Journal of the History of Biology

, Volume 48, Issue 1, pp 99–136 | Cite as

Revisiting the Left-Wing Response to Sociobiology: The Case of Finland in a European Context

Article

Abstract

This article revisits the left-wing response to sociobiology in the 1970s and 1980s by examining the sociobiology debate in Finland in a larger European context. It argues that the Finnish academic left’s response to sociobiology represents a “third way” alongside the purely negative, often Marxist denial of biology’s relevance, which characterized the left’s response to sociobiology in many European countries such as Hungary and Sweden, and alongside the disregard that sociobiology confronted in most parts of Eastern Europe, as well as in Germany. In the context of the last great political conflict of the Cold War in Europe, the controversy over the American “Euromissiles” (Pershing II and Tomahawk) in 1979–1983, the Finnish academic left challenged the allegedly fatalistic sociobiological aggression and war theories with an alternative biological language, turning the increasing enthusiasm over evolutionary ideas into a pacifist cause. Using leftist and pacifist forums to inform citizens and politicians of such biologically evolved human characteristics as mutual care and sociability, the Finnish critics of sociobiology wished to boost the public spirit, and to rationalize the pacifist ideal of the European-wide popular movement against nuclear weapons and militarism. As a result, the academic leftists in Finland revived the early twentieth-century tradition of “peace biology.” A proper understanding of this development calls for an analysis that acknowledges Finland’s special geopolitical and cultural position in the Cold War world between East and West.

Keywords

Sociobiology Evolutionism The Cold War The academic left  Peace biology Finland 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Allen, Elizabeth, et al. 1975. “Against Sociobiology.” The New York Review of Books 13 November, 1975: 43–44.Google Scholar
  2. [anonym.]. 2004. “Comments in Interview Could Bring Charges of Inciting Racism against PM Vanhanen’s Father.” Helsingin Sanomat, International edition. http://www.hs.fi/english/article/1076153484261. Accessed 21 July 2013.
  3. Arinen, Pekka. 1977a. “Suomalaisen laitoksen esipuhe” [Preface to the Finnish edition]. A.N. Leontjev, Toiminta, tietoisuus, persoonallisuus [Activity, Consciousness, Personality]. Translated by Pekka Hakkarainen and Klaus Helkama. Helsinki: Kansankulttuuri, pp. 7–15.Google Scholar
  4. Arinen, Pekka. 1977b. “Biologismi ja ihmistieteet” [Biologism and the Human Sciences]. Tiede ja edistys 2(1): 25–28.Google Scholar
  5. Bereczkei, Tamas. 1993. “An Intellectual Legacy of the Past: The Reception of Sociobiology in the East-European Countries.” Biology and Philosophy 8: 399–407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bowler, Peter. 1987. Theories of Human Evolution: A Century of Debate, 1844–1944. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.Google Scholar
  7. Cartmill, Matt. 1993. A View to a Death in the Morning: Hunting and Nature through History. Cambridge and London: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  8. Charlesworth, Brian. 2004. “John Maynard Smith: January 6, 1920–April 19, 2004.” Genetics 168(3): 1105–1109.Google Scholar
  9. Cortright, David. 2008. Peace: A History of Movements and Ideas. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Crook, Paul. 1994. Darwinism, War and History: The Debate over the Biology of War from the ‘Origin of Species’ to the First World War. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Crook, Paul. 2007. Darwin’s Coat-Tails: Essays on Social Darwinism. New York: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
  12. Dawkins, Richard. 1989 [1976]. The Selfish Gene. New Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  13. Di Leonardo, Micaela. 1985. “Morals, Mothers, and Militarism: Antimilitarism and Feminist Theory.” Feminist Studies 11(3): 599–617.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Donner, Maria, et al. 1978. “Mitä on sosiobiologia?” [What is Sociobiology?]. Luonnon Tutkija 82(3): 82–84.Google Scholar
  15. Dupre, John. 2001. “Planters vs. Weeders.” American Scientist 89(1). http://www.americanscientist.org/bookshelf/pub/planters-vs-weeders. Accessed 8 June 2014.
