Sauvages: Chez les Suruí de Rondônia. Métailié, Paris. 344 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  31. Olander, L. P., Gibbs, H. K., Steininger, M., Swenson, J. J., and Murray, B. C. (2008). Reference scenarios for deforestation and forest degradation in support of REDD: a review of data and methods. Environmental Research Letters 3: 025011. 11 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  32. Pedlowski, M. A., Matricardi, E. A. T., Skole, D., Cameron, S. R., Chomentowski, W., Fernandes, C., and Lisboa, A. (2005). Conservation Units: A new Deforestation Frontier in the Amazonian State of Rondônia, Brazil. Environmental Conservation 32(2): 149–155.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. Rodrigues, H., Soares-Filho, B. S., and Costa, W. (2007). Dinamica-EGO, Uma Plataforma Para Modelagem de Sistemas Ambientais. Brazilian Symposium of Remote Sensing, Florianópolis, April 21–26, 2007. Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), São José dos Campos, SP, Brazil. pp. 3089–3096.

  34. Sendzimir, J., Reij, C. P., and Magnuszewski, P. (2011). Rebuilding Resilience in the Sahel: Regreening in the Maradi and Zinder Regions of Niger. Ecology and Society 16(3): 1 doi:10.5751/ES-04198-160301.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  35. Soares-Filho, B. S. (2013). Dinamica Project. Remote Sensing Center. University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. http://www.csr.ufmg.br/dinamica/ (accessed 17 January 2013).

  36. Soares-Filho, B. S., Nepstad, D. C., Curran, L. M., Cerqueira, G. C., Garcia, R. A., Ramos, C. A., Voll, E., McDonald, A., McDonald, P., and Schlesinger, P. (2006). Modelling Conservation in the Amazon Basin. Nature 440: 520–523.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. United States, USAID (United States Agency for International Development). (2013). News: Forest Carbon Suruí Project gains visibility. USAID, Washington, DC, U.S.A. <http://brazil.usaid.gov/pt/node/1406> (accessed January 2012).

  38. VCS (Verified Carbon Standard). (2012). Jurisdictional and Nested REDD + (JNR). 2012. <http://v-c-s.org/JNRI>

  39. Yanai, A. M., Fearnside, P. M., and Graça, P. M. L. A. (2012). Avoided Deforestation in Brazilian Amazonia: Simulating the Effect of the Juma Sustainable Development Reserve. Forest Ecology and Management 282: 78–91 doi:10.1016/j.foreco.2012.06.029.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  40. Zhu, X., Møller, L. R., De Lopez, T., and Romero, M. Z. (2010). Pathways for implementing REDD+. Experience from Carbon Markets and Communities. UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme) Risø Centre, Roskilde, Denmark. <http://www.acp-cd4cdm.org/media/237951/pathwaysimplementingreddplus.pdf>.

Download references

Acknowledgments

The Institute for the Conservation and Sustainable Development of Amazonas (IDESAM), CAPES and AgroParisTech/ANR Prigoue provided successive Ph.D. fellowships for the first author. We thank the following NGO partners of the SFCP project for providing input data: Metareilá, which provided the 2009 socioeconomic census data, IDESAM and the Amazon Conservation Team-Brazil, which provided the data on Suruí financial investments, and Kanindé, which provided information about historical LULCC. We are grateful to Forest Trends for supporting Suruí participative workshops. The authors thank the Suruí leaders for their participation in the construction of LULCC baseline. CNPq (305880/2007-1, 143399/2008-0, 563315/2008-3, 575853/2008-5, 573810/2008-7) provided financial support.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Philip Martin Fearnside.

Electronic supplementary material

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

ESM 1

(DOCX 213 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Vitel, C.S.M.N., Carrero, G.C., Cenamo, M.C. et al. Land-use Change Modeling in a Brazilian Indigenous Reserve: Construction of a Reference Scenario for the Suruí REDD Project. Hum Ecol 41, 807–826 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10745-013-9613-9

Download citation

Keywords

  • Amazon
  • Deforestation
  • Baseline
  • REDD
  • Carbon
  • Global warming
  • Climate change
  • Tropical forest
  • Rainforest