A Two-Ocean Bouillabaisse: Science, Politics, and the Central American Sea-Level Canal Controversy

Abstract

As the Panama Canal approached its fiftieth anniversary in the mid-1960s, U.S. officials concerned about the costs of modernization welcomed the technology of peaceful nuclear excavation to create a new waterway at sea level. Biologists seeking a share of the funds slated for radiological-safety studies called attention to another potential effect which they deemed of far greater ecological and evolutionary magnitude – marine species exchange, an obscure environmental issue that required the expertise of underresourced life scientists. An enterprising endeavor to support Smithsonian naturalists, especially marine biologists at the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute in Panama, wound up sparking heated debates – between biologists and engineers about the oceans’ biological integrity and among scientists about whether the megaproject represented a research opportunity or environmental threat. A National Academy of Sciences panel chaired by Ernst Mayr failed to attract congressional funding for its 10-year baseline research program, but did create a stir in the scientific and mainstream press about the ecological threats that the sea-level canal might unleash upon the Atlantic and Pacific. This paper examines how the proposed megaproject sparked a scientific and political conversation about the risks of mixing the oceans at a time when many members of the scientific and engineering communities still viewed the seas as impervious to human-facilitated change.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. Abele, Lawrence G. 1972. “Introductions of Two Freshwater Decapod Crustaceans (Hymenosomatidae and Atyidae) into Central and North America.” Crustaceana 23: 209–218.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Anderson, Katharine. 2006. “Does History Count?’ Endeavour 30: 150–155.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. APICSC (Atlantic-Pacific Interoceanic Canal Study Commission). 1970. Interoceanic Canal Studies. https://ia600304.us.archive.org/28/items/interoceaniccana00unit/inter oceaniccana00unit.pdf. Accessed 2 May 2016.

  4. Aron, William I. and Por, Francis Dov. 1972. “A Tribute to Heinz Steinitz (1909–1971) and Gunnar Thorson (1906–1971).” Israel Journal of Zoology 21: 129–130.

    Google Scholar 

  5. Aron, William I. and Smith, Stanford H. 1971. “Ship Canals and Aquatic Ecosystems.” Science 174: 13–20.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Aronova, Elena, Baker, Karen S. and Oreskes, Naomi. 2010. “Big Science and Big Data in Biology: From the International Geophysical Year through the International Biological Program to the Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) Network, 1957-Present.” Historical Studies in the Natural Sciences 40: 183–224.

  7. Associated Press 1971. “Sea Life Presents Problem to Canal.” Sarasota Herald-Tribune (December 10): A16.

  8. Baker, Herbert G. and Stebbins, G. Ledyard (eds.). 1965. The Genetics of Colonizing Species. New York: Academic Press.

    Google Scholar 

  9. Bayer, Frederick M., Voss, Gilbert L. and Robins, C. Richard. 1970. Bioenvironmental and Radiological Safety Feasibility Studies, Atlantic-Pacific Interoceanic Canal: Report on the Marine Fauna and Benthic Shelf-Slope Communities of the Isthmian Region (No. BMI – 171-38). University of Miami, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences.

  10. Beeton, Alfred M. 1977. “Report of the Committee on Ecological Effects of a Sea Level Canal, Environmental Studies Board to the Honorable Frank Press.” September 28. U.S. National Academy of Sciences. https://books.google.com/books?id=SUErAA AAYAAJ&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false. Accessed 2 May 2016.

  11. Blu Buhs, Joshua 2004. The Fire Ant Wars: Nature, Science, and Public Policy in Twentieth-Century America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

  12. Bocking, Stephen. 1997. Ecologists and Environmental Politics: A History of Contemporary Ecology. New Haven: Yale University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  13. Boffey, Philip M. 1971. “Sea-Level Canal: How the Academy’s Voice was Muted.” Science 171: 355–356.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Boffey, Philip M. 1975. The Brain Bank of America: An Inquiry into the Politics of Science. New York: McGraw-Hill.

    Google Scholar 

  15. Bolster, W. Jeffrey. 2012. The Mortal Sea: Fishing the Atlantic in the Age of Sail. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  16. Briggs, John C. “Relationship of the Tropical Shelf Regions.” Proceedings of the International Conference on Tropical Oceanography (University of Miami Institute of Marine Sciences): 569–578. http://scholarlyrepository.miami.edu/trop_ocean/5. Accessed 22 August 2016.