  16. Ehrenreich, Barbara. 1997. Blood Rites: Origins and History of the Passions of War. New York: Henry Holt and Company.Google Scholar
  17. Elshtain, Jean Bethke. 1990. “The Problem with Peace.” Jean Bethke Elshtain and Sheila Tobias (eds.), Women, Militarism, and War: Essays in History, Politics, and Social Theory. Savage, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, pp. 255–266.Google Scholar
  18. Fonseca, Pedro. 2010. “The Reception of the ‘New Synthesis’ in Portugal: Germano da Fonseca Sacarrão on the Sociobiology Debate.” Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 66(3): 661–686.Google Scholar
  19. Garthoff, Raymond L. 1994. The Great Transition: American–Soviet Relations and the End of the Cold War. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution.Google Scholar
  20. Gould, SJ, Lewontin, RC. 1979. “The Spandrels of San Marco and the Panglossian Paradigm: A Critique of the Adaptationist Programme.” Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences 205: 581–598.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Graham, Loren R. 1987. Science, Philosophy, and Human Behavior in the Soviet Union. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  22. Grönholm, Leena. 1985. “Myytti naisen luonnosta” [The Myth about Woman’s Nature]. Akkaväki—naisten ääni 11(1): 19–24.Google Scholar
  23. Haapala, Olli. 1983. “Yhteiskuntatutkimuksen on biologistuttava” [Social Research has to be Biologized]. Helsingin Sanomat 7 October 1983: 17.Google Scholar
  24. Haila, Yrjö. 1973. “Biologismia vastaan” [Against Biologism]. Kommunisti 29(6–7): 521–523.Google Scholar
  25. Haila, Yrjö. 1979. “Biologismi ja tieteellinen ihmiskuva” [Biologism and the Scientific View of Man]. Olli Järvinen, and Seppo Kuusela (eds.), Homo sapiens: Johdatus biologiseen ihmiskuvaan. Loviisa: Symbioosi and Tutkijaliitto, pp. 85–91.Google Scholar
  26. Haila, Yrjö. 1990. Vihreään aikaan: Kirjoituksia ihmisen ekologiasta [In Green Time: Writings on Human Ecology]. Helsinki: Tutkijaliitto.Google Scholar
  27. Haila, Yrjö, Pertti Rovamo, Matti Saraste, and Jussi Timonen. 1974. “Luonnontieteet ja ideologinen taistelu” [Natural Sciences and the Ideological Battle]. Soihtu 38(6): 50–77.Google Scholar
  28. Hamilton, WD. 1964. “The Genetical Evolution of Social Behaviour I-II.” Journal of Theoretical Biology 7(1): 1–16, 17–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hanski, Ilkka. 1977. “Läntistä keskustelua sosiobiologiasta” [Western Discourse on Sociobiology]. Tiede ja edistys 2(2): 67–70.Google Scholar
  30. Hawkins, Mike. 1997. Social Darwinism in European and American Thought, 1860–1945: Nature as Model and Nature as Threat. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Heinämaa, Sara, and Esa Saarinen. 1983. Olennainen nainen: Naiskuvan filosofiset perusteet [The Essential Woman: The Philosophical Foundations of the Female Image]. Porvoo, Helsinki, Juva: WSOY.Google Scholar
  32. Herf, Jeffrey. 1991. War by Other Means: Soviet Power, West German Resistance and the Battle of the Euromissiles. New York: The Free Press.Google Scholar
  33. Hollitscher, Walter. 1972. Kain Oder Prometheus: Zur Kritik des Zeitgenössischen Biologismus. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag.Google Scholar
  34. Honkala, Kauko. 1983. “Biologia ei vaaranna yhteiskuntatieteiden itsenäisyyttä” [Biology does not Endanger the Autonomy of the Social Sciences]. Helsingin Sanomat 23 November 1983: 2.Google Scholar
