Human Population Density and Growth Validated as Extinction Threats to Mammal and Bird Species

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4

References

  1. Alroy, J. (2001). A Multispecies Overkill Simulation of the End-Pleistocene Megafaunal Mass Extinction. Science 292: 1893–1896.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Burgess, N. D., Balmford, A., Coreiro, N. J., Fjeldsa, J., Kuper, W., Rahbek, C., Sanderson, E. E., Schalrmann, J. P. W., Sommer, J. H., and Williams, P. H. (2007). Correlations Among Species Distribution, Human Density and Human Infrastructure Across the High Biodiversity Tropical Mountains of Africa. Biolological Conservation 134: 164–177.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Butchart, S. H. M., Stattersfield, A. J., Bennum, L. A., Shutes, S. M., Akçakaya, H. R., Baillie, J. E. M., Stuart, S. N., Hilton-Taylor, C., and Mace, G. (2004). Measuring Global Trends in the Status of Biodiversity: Red List Indices for Birds. PLoS Biology 2: 2294–2304.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Cardillo, M., Mace, G. M., Gittleman, J. L., and Purvis, A. (2006). Latent Extinction Risk and the Future Battlegrounds of Mammal Conservation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 103: 4157–4161.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Carwardine, J., Wilson, K. A., Ceballos, G., Ehrlich, P. R., Naidoo, R., Iwamura, T., Hajkowicz, S. A., and Possingham, H. P. (2008). Cost-Effective Priorities for Global Mammal Conservation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 105: 11446–11450.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Ceballos, G., and Ehrlich, P. R. (2006). Global Mammal Distributions, Biodiversity Hotspots, and Conservation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 103: 19374–19379.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Ceballos, G., Ehrlich, P. R., Soberón, J., Salazar, I., and Fay, J. P. (2005). Global Mammal Conservation: What Must We Manage? Science 309: 603–607.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Cincotta, R. P. (2011). The biological diversity that is humanly possible: Three models relevant of human population’s relationship with native species. In Cincotta, R. P., and Gorenflo, L. J. (eds.), Human Population—Its Influences on Biodiversity. Springer, Heidelberg, pp. 61–73.

    Google Scholar 

  9. Cincotta, R. P., and Engelman, R. (2000). Nature’s Place: Human Population and the Future of Biological Diversity. Population Action International, Washington DC.

    Google Scholar 

  10. Cincotta, R. P., Wisnewski, J., and Engelman, R. (2000). Human Population in the Biodiversity Hotspots. Nature 404: 990–992.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Collen, B., Loh, J., Whitmee, S., McRae, L., Amin, R., and Baillie, J. E. M. (2008). Monitoring Change in Vertebrate Abundance: The Living Planet Index. Conservation Biology 23: 317–327.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Forester, D. J., and Machlis, J. E. (1996). Modeling Human Factors that Affect the Loss of Biodiversity. Conservation Biology 10: 1253–1263.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Gaston, K. J. (2005). Biodiversity and Extinction: Species and People. Progress in Physical Geography 29: 239–247.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Harcourt, A. H., Parks, S. A., and Woodroffe, R. (2001). Human Density as an Influence on Species/Area Relationships: Double Jeopardy for Small African Reserves? Biodiversity and Conservation 10: 1011–1026.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Holland, T., Petersone, G. D., and Gonzales, A. (2009). A Cross-National Analysis of How Economic Inequality Predicts Biodiversity Loss. Conservation Biology 23: 1304–1313.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). (2010). Red list of threatened species. http://www.iucnredlist.org/about/summary-statistics.

  17. Kerr, J. T., and Currie, D. J. (1995). Effects of Human Activity on Global Extinction Risk. Conservation Biology 9: 1528–1538.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Klein, R. G. (2000). Human evolution and large mammal extinctions. In Vrba, E. S., and Schaller, G. B. (eds.), Antelopes, Deer, and Relatives, Present and Future: Fossil Record, Behavioral Ecology, Systematics, and Conservation. Yale University Press, New Haven, pp. 128–139.

    Google Scholar 

  19. Kirkland, G. L., and Ostfeld, S. (1999). Factors Influencing Variation Among States in the Number of Federally Listed Mammals in the United States. Journal of Mammology 80: 711–719.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Luck, G. W. (2007a). A Review of the Relationships Between Human Population Density and Biodiversity. Biological Reviews 82: 607–645.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Luck, G. W. (2007b). The Relationships Between Net Primary Productivity, Human Population Density, and Species Conservation. Journal of Biogeography 34: 201–212.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. McKee, J. K. (2003a). Sparing Nature—The Conflict between Human Population Growth and Earth’s Biodiversity. Rutgers University Press, Piscataway.

    Google Scholar 

  23. McKee, J. K. (2003b). Reawakening Malthus: Empirical Support for the Smail Scenario. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 122: 371–374.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. McKee, J. K. (2009). Contemporary Mass Extinction and the Human Population Imperative. Journal of Cosmology 2: 300–308.

    Google Scholar 

  25. McKee, J. K., and Chambers, E. N. (2011). Behavioral Mediators of the Human Population Effect on Global Biodiversity Losses. In Cincotta, R. P., and Gorenflo, L. J. (eds.), Human Population—Its Influences on Biodiversity. Springer, Heidelberg, pp. 47–59.

    Google Scholar 

  26. McKee, J. K., Sciulli, P. W., Fooce, C. D., and Waite, T. A. (2004). Forecasting Global Biodiversity Threats Associated with Human Population Growth. Biological Conservation 115: 161–164.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. McKinney, M. L. (2001). Role of Human Population Size in Raising Bird and Mammal Threats Among Nations. Animal Conservation 4: 45–57.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Mikkelson, G. M., Gonzalez, A., and Peterson, G. D. (2007). Economic Inequality Predicts Biodiversity Loss. PloS One 5: 1–5.

    Google Scholar 

  29. Rodrigues, A. S. L., Pilgrim, J. D., Lamoreaux, J. F., Hoffman, M., and Brooks, T. M. (2006). The Value of the IUCN Red List for Conservation. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 21: 71–76.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Smith, R. J., Muir, R. D. J., Walpole, M. J., Balmford, A., and Leader-Williams, N. (2003). Governance and the Loss of Biodiversity. Nature 426: 67–70.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Thompson, K., and Jones, A. (1999). Human Population Density and Prediction of Local Plant Extinctions in Britain. Conservation Biology 13: 185–190.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. United Nations Environment Programme -World Conservation Monitoring Centre. (2010). Animals of the world database. http://www.unep-wcmc.org/species/animals/animal_redlist.html.

  33. United States Census Bureau. (2010). International data base. http://www.census.gov/ipc/www/idb/informationGateway.php.

  34. Wilson, H. B., Kendall, B. E., and Possingham, H. P. (2011). Variability in Population Abundance and the Classification of Extinction Risk. Conservation Biology 25: 747–757.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Jeffrey McKee.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

McKee, J., Chambers, E. & Guseman, J. Human Population Density and Growth Validated as Extinction Threats to Mammal and Bird Species. Hum Ecol 41, 773–778 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10745-013-9586-8

Download citation

Keywords

  • Bird Species
  • Threatened Species
  • Human Population Density
  • Human Population Growth
  • Continental Nation