Advertisement

Journal of the History of Biology

, Volume 47, Issue 1, pp 107–145 | Cite as

Making a Virus Visible: Francis O. Holmes and a Biological Assay for Tobacco mosaic virus

  • Karen-Beth G. ScholthofEmail author
Article

Abstract

In the early twentieth century, viruses had yet to be defined in a material way. Instead, they were known better by what they were not – not bacteria, not culturable, and not visible with a light microscope. As with the ill-defined “gene” of genetics, viruses were microbes whose nature had not been revealed. Some clarity arrived in 1929 when Francis O. Holmes, a scientist at the Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research (Yonkers, NY) reported that Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) could produce local necrotic lesions on tobacco plants and that these lesions were in proportion to dilutions of the inoculum. Holmes’ method, the local lesion assay, provided the first evidence that viruses were discrete infectious particles, thus setting the stage for physicochemical studies of plant viruses. In a field where there are few eponymous methods or diseases, Holmes’ assay continues to be a useful tool for the study of plant viruses. TMV was a success because the local lesion assay “made the virus visible” and standardized the work of virology towards determining the nature of the virus.

Keywords

Tobacco mosaic virus Virology Tobacco Genetics Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research Scientific institutions Plant pathology Twentieth century biology Bacteriophage Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Allard, H.A. 1916. “Some Properties of the Virus of the Mosaic Disease of Tobacco.” Journal of Agricultural Research 6: 649–674.Google Scholar
  2. Anderson, Nancy. 2009. “Eye and Image: Looking at A Visual Studies of Science.” Historical Studies in the Natural Sciences 39: 115–125.Google Scholar
  3. Anonymous. 1983. “Karl Herman Fernow 1893–1983.” American Potato Journal 60: 798–799.Google Scholar
  4. Arthur, John M., and Newell, John M. 1929. “The Killing of