  35. Hämäläinen, Irja, Rantala, Risto, Hollmén, Hannakatri (eds.). 1990. Kuka kukin on—Who’s Who in Finland: henkilötietoja nykypolven suomalaisista. Helsinki: Otava.Google Scholar
  36. Ignatius, Tarja. 2008. Me epämääräisesti pelkäämme ydinsotaa: Euro-ohjuskiista ja kylmän sodan retoriikka kuudessa suomalaisessa sanomalehdessä 19791983 [We are Vaguely Terrified of a Nuclear War: The Euromissile Controversy and the Rhetoric of the Cold War in Six Finnish Newspapers 1979–1983]. Licenciate Thesis, University of Eastern Finland.Google Scholar
  37. Isohookana-Asunmaa, Tytti. 2006. Virolaisen aika: Maalaisliitosta Keskustapuolue. Maalaisliitto-Keskustan historia 5 [The Time of Virolainen: From Agrarian League to the Centre Party. The History of Agrarian League-Centre Party 5]. Porvoo: WSOY.Google Scholar
  38. Jakobson, Max. 1983. 38. kerros: Havaintoja ja muistiinpanoja vuosilta 19651971 [38th Floor: Observations and Notes from 1965–1971]. Helsinki: Otava.Google Scholar
  39. Jianhui, Li, Fan, Hong. 2003. “Science as Ideology: The Rejection and Reception of Sociobiology in China.” Journal of the History of Biology 36: 567–578.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Jones, Greta. 1980. Social Darwinism and English Thought: The Interaction between Biological and Social Theory. Brighton: The Harvester Press.Google Scholar
  41. Jumonville, Neil. 2002. “The Cultural Politics of the Sociobiology Debate.” Journal of the History of Biology 35: 569–593.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Järvinen, Olli, Vepsäläinen, Kari. 1972. ‘“Vaistot, aggressiot ja ihminen” [Instincts, Aggressions and the Human Being].’ Aika 3(4–5): 215–223.Google Scholar
  43. Järvinen, Olli. 1976. ‘“Perinnöllisyys ja ihmisen käyttäytyminen” [Heredity and Human Behavior].’ Psykologia 11(4): 29–39.Google Scholar
  44. Kallenautio, Jorma. 2005. Suomi kylmän rauhan maailmassa: Suomen ulkopolitiikka Porkkalan palautuksesta 1955 Euroopan Unionin jäsenyyteen 1995. [Finland in the World of the Cold Peace: Finnish Foreign Politics from the Restoration of Porkkala in 1955 to the Membership of the European Union in 1995]. Helsinki: SKS.Google Scholar
  45. Kivivuori, Janne. 2007. “Epävirallisen sosiaalisen kontrollin kokeminen tutkimusyhteisössä: esimerkkitapauksena evolutionismin paluu Suomeen.” [The Experience of Informal Social Control in a Scholarly Community. A Case Study on the Revival of Evolutionism in Finland]. Yhteiskuntapolitiikka 72(2): 175–186.Google Scholar
  46. Koivisto, llkka, and Sesse Koivisto. 1971. Puusta pudonnut: Havaintoja eläimistä ja ihmisestä [Fallen from a Tree: Observations on Animals and Man]. Porvoo and Helsinki: WSOY.Google Scholar
  47. Koivisto, Maija-Liisa. 1973. “Vihamielisyyden biologiaa” [Biology of Hostility]. Kalle Achté et al. (eds.), Itsemurhat ja niiden ehkäisy. Porvoo: WSOY, pp. 34–41.Google Scholar
  48. Koivisto, Sesse, and Ilkka Koivisto. 1978. “Äiti lapselle isÄÄ tÄrkeÄmpi” [Mother More Important to the Child than Father]. Helsingin Sanomat 17 February 1978: 15.Google Scholar
  49. Korhonen, Keijo T. 1980. “Uusrealistin uskontunnustus: muutos ja jatkuvuus kansainvälisissä suhteissa” [The Credo of a Neorealist: Change and Continuity in International Relations]. Kanava 8(6): 338–342.Google Scholar
  50. Koskinen, Aarne A. 1968. “Karvaton apina” [Hairless Ape]. Suomalainen Suomi 36(9): 557–559.Google Scholar