  17. Briggs, John C. 1968. “Panama’s Sea-Level Canal.” Science 162: 511–513.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Briggs, John C. 1969. “The Sea-Level Panama Canal: Potential Biological Catastrophe.” BioScience 19: 44–47.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Briggs, John C. 1974. Marine Zoogeography. New York: McGraw Hill.

    Google Scholar 

  20. Buechner, Helmut K. and Raymond Fosberg, F. 1967. “A Contribution toward a World Program in Tropical Biology.” BioScience 17: 532–538.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Carlton, James T. 1985. “Transoceanic and Interoceanic Dispersal of Coastal Marine Organisms: The Biology of Ballast Water.” Oceanography and Marine Biology Annual Review 23: 313–371.

    Google Scholar 

  22. Carlton, James T. 1992. “Blue Immigrants: The Marine Biology of Maritime History.” The Log of Mystic Seaport Museum 44: 31–36.

    Google Scholar 

  23. Carter, Luther J. 1968. “National Academy of Sciences: Unrest among the Ecologists.” Science 159: 287–289.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. CERIC (Committee on Ecological Research for the Interoceanic Canal). 1970. Marine Ecological Research for the Central American Interoceanic Canal. Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Sciences.

    Google Scholar 

  25. Chesher, Richard H. 1968. “Transport of Marine Plankton through the Panama Canal.” Limnology and Oceanography 13: 387–388.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Chesher, Richard H. 1969. “Destruction of Pacific Corals by the Sea Star Acanthaster planci.” Science 165: 280–283.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Chew, Matthew K. 2006. “Ending with Elton: Preludes to Invasion Biology.” Ph.D. diss. Arizona State University.

  28. Christen, Catherine A. 2002. “At Home in the Field: Smithsonian Tropical Science Field Stations in the U.S. Panama Canal Zone and the Republic of Panama.” The Americas 58: 537–575.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Cohen, Andrew N. 2006. “Species Introductions and the Panama Canal.” Stephan Gollasch, Bella S. Galil, and Andrew N. Cohen (eds.), Bridging Divides: Maritime Canals as Invasion Corridors. Dordrecht: Springer, pp. 127–206.

  30. Cohn, Victor. 13 April 1970. “A-Canal Dealt Blow,” Washington Post: A1.

  31. Cole, LaMont C. 1968. “Can the World Be Saved?’ BioScience 18: 679–684.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Collins, Timothy. 1996. “Molecular Comparisons of Transisthmian Species Pairs: Rates and Patterns of Evolution.” Jeremy B.C. Jackson, Ann F. Budd and Anthony G. Coates (eds.), Evolution and Environment in Tropical America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, pp. 303–334.

  33. Covich, Alan P. 2015. “Projects that Never Happened: Ecological Insights from Darien, Panama.” Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America 96: 54–63. http://onlinelibra ry.wiley.com/doi/10.1890/0012-9623-96.1.54/full. Accessed 30 October 2016.

  34. Cowan, Richard S., Davis, D., Humphrey, P.S., Klein, W.H., Ritterbush, P.C. and Shelter, S. 1965. “Meetings.” BioScience 15: 607–608.

    Google Scholar 

  35. Davis, Mark A. 2006. “Invasion Biology 1958–2005: The Pursuit of Science and Conservation.” Marc W. Cadotte, Sean M. McMahon and Tadashi Fukami (eds.), Conceptual Ecology and Invasions Biology: Reciprocal Approaches to Nature. Dordrecht: Springer, pp. 35–64.

  36. Davis, Mark A., Chew, Matthew K., Hobbs, Richard J., Lugo, Ariel E., Ewel, John J., Vermeij, Geerat J., Brown, James H., Rosenzweig, Michael L., Gardener, Mark R., Carroll, Scott P., Thompson, Ken, Pickett, Steward T.A., Stromberg, Juliet C., Tredici, Del, Peter, Suding, Katharine, N., Ehrenfeld, Joan G., Grime, J. Philip, Mascaro and Joseph, Briggs, John C. 2011. “Don’t Judge Species on their Origin.” Nature 474: 153–154.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. Dawson, C.E. 1973. “Occurrence of an Exotic Eleotrid Fish in Panamá with Discussion of Probable Origin and Mode of Introduction.” Copeia (No. 1): 141–144.

