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Temporary assist device support for the right ventricle: pre-implant and post-implant challenges

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Abstract

Severe right ventricular (RV) failure is more likely reversible than similar magnitudes of left ventricular (LV) failure and, because reversal of both adaptive remodeling and impaired contractility require most often only short periods of support, the use of temporary RV assist devices (t-RVADs) can be a life-saving therapy option for many patients. Although increased experience with t-RVADs and progresses made in the development of safer devices with lower risk for complications has improved both recovery rate of RV function and patient survival, the mortality of t-RVAD recipients can still be high but it depends mainly on the primary cause of RV failure (RVF), the severity of end-organ dysfunction, and the timing of RVAD implantation, and much less on adverse events and complications related to RVAD implantation, support, or removal. Reduced survival of RVAD recipients should therefore not discourage appropriate application of RVADs because their underuse further reduces the chances for RV recovery and patient survival. The article reviews and discusses the challenges related to the pre-implant and post-implant decision-making processes aiming to get best possible therapeutic results. Special attention is focused on pre-implant RV assessment and prediction of RV improvement during mechanical unloading, patient selection for t-RVAD therapy, assessment of unloading-promoted RV recovery, and prediction of its stability after RVAD removal. Particular consideration is also given to prediction of RVF after LVAD implantation which is usually hampered by the complex interactions between the different risk factors related indirectly or directly to the RV potential for reverse remodeling and functional recovery.

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Dandel, M., Hetzer, R. Temporary assist device support for the right ventricle: pre-implant and post-implant challenges. Heart Fail Rev 23, 157–171 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10741-018-9678-z

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