  51. Kuusi, Pekka. 1982. Tämä ihmisen maailma. Porvoo, Helsinki, Juva: WSOY. Published in English as This World of Man. Oxford and New York: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  52. Laakso, Markku. 1979. “Biopolitiikasta sosiobiologiaan” [From Biopolitics to Sociobiology]. Politiikka 21(4): 319–330.Google Scholar
  53. Lagerspetz, Kari. 1969. “Vanhaa ja uutta” [Old and New]. Sosiologia 6(4): 228–229.Google Scholar
  54. Lagerspetz, Kari, Lagerspetz, Kirsti. 1979. “Ajatuksia reduktionismin ongelmasta” [Thoughts on the Problem of Reductionism]. Psykologia 14(3): 3–7.Google Scholar
  55. Lagerspetz, Kirsti. 1969. “Vihan juuret” [The Roots of Anger]. Suomalainen Suomi Valvoja 37(2): 110–111.Google Scholar
  56. Lagerspetz, Kirsti. 1970. “Koulukuntansa edustaja” [A Spokesman for His School]. Psykologia 5(1): 42–43.Google Scholar
  57. Lagerspetz, Kirsti. 1980. “Ihmisetologia: uusi tieteenalako?” [Human Ethology: A New Discipline?]. Psykologia 15(5): 287–289.Google Scholar
  58. Lagerspetz, Kirsti. 1982a. “Sosiobiologit perustelevat huterasti’luontaisia taipumuksia.’” [Sociobiologists Argue Weakly for ‘Natural Dispositions’. Helsingin Sanomat 19 December 1982: 2.Google Scholar
  59. Lagerspetz, Kirsti. 1982b. “Aggression periytyvyydestä” [On the Heritability of Aggression]. [Jyväskylän yliopiston opiskelijoiden ainejärjestöt Syrinx et al.], Tapellaanko? Aggressioseminaari 10.-11.10.1981. Jyväskylän yliopiston ylioppilaskunnan julkaisuja N:o 12: 1–9.Google Scholar
  60. Lagerspetz, Kirsti. 1982c. “Onko ihminen luonnostaan sotaisa eläin?” [Is Man a Warlike Animal by Nature?]. Eija Pöysä (ed.), Uhkaako kolmas maailmansota? Helsingin yliopiston kehitysmaainstituutti, pp. 24–47.Google Scholar
  61. Lagerspetz, Kirsti. 1985. “Psykologian mahdollisuudet edistää rauhaa” [Psychology’s Chances of Promoting Peace]. Rauhantutkimus 1(2): 3–6.Google Scholar
  62. Laitinen, Ahti. 1980. “Johdatus biologiseen ihmiskuvaan” [Introduction to a Biological View of Man]. Turun Sanomat 6(1): 1980.Google Scholar
  63. Laitinen, Ahti. 1982a. “Oikeustiede ja sosiobiologia” [Law and Sociobiology]. Oikeus 11(1): 50–54.Google Scholar
  64. Laitinen, Ahti. 1982b. “Sosiobiologia ja varustautuminen” [Sociobiology and Armament]. Psykologia 17(6): 405–409.Google Scholar
  65. Laitinen, Ahti. 1984. “Sosiobiologian uustulkinnat” [The New Interpretations of Sociobiology]. Politiikka 26(4): 355–362.Google Scholar
  66. Laitinen, Ahti. 1985. Biologismi yhteiskuntatieteissä [Biologism in the Social Sciences]. Turku: Turun yliopisto.Google Scholar
  67. Laitinen, Ahti, and George Maude. 1983. “Biologistisella tutkimuksella yhteiskunnallisia vaikutuksia [Biologistic Study has Social Consequences]. Helsingin Sanomat 19 September 1983: 2.Google Scholar
  68. Laitinen, Ahti, Maude, George. 1986. “Biologism, Politics and International Politics.” Acta Sociologica 29: 113–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Lehtinen, Pekka. 1969. “Ihmisen biologinen ja kulttuurievoluutio” [The Biological and Cultural Evolution of Man]. Sosiologia 6(4): 198–205.Google Scholar
  70. Leikola, Anto. 1970. “Tieteestä toiseen” [From One Discipline to Another]. Aika 1(1): 62.Google Scholar
  71. Leikola, Anto. 1972. “Biologinen ja humanistinen ihmiskuva” [The Biological and Humanistic View of Man]. Parnasso 22(3): 160–166.Google Scholar
  72. Leikola, Anto. 1974. “Biologia kulttuurissamme” [Biology in Our Culture]. Luonnon tutkija 78(3): 61–69.Google Scholar
  73. Leikola, Anto. 1978. “Ihminen luonnontieteellisenä ilmiönä” [Man as a Scientific Phenomenon]. Katsaus 6(2): 14–17.Google Scholar