  38. Doel, Ronald E. 2003. “Constituting the Postwar Earth Sciences: The Military’s Influence on the Environmental Sciences in the USA after 1945.” Social Studies of Science 33: 635–666.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  39. Doel, Ronald E. and Harper, Kristine C. 2006. “Prometheus Unleashed: Science as a Diplomatic Weapon in the Lyndon B. Johnson Administration.” Osiris 21: 66–85.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  40. Dorsey, Kurkpatrick. 2013. Whales and Nations: Environmental Diplomacy on the High Seas. Seattle: University of Washington Press.

    Google Scholar 

  41. Dreyfus, Daniel A. and Ingram, Helen M. 1976. “The National Environmental Policy Act: A View of Intent and Practice.” Natural Resources Journal 16: 243–262.

    Google Scholar 

  42. Dunson, William A. 1971. “The Sea Snakes are Coming.” Natural History 80: 52–61.

    Google Scholar 

  43. Dunson, William A. 1975. “Sea Snakes and the Sea Level Canal Controversy.” William A. Dunson (ed.), The Biology of Sea Snakes. Baltimore: University Park Press, pp. 517–524.

  44. Elliott, Michael. 2003. “Biological Pollutants and Biological Pollution – An Increasing Cause for Concern.” Marine Pollution Bulletin 46(2003): 275–280.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  45. Elton, Charles S. 2000 [1958]. The Ecology of Invasions by Animals and Plants. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

  46. “Engineers End Study of Sea-Level Canal.” 4 April 1968. Washington Post: E1.

  47. Finley, Carmel. 2011. All the Fish in the Sea: Maximum Sustainable Yield and the Future of Fisheries Management. Chicago:University of Chicago Press.

    Google Scholar 

  48. Flood, Daniel J. 1970. “Preconceived Plan for Sea-Level Canal Destroyed: Time for Action on Terminal Lake-Third Locks Plan Has Come.” Congressional Record (May 20): H 4619–H 4622.

  49. Freestone, Amy L., Ruiz, Gregory M. and Torchin, Mark E. 2013. “Stronger Biotic Resistance in Tropics Relative to Temperate Zone: Effects of Predation on Marine Invasion Dynamics.” Ecology 94: 1370–1377.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  50. Gawrylewski, Andrea 2007. “Opening Pandora’s Locks.” The Scientist (October). http://www.the-scientist.com/?articles.view/articleNo/25464/title/Opening-Pandora-s-Locks/. Accessed 2 May 2016.

  51. Glynn, Peter W. 2001. “Eastern Pacific Coral Reefs: New Revelations in the Twentieth Century.” Atoll Research Bulletin 494: 119–160.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  52. Golley, Frank Benjamin, McGinnis, J.T., Clements, R.G., Child, G.I. and Duever, M.J. 1969. “The Structure of Tropical Forests in Panama and Colombia.” BioScience 19: 693–696.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  53. Graham, J.B., Rubinoff, I. and Hecht, M.K. 1971. “Temperature Physiology of the Sea Snake Pelamis Platurus: An Index of its Colonization Potential in the Atlantic Ocean.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 68: 1360–1363.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  54. Gunter, Gordon. 1979. “Marine Fishes of Panama as Related to the Canal.” Gulf and Caribbean Research 6: 267–273.

    Google Scholar 

  55. Haffer, Jürgen. 2007. Ornithology, Evolution, and Philosophy: The Life and Science of Ernst Mayr, 1904–2005. Berlin: Springer.

    Google Scholar 

  56. Hagen, Joel B. 1990. “Problems in the Institutionalization of Tropical Biology: The Case of the Barro Colorado Island Biological Laboratory.” History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 12: 225–247.

    Google Scholar 

  57. Hagen, Joel B. 1992. An Entangled Bank: The Origins of Ecosystem Ecology. Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.

  58. Halloran, Richard 1970. “Route is Chosen for New Panama Canal.” New York Times (November 14): 3.

  59. Hamblin, Jacob Darwin. 2008. Poison in the Well: Radioactive Waste in the Oceans at the Dawn of the Nuclear Age. Piscataway, NJ: Rutgers University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  60. Hellman, Geoffrey. 1966. The Smithsonian: Octopus on the Mall. New York: Lippincott.

