Heart Failure Reviews

, Volume 23, Issue 2, pp 273–289 | Cite as

Imaging technologies for cardiac fiber and heart failure: a review

  • Shana R. Watson
  • James D. Dormer
  • Baowei Fei


There has been an increasing interest in studying cardiac fibers in order to improve the current knowledge regarding the mechanical and physiological properties of the heart during heart failure (HF), particularly early HF. Having a thorough understanding of the changes in cardiac fiber orientation may provide new insight into the mechanisms behind the progression of left ventricular (LV) remodeling and HF. We conducted a systematic review on various technologies for imaging cardiac fibers and its link to HF. This review covers literature reports from 1900 to 2017. PubMed and Google Scholar databases were searched using the keywords “cardiac fiber” and “heart failure” or “myofiber” and “heart failure.” This review highlights imaging methodologies, including magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (MR-DTI), ultrasound, and other imaging technologies as well as their potential applications in basic and translational research on the development and progression of HF. MR-DTI and ultrasound have been most useful and significant in evaluating cardiac fibers and HF. New imaging technologies that have the ability to measure cardiac fiber orientations and identify structural and functional information of the heart will advance basic research and clinical diagnoses of HF.


Heart failure Cardiac fiber Myofiber Medical imaging Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) MR diffusion tensor imaging Ultrasound imaging 



Apparent diffusion coefficient


Average relative error


Backscatter tensor imaging


Cardiac resynchronization therapy


Computerized tomography


Dice similarity coefficient


Diffusion spectrum imaging


Diffusion tensor imaging


Elastic tensor imaging


Fractional anisotropy


Heart failure


Large deformation diffeomorphic metric mapping


Left ventricle; left ventricular


Magnetic resonance imaging


Nuclear magnetic resonance


Positron emission tomography


Polarized sensitive


Optical coherence tomography


Right ventricular free wall


Second harmonic generation


Single photon emission computed tomography


Susceptibility weight imaging


Two photon microscopy



This research was supported in part by the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) grants (CA176684, CA156775, and CA204254). The work was also supported in part by the Georgia Research Alliance (GRA) Distinguished Cancer Scientist Award to BF.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Radiology and Imaging SciencesEmory University School of MedicineAtlantaUSA
  2. 2.Winship Cancer Institute of Emory UniversityAtlantaUSA
  3. 3.Department of Mathematics and Computer ScienceEmory UniversityAtlantaUSA
  4. 4.Department of Biomedical EngineeringEmory University and Georgia Institute of TechnologyAtlantaUSA
  5. 5.Quantitative Bioimaging Laboratory, Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, School of Medicine, Emory UniversityAtlantaUnited States

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