  74. Leinonen, Matti. 1979. “Biologinen ihmiskuva” [The Biological View of Man]. Helsingin Sanomat 22 July 1979: 17.Google Scholar
  75. Levins, Richard, Lewontin, Richard. 1985. The Dialectical Biologist. Cambridge and London: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  76. Levitt, Cyril. 1984. Children of Privilege: Student Revolt in the Sixties. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar
  77. Lewontin, Richard. 1976. “Sociobiology: A Caricature of Darwinism.” Philosophy of Science Association 2: 22–31.Google Scholar
  78. Lewontin, Richard C, Rose, Steven, Kamin, Leon J. 1984. Not in Our Genes: Biology, Ideology, and Human Nature. New York: Pantheon Books.Google Scholar
  79. Lind, Kimmo. 1998. Radikalismista aikalaisanalyysiin: Tutkijaliiton kehitys 1970-luvulta 1990-luvulle [From Radicalism to Contemporary Analysis: The Development of Tutkijaliitto from the 1970s to 1990s]. Jyväskylä: Kampus Kustannus.Google Scholar
  80. Lindholm, Tapio. 1980. “Mikä ihminen oikeastaan on?” [What is Man Actually?]. Suomen Luonto 39(2): 93.Google Scholar
  81. Linke, Sebastian. 2011. “Contexts Constrain Science in the Public: How the Sociobiology Debate was (not) Presented in the German Press.” Public Understanding of Science 21(6): 740–758.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Linkola, Martti. 1971. “Miestenhän maailma on” [It is a Man’s World, after all]. Aika 2(9): 572–573.Google Scholar
  83. Lorenz, Konrad. 1967 [1963]. On Aggression. Translated by Marjorie Latzke. German original Das sogenannte Böse: Zur Naturgeschichte der Aggression. London: Methuen.Google Scholar
  84. Lynn, Richard, Vanhanen, Tatu. 2002. IQ and the Wealth of Nations. Westport, CT: Praeger.Google Scholar
  85. Lynn, Richard, Vanhanen, Tatu. 2006. IQ and Global Inequality. Augusta, GA: Washington Summit Publishers.Google Scholar
  86. Marx, Karl. 1970 [1845]. “Theses on Feuerbach.” Karl Marx and Frederick Engels, The German Ideology: Part One, with Selections from Parts Two and Three, Together with Marx’s “Introduction to a Critique of Political Economy. Edited and with Introduction by C.J. Arthur. London: Lawrence and Wishart, pp. 121–123.Google Scholar
  87. Meinander, Henrik. 1999. Tasavallan tiellä: Suomi kansalaissodasta 2000-luvulle [On the Road of a Republic: Finland from the Civil War to the 2000s]. Swedish Original Finlands Historia 4. Finnish Translation by Paula Autio. Espoo: Schildts.Google Scholar
  88. Mitman, Gregg. 1990. “Evolution as Gospel: William Patten, the Language of Democracy, and the Great War.” Isis 81: 446–463.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Morris, Desmond. 1967. The Naked Ape. London: Jonathan Cape.Google Scholar
  90. Niiniluoto, Ilkka. 1984. Tiede, filosofia ja maailmankatsomus: Filosofisia esseitä tiedosta ja sen arvosta [Science, Philosophy and World View: Philosophical Essays on Knowledge and Its Value]. Helsinki: Otava.Google Scholar
  91. Palonen, Kari. 1978. “Politiikan eläintieteeseenkö?” [To a Zoology of Politics?] Politiikka 20(4): 238–239.Google Scholar
  92. Paul, Diane B. 2009. “Darwin, Social Darwinism and Eugenics.” Jonathan Hodge, and Gregory Radick (eds.), Cambridge Companion to Darwin. Second edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 219–245.Google Scholar
  93. Pietikäinen, Petteri. 2004. “Truth Hurts: The Sociobiology Debate, Moral Reading, and the Idea of ‘Dangerous Knowledge’.” Social Epistemology 18: 165–179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Pittenger, Mark. 1993. American Socialists and Evolutionary Thought, 1870–1920. Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press.Google Scholar