    Google Scholar 

  61. Henson, Pamela M. 2016. “A Baseline Environmental Survey: The 1910–12 Smithsonian Biological Survey of the Panama Canal Zone.” Environmental History 21: 222–230.

    Google Scholar 

  62. Hildebrand, Samuel F. 1939. “The Panama Canal as a Passageway for Fishes, with List and Remarks on the Fishes and Invertebrates.” Zoologica 24: 15–45.

    Google Scholar 

  63. Hillaby, John. 1969. “A Risky Mix.” New Scientist 41: 280–281.

    Google Scholar 

  64. Hovey, Graham. 1977. “Panamanians say Carter’s Idea for Sea-Level Canal Imperiled Talks.” New York Times (August 25): 8.

  65. Hubbs, Carl L. 1971. “Need for Thorough Inventory of Tropical American Marine Biotas before Completion of an Interoceanic Sea-Level Canal.” 1968 Symposium on Investigations and Resources of the Caribbean Sea and Adjacent Regions. Paris: UNESCO, pp. 467–470.

  66. Hubbs, Carl L. and Pope, T.E.B. 1937. “The Spread of the Sea Lamprey through the Great Lakes.” Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 66: 172–176.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  67. Humair, Franziska, Edwards, Peter J., Siegrist, Michael and Kueffer, Christoph 2014. Understanding Misunderstandings in Invasion Science: Why Experts Don’t Agree on Common Concepts and Risk Assessments. Neo Biota 20: 1–30.

    Google Scholar 

  68. Jackson, J.B.C., Cubit, J.D., Keller, B.D., Batista, V., Burns, K., Caffey, H.M., Caldwell, R.L., Garrity, S.D., Getter, C.D., Gonzalez, C., Guzman, H.M., Kaufmann, K.W., Knap, A.H., Levings, S.C., Marshall, M.J., Steger, R., Thompson, R.C. and Weil, E. 1989. “Ecological Effects of a Major Oil Spill on Panamanian Coastal Marine Communities.” Science 243: 37–44.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  69. Jackson, Jeremy C.B., Kirby, Michael X., Berger, Wolfgang H., Bjordal, Karen A., Botsford, Louis W., Bourque, Bruce J., Bradbury, Roger H., Cooke, Richard, Erlandson, Jon, Estes, James A., Hughes, Terence P., Kidwell, Susan, Lange, Carina B., Lenihan, Hunter S., Pandolfi, John M., Peterson, Charles H., Stenack, Robert S., Tegner, Mia J. and Warner, Robert R. 2001. “Historical Overfishing and the Recent Collapse of Coastal Ecosystems.” Science 293: 629–638.

  70. Johnson, Kristin. 2007. “Natural History as Stamp Collecting: A Brief History.” Archives of Natural History 34: 244–258.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  71. Johnson, Lyndon B. 1964. “Remarks on the Decision to Build a Sea Level Canal and to Negotiate a New Treaty with Panama” (18 December). Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley (eds.), The American Presidency Project. http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ ws/?pid=26764. Accessed 26 July 2016.

  72. Jones, Meredith L. (ed.). 1972. “The Panamic Biota: Some Observations Prior to a Sea-Level Canal.” Bulletin of the Biological Society of Washington (No. 2): 1–270.

  73. Jones, Meredith L. and Dawson, C.E. 1973. “Salinity-Temperature Profiles in the Panama Canal Locks.” Marine Biology 21: 86–90.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  74. Jones, Meredith L. and Manning, R. B. 1971. “A Two-Ocean Bouillabaisse Can Result If and When Sea-Level Canal is Dug.” Smithsonian 2(9): 12–21.

    Google Scholar 

  75. Kaufman, Scott. 2013. Project Plowshare: The Peaceful Use of Nuclear Explosives in Cold War America. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  76. Keiner, Christine. 2009. The Oyster Question: Scientists, Watermen, and the Maryland Chesapeake Bay since 1880. Athens: University of Georgia Press.

    Google Scholar 

  77. Keiner, Christine. 2016. “The Panatomic Canal and the US Environmental-Management State, 1964–1978.” Environmental History 21: 278–287.

