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A deep dive into the darning effects of biomaterials in infarct myocardium: current advances and future perspectives

Abstract

Myocardial infarction (MI) occurs due to the obstruction of coronary arteries, a major crux that restricts blood flow and thereby oxygen to the distal part of the myocardium, leading to loss of cardiomyocytes and eventually, if left untreated, leads to heart failure. MI, a potent cardiovascular disorder, requires intense therapeutic interventions and thereby presents towering challenges. Despite the concerted efforts, the treatment strategies for MI are still demanding, which has paved the way for the genesis of biomaterial applications. Biomaterials exhibit immense potentials for cardiac repair and regeneration, wherein they act as extracellular matrix replacing scaffolds or as delivery vehicles for stem cells, protein, plasmids, etc. This review concentrates on natural, synthetic, and hybrid biomaterials; their function; and interaction with the body, mechanisms of repair by which they are able to improve cardiac function in a MI milieu. We also provide focus on future perspectives that need attention. The cognizance provided by the research results certainly indicates that biomaterials could revolutionize the treatment paradigms for MI with a positive impact on clinical translation.

Graphical abstract

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Acknowledgements

Dr. T. Hemalatha (No.R.12014/33/2020-HR) gratefully acknowledges Department of Health Research, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, for the Young Scientist fellowship. Dr. M. Aarthy thanks ICMR for the Research Associate fellowship, and Ms. P. Suryalakshmi thanks DST for the Senior Research fellowship.

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Hemalatha, T., Aarthy, M., Pandurangan , . et al. A deep dive into the darning effects of biomaterials in infarct myocardium: current advances and future perspectives. Heart Fail Rev 27, 1443–1467 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10741-021-10144-3

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Keywords

  • Myocardial infarction
  • Cardiac tissue engineering
  • Scaffolds
  • Hydrogels
  • Cardiac repair