  95. Portin, Petter. 1985. “Ihmisen sosiobiologian kritiikki” [A Critique of Human Sociobiology.]. Luonnon Tutkija 89(5): 144–150.Google Scholar
  96. Reed, Evelyn. 1975. Woman’s Evolution: from Matriarchal Clan to Patriarchal Family. New York: Pathfinder Press.Google Scholar
  97. Roberts, Geoffrey. 1999. The Soviet Union in World Politics: Co-existence, Revolution and Cold War, 1945–1991. London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  98. Roos, J. P., and Anna Rotkirch. 2003. “Habituksen paluu? Evoluutioteorian huomioimisesta sosiologian ihmisnäkemyksessä (osa 1).” [The Return of Habitus? On Acknowledging Evolutionary Theory in Sociology’s View of Man]. Tieteessä tapahtuu 21(1): 33–41.Google Scholar
  99. Rose, Steven (ed.). 1982a. Against Biological Determinism. London and New York: Allison and Busby.Google Scholar
  100. Rose, Steven (ed.). 1982b. Towards a Liberatory Biology. London and New York: Allison and Busby.Google Scholar
  101. Sakura, Osamu. 1998. “Similarities and Varieties: A Brief Sketch on the Reception of Darwinism and Sociobiology in Japan.” Biology and Philosophy 13: 341–357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Salminen, Esko. 1996. Vaikeneva valtiomahti: Neuvostoliitto/Venäjä Suomen lehdistössä 19681991 [A Silent Estate: The Soviet Union/Russia in the Finnish Press 1968–1991]. Helsinki: Edita.Google Scholar
  103. Salo, Jukka, and Martti Soikkeli. 1983. Eläinten käyttäytyminen: Evoluutio ja merkitys [Animal Behavior: Evolution and Meaning]. Helsinki: Otava.Google Scholar
  104. Saraste, Matti. 1979. “Ihmisen tutkimuksen ongelmia” [Problems in the Study of Man]. Ylioppilaslehti 65(16): 16.Google Scholar
  105. Sarmaja, Heikki. 2006. “Kärsimys ja syntien sovitus” [Suffering and the Atonement of Sins]. Yhteiskuntapolitiikka 71(4): 341–360.Google Scholar
  106. Segerstråle, Ullica. 2000. Defenders of the Truth. The Battle for Science in the Sociobiology Debate and Beyond. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  107. Setälä, Vienna, Väliverronen, Esa. 2011. “Public Perception of Evolution and the Rise of Evolutionary Psychology in Finland.” Public Understanding of Science 20: 558–573.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Singer, Peter. 1999. A Darwinian Left: Politics, Evolution, and Cooperation. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson.Google Scholar
  109. Sociobiology Study Group of Science for the People. 1976. “Sociobiology: Another Biological Determinism.” BioScience 26(3): 182, 184–186.Google Scholar
  110. Sohorova, Ekaterina. 1985. “Psykologien tehtävistä taisteltaessa rauhan puolesta” [On the Role of Psychologists in the Battle for Peace]. Abridged and Translated into Finnish by Jari Nurmi. Rauhantutkimus 1(2): 28–32.Google Scholar
  111. Stack, David. 2003. The First Darwinian Left. Socialism and Darwinism. Cheltenham: New Clarion Press.Google Scholar
  112. Talbott, Strobe. 1984. The Reagan Administration and the Stalemate in Nuclear Arms Control. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.Google Scholar
  113. Tanner, Nancy Makepeace. 1981. On Becoming Human. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  114. Tanner, Nancy, Zihlman, Adrienne. 1976. “Women in Evolution, Part I: Innovation and Selection in Human Origins.” Signs 1(3): 585–608.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Tiger, Lionel, Fox, Robin. 1971. The Imperial Animal. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.Google Scholar