    Google Scholar 

  78. Kent, Francis B. 1972. “The Biological Unknowns of a New Panama Canal.” Washington Post (January 18): A18.

  79. Kingsland, Sharon E. 2005. The Evolution of American Ecology, 1890–2000. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  80. Kinsey, Darin S. 2006. “‘Seeding the Water as the Earth’: The Epicenter and Peripheries of a Western Aquacultural Revolution.” Environmental History 11: 527–566.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  81. Kirsch, Scott. 2005. Proving Grounds: Project Plowshare and the Unrealized Dream of Nuclear Earthmoving. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  82. Kittinger, John N., McClenachan, Loren, Gedan, Keryn B. and Blight, Louise K. (eds.). 2014. Marine Historical Ecology in Conservation: Applying the Past to Manage for the Future. Oakland: University of California Press.

  83. Kroll, Gary. 2008. America’s Ocean Wilderness: A Cultural History of Twentieth-Century Exploration. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas.

    Google Scholar 

  84. Kwa, Chunglin. 1987. “Representations of Nature Mediating Between Ecology and Science Policy: The Case of the International Biological Programme.” Social Studies of Science 17: 413–442.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  85. LaFeber, Walter. 1978. The Panama Canal: The Crisis in Historical Perspective. New York: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  86. Laycock, George. 1970. The Diligent Destroyers. New York: Doubleday.

    Google Scholar 

  87. Lawrence, Mark Atwood 2005. “Exception to the Rule? The Johnson Administration and the Panama Canal.” Mitchell B. Lerner (ed.), Looking Back at LBJ: White House Politics in a New Light. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, pp. 20–47.

  88. Leschine, Thomas M. 1981. “The Panamanian Sea-Level Canal: Problems and Prospects from a Policy Perspective.” Oceans 81: 615–619.

    Google Scholar 

  89. Lederberg, Joshua 1969. “Sea-Level Canal Points up Need for Environmental Data,” Washington Post (February 1): A15.

  90. Lessios, H.A. 1998. “The First Stage of Speciation as Seen in Organisms Separated by the Isthmus of Panama.” Daniel J. Howard and Stewart H. Berlocher (eds.), Endless Forms: Species and Speciation. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 186–201.

  91. MacArthur, Robert H. and Wilson, Edward O. 1967. The Theory of Island Biogeography. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  92. McCosker, J.E. and Dawson, C.E. 1975. “Biotic Passage through the Panama Canal, with Particular Reference to Fishes.” Marine Biology 30: 343–351.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  93. McCullough, David. 1977. The Path Between the Seas: The Creation of the Panama Canal, 1870–1914. New York: Simon and Schuster.

    Google Scholar 

  94. Mann, Roger (ed.). 1978. Exotic Species in Mariculture: Case Histories of the Japanese Oyster, Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg), with Implications for Other Fisheries. Cambridge: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press.

    Google Scholar 

  95. Mayr, Ernst. 1954. “Geographic Speciation in Tropical Echinoids.” Evolution 8: 1–18.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  96. Mayr, Ernst. 1966. “Informal Report on the Meeting of the U.S. National Committee and the Subcommittee Chairmen of the International Biological Program.” Systematic Zoology 15: 164–165.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  97. Mayr, Ernst. 1982. The Growth of Biological Thought: Diversity, Evolution, and Inheritance. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  98. Menzies, Robert J. 1968. “Transport of Marine Life between Oceans through the Panama Canal.” Nature 220: 802–803.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  99. Milam, Erika Lorraine. 2010. “The Equally Wonderful Field: Ernst Mayr and Organismic Biology.” Historical Studies in the Natural Sciences 40: 279–317.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  100. Moon, Katie, Adams, Vanessa M., Januchowski-Hartley, Stephanie R., Polyakov, Maksym, Mills, Morena, Biggs, Duan, Knight, Andrew T., Game, Edward T. and Raymond, Christopher M. 2014. “A Multidisciplinary Conceptualization of Conservation Opportunity.” Conservation Biology 28: 1484–1496.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  101. Mueller, Marti 1969. “New Canal: What about Bioenvironmental Research?” Science: 165–167.

  102. Nelson, Derek Lee. 2016. “The Ravages of Teredo: The Rise and Fall of Shipworm in US History, 1860–1940.” Environmental History 21: 100–124.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  103. Newman, William A. 1972. “The National Academy of Science Committee on the Ecology of the Interoceanic Canal.” M.L. Jones (ed.), The Panamic Biota, pp. 247–259.

  104. Norse, Elliott A. and Crowder, Larry B. 2005. Marine Conservation Biology: The Science of Maintaining the Sea’s Biodiversity. Washington, D.C.: Island Press.

    Google Scholar 

  105. O’Toole, Thomas 1970. “Study Seen Urging 2d Panama Canal.” Washington Post (November 14): A5.

  106. Ortman, David “Not Man Apart – Mingling the Two Oceans.” Friends of the Earth 7 (November 1977). Reprinted in U.S. Congress, 1978, p. 363.

  107. Por, Francis Dov and Ferber, Ilana. 1972. “The Hebrew University – Smithsonian Institution Collections from the Suez Canal (1967–1972).” Israel Journal of Zoology 21: 149–166.

    Google Scholar 

  108. Por, Francis Dov. 1971. “One Hundred Years of Suez Canal – A Century of Lessepsian Migration: Retrospect and Viewpoints.” Systematic Biology 20: 138–159.

    Google Scholar 

  109. Porter, James W. 1972. “Ecology and Species Diversity of Coral Reefs on Opposite Sides of the Isthmus of Panama.” M.L. Jones (ed.), The Panamic Biota, pp. 89–116.

  110. Pray, Leslie A. 2005. “Ernst Mayr Dies.” The Scientist (February 4). http://www.the- scientist.com/?articles.view/articleNo/23261/title/Ernst-Mayr-dies/. Accessed 2 May 2016.

  111. Raby, Megan. 2015. “Ark and Archive: Making a Place for Long-Term Research on Barro Colorado Island, Panama.” Isis 106: 798–824.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  112. Raymond, Jack 1964. “Panama Crisis: Is New Canal the Answer?” New York Times (January 26): E4.

  113. Richards, P.W. 1963. “What the Tropics Can Contribute to Ecology.” Journal of Ecology 51: 231–241.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  114. Richardson, David M. (ed.). 2011. Fifty Years of Invasion Ecology: The Legacy of Charles Elton. West Sussex: Blackwell Publishing.

    Google Scholar 

  115. Richardson, David M. and Pyšek, Petr. 2008. “Fifty Years of Invasion Ecology – The Legacy of Charles Elton.” Diversity and Distributions 14: 161–168.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  116. Ripley, SDillon. 1967. “Perspectives in Tropical Biology.” BioScience 17: 538–540.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  117. Ritterbush, Philip C. 1967. “Biology and the Smithsonian Institution.” BioScience 17: 25–35.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  118. Robertson, D. Ross, Christy, John H., Collin, Rachel, Cooke, Richard G., D’Croz, Luis, Kaufmann, Karl W., Moreno, Heckadon, Stanley, Maté, Juan, L., O’Dea, Aaron and Torchin, Mark E. 2009. “The Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute: Marine Research, Education, and Conservation in Panama.” Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences 38: 73–93.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  119. Rome, Adam. 2013. The Genius of Earth Day: How a 1970 Teach-In Unexpectedly made the First Green Generation. New York: Hill and Wang.

    Google Scholar 

  120. Ros, Macarena, Ashton, Gail V., Lacerda, Mariana B., Carlton, James T., Vázquez-Luis, Maite, Guerra-García, José M. and Ruiz, Gregory M. 2014. “The Panama Canal and the Transoceanic Dispersal of Marine Invertebrates: Evaluation of the Introduced Amphipod Paracaprella pusilla Mayer, 1890 in the Pacific Ocean.” Marine Environmental Research 99: 204–211.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  121. Rosenblatt, Richard H. 1967. “The Zoogeographic Relationships of the Marine Shore Fishes of Tropical America.” Proceedings of the International Conference on Tropical Oceanography (University of Miami Institute of Marine Sciences): 579–592. http://scholarlyrepository.miami.edu/trop_ocean/5. Accessed 22 August 2016.

  122. Rozwadowski, Helen M. 2005. Fathoming the Ocean: The Discovery and Exploration of the Deep Sea. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  123. Rubinoff, Ira. 1965. “Mixing Oceans and Species.” Natural History 74(7): 69–72.

    Google Scholar 

  124. Rubinoff, Ira. 1968. “Central American Sea-Level Canal: Possible Biological Effects.” Science 161: 857–861.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  125. Rubinoff, Ira. 1969. “Letter to Editor.” Science 163: 762–763.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  126. Rubinoff, Ira. 1970. “The Sea-Level Canal Controversy.” Biological Conservation 3: 33–36.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  127. Rubinoff, Ira. 1975.. “A Sea-Level Canal in Panama.” Elisabeth Mann Borgese and David Krieger (eds.), The Tides of Change: Peace, Pollution, and Potential of the Oceans. New York: Mason/Charter, pp. 254–263.

  128. Rubinoff, Ira. 1977. “Statement of Dr. Ira Rubinoff.” Hearings Before the Subcommittee on the Panama Canal of the Committee on Merchant Marine and Fisheries Committee, House of Representatives, Ninety-Fifth Congress, First Session on C.Z. Biological Area Authorization, March 22, 1977. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office. https://archive.org/stream/misce00unit#page/n1/mode/2up. Accessed 2 May 2016.

  129. Rubinoff, Ira and Kropach, Chaim. 1970. “Differential Reactions of Atlantic and Pacific Predators to Sea Snakes.” Nature 228: 1288–1290.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  130. Rubinoff, Roberta W. and Rubinoff, Ira 1968. “Interoceanic Colonization of a Marine Goby through the Panama Canal.” Nature 217: 476–478.

  131. Rubinoff, Roberta W. and Rubinoff, Ira. 1969. “Observations on the Migration of a Marine Goby through the Panama Canal.” Copeia (No. 2): 395–397.

  132. Ruiz, Gregory M., Torchin, Mark E., and Grant, Katharine 2009. “Using the Panama Canal to Test Predictions about Tropical Marine Invasions.” Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences 38: 291–300.

  133. Safriel, Uriel N. 2014. “The ‘Lessepsian Invasion’–A Case Study Revisited.” Israel Journal of Ecology and Evolution 59: 214–238.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  134. Sapp, Jan 1999. What is Natural? Coral Reef Crisis. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  135. Sapp, Jan. 2016. Coexistence: The Ecology and Evolution of Tropical Biodiversity. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  136. Schlöder, Carmen, Canning-Clode, João, Saltonstall, Kristin, Strong, Ellen E., Ruiz, Gregory M. and Torchin, Mark E. 2013. “The Pacific Bivalve Anomia peruviana in the Atlantic: A Recent Invasion across the Panama Canal?’ Aquatic Invasions 8: 443–448.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  137. “Sea-Level Mysteries: Ecology and the Canal.” 1970. Science News 97: 364–365.

  138. Seitz, Frederick 2006. A Selection of Highlights from the History of the National Academy of Sciences, 1863–2005. Rowman and Littlefield. http://www.nasonline. org/about-nas/history/highlights/frederick-seitz.html. Accessed 2 May 2016.

  139. Shackelford, Nancy, Hobbs, Richard J., Heller, Nicole E., Hallett, Lauren M. and Seastedt, Timothy R. 2013. “Finding a Middle-Ground: The Native/Non-Native Debate.” Biological Conservation 158: 55–62.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  140. Sheffey, John P. 1968. “When Caribbean and Pacific Waters Mix.” Science 162: 1329.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  141. Simberloff, Daniel et al. 2011. “Non-Natives: 141 Scientists Object.” Nature 475: 36. https://pure.knaw.nl/portal/files/467899/Simberloff_ea_5267_supp.pdf. Accessed 2 May 2016.

  142. Small, Lawrence. 2004. “World View.” Smithsonian 34(March): 14.

    Google Scholar 

  143. Smith, Scott A., Bell, Graham and Bermingham, Eldredge. 2004. “Cross-Cordillera Exchange Mediated by the Panama Canal Increased the Species Richness of Local Freshwater Fish Assemblages.” Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences 271: 1889–1896.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  144. “Smithsonian Celebrates Panama Canal Expansion!” 2016. Smithsonian Insider (June 28). http://insider.si.edu/2016/06/smithsonian-celebrates-panama-canal-expansion/. Accessed 22 August 2016.

  145. Spear, Sheldon 2008. Daniel J. Flood: A Biography. Bethlehem: Lehigh University Press.

  146. Springer, Victor G. 1973. “Resolution on the Panama Canal.” Science 182: 336.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  147. Starkey, David J., Holm, Poul and Barnard, Michaela (eds.). 2008. Oceans Past: Management Insights from the History of Marine Animal Populations. New York: Earthscan.

    Google Scholar 

  148. Stoddart, D.R. 1968. “The Aldabra Affair.” Biological Conservation 1: 63–69.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  149. Sullivan, Walter 1970. “Panama Canal: What if Sea Snakes and Starfish Change Oceans?” New York Times (December 13): Section 4, p. 4.

  150. Sullivan, Walter 1977. “Sea-Level Canal Could Imperil Marine Life at Either End, Biologists Say.” New York Times (October 10): A3.

  151. Szulc, Tad 1964. “U.S. Decides to Dig a New Canal at Sea Level in Latin America and Renegotiate Panama Pact.” New York Times (December 19): A1.

  152. Szylvian, Kristin M. 2004. “Transforming Lake Michigan into the ‘World’s Greatest Fishing Hole’: The Environmental Politics of Michigan’s Great Lakes Sport Fishing, 1965–1985.” Environmental History: 102–127.

  153. Teeter, James W. 1973. “Geographic Distribution and Dispersal of Some Recent Shallow-Water Marine Ostracoda.” Ohio Journal of Science 73: 46–54.

    Google Scholar 

  154. Topp, Robert W. 1969. “Interoceanic Sea-Level Canal: Effects on the Fish Faunas.” Science 165: 1324–1327.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  155. U.S. Congress. 1978. Sea-Level Canal Studies: Hearings before the Subcommittee on the Panama Canal of the Committee on Merchant Marine and Fisheries, House of Representatives, Ninety-Fifth Congress on H. R. 10087 and H. R. 13176, June 21, 27, 28, 1978. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office. http://ufdc.ufl.edu/AA0000 6070/00001. Accessed 2 May 2016.

  156. USNCIBP (U.S. National Committee for the International Biological Program). 1967. U.S. Participation in the International Biological Program. Washington, D.C.: National Academies. https://books.google.com/books?id=gosrAAAAYAAJ&prin tsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false. Accessed 2 May 2016.

  157. van Sittert, Lance. 2005. “The Other Seven Tenths.” Environmental History 10: 106–109.

    Google Scholar 

  158. Vermeij, Geerat J. 1978. Biogeography and Adaptation: Patterns of Marine Life. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  159. Voss, Gilbert L. 1972. “Biological Results of the University of Miami Deep-Sea Expeditions.” M. L. Jones (ed.), The Panamic Biota, pp. 49–58.

  160. Voss, Gilbert L. 1978. “Panama Sea-Level Canal – II: Biological Catastrophe or Grand Experiment?’ Sea Frontiers 24: 206–213.

    Google Scholar 

  161. Walsh, John. 1971. “National Academy of Sciences: Awkward Moments at the Meeting.” Science 172: 539–542.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  162. WHOI (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution). 1952. Marine Fouling and its Prevention. Annapolis: US Naval Institute. http://hdl.handle.net/1912/191. Accessed 2 May 2016.

  163. Wilson, Edward O. 1974. “The Conservation of Life.” Harvard Magazine. Reprinted in Edward O. Wilson, Nature Revealed, pp. 595–602.

  164. Wilson, Edward O. 2006. Nature Revealed: Selected Writings, 1949–2006. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  165. Wilson, E.O. and Willis, E.O. 1975. “Applied Biogeography.” Martin L. Cody and Jared M. Diamond (eds.), Ecology and Evolution of Communities. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, pp. 522–534.

  166. Woodring, W.P. 1966. “The Panama Land Bridge as a Sea Barrier.” Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 110: 425–433.

    Google Scholar 

  167. Young, Ashley M. and Larson, Brendon M.H. 2011. “Clarifying Debates in Invasion Biology: A Survey of Invasion Biologists.” Environmental Research 111: 893–898.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  168. Zaret, Thomas M. and Paine, R.T. 1973. “Species Introduction in a Tropical Lake.” Science 182: 449–455.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Christine Keiner.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Keiner, C. A Two-Ocean Bouillabaisse: Science, Politics, and the Central American Sea-Level Canal Controversy. J Hist Biol 50, 835–887 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10739-016-9461-8

Download citation

Keywords

  • Smithsonian Institution
  • National Academy of Sciences
  • Ernst Mayr
  • Charles Elton
  • Marine biology
  • Invasion biology