  116. Trivers, Robert L. 1971. “The Evolution of Reciprocal Altruism.” Quarterly Review of Biology 46: 35–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Tuomioja, Marja-Leena. 1981. “Sosiobiologia: tieteen viimeinen sana?” [Sociobiology: The Last Word of Science?] Ydin 15(2): 10–15.Google Scholar
  118. Vanhanen, Tatu. 1978. “Sosiobiologinen näkökulma politologiseen tutkimukseen.” [A Sociobiological Perspective into Politological Research]. Politiikka 20(2): 146–156.Google Scholar
  119. Vanhanen, Tatu. 1981. “Naisille tulisi taata puolet poliittisista valta-asemista” [Half of the Dominating Positions in Politics should be Reserved for Women]. Helsingin Sanomat 22 March 1981: 2.Google Scholar
  120. Vanhanen, Tatu. 1982. ‘“Katsaus biopoliittiseen tutkimukseen” [A Review of Biopolitical Research].’ Politiikka 24(1): 72–79.Google Scholar
  121. Vanhanen, Tatu. 1983a. “Vastavuoroisuusteoria selittää yhteiskunnallisia ilmiöitä” [Theory of Reciprocity Explains Social Phenomena]. Helsingin Sanomat 24 February 1983: 2.Google Scholar
  122. Vanhanen, Tatu. 1983b. “Sodan ja rauhan evoluutio” [The Evolution of War and Peace]. Aamulehti 1 November 1983: 6.Google Scholar
  123. Vanhanen, Tatu. 1983c. “Etologia haastaa ihmistieteet” [Ethology Challenges the Human Sciences]. Helsingin Sanomat 29 November 1983: 15.Google Scholar
  124. Vanhanen, Tatu. 1985. “Evoluution tuottamat käyttäytymistaipumukset” [Behavioral Dispositions Produced by Evolution]. [Kansanvalistusseuran kirjeopisto], Ihmisestä on kysymys. Kansanvalistusseuran kirjeopiston 65-vuotisjuhlapäivän puheenvuorot. Helsinki: Hakapaino Oy, pp. 24–35.Google Scholar
  125. Vanhanen, Tatu. 2008. Globaalit ongelmat: Evolutiivisten juurten etsintää [Global Problems: In Search of the Evolutionary Roots.] Helsinki: Terra Cognita.Google Scholar
  126. Vartiainen, Matti. 1979. “Biologismin maailmankuva” [The World View of Biologism]. Psykologia 14(6): 39–41.Google Scholar
  127. Vepsäläinen, Kari. 1979a. “Ihmisen sosiobiologia” [Human Sociobiology]. Olli Järvinen, and Seppo Kuusela (eds.), Homo sapiens. Johdatus biologiseen ihmiskuvaan. Loviisa: Symbioosi and Tutkijaliitto, pp. 74–84.Google Scholar
  128. Vepsäläinen, Kari. 1979b. “Ihmisen evoluutio: myytit murenevat” [Human Evolution: the Myths are Crumbling]. Suomen Sosialidemokraatti 17 March 1979: 25.Google Scholar
  129. Vepsäläinen, Kari. 1981. “Usko synnynnäiseen hyökkäävyyteen lisää maailmanpalon mahdollisuutta.” [Belief in Innate Belligerence Makes Global Inferno More Likely]. Suomen Sosialidemokraatti 21 November 1981: 25.Google Scholar
  130. Wernecke, Alexander. 1976. Biologismus und ideologischer Klassenkampf. Berlin: Dietz Verlag.Google Scholar
  131. Werskey, Gary. 1988. The Visible College: A Collective Biography of British Scientists and Socialists of the 1930s. London: Free Association Books.Google Scholar
  132. Wilson, Edward O. 1975. Sociobiology: The New Synthesis. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  133. Wilson, Edward O. 1978. On Human Nature. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  134. Wittner, Lawrence S. 2003. Toward Nuclear Abolition. A History of the World Nuclear Disarmament Movement, 1971 to the Present. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Philosophy, History, Culture and Art StudiesUniversity of HelsinkiHelsinkiFinland

Personalised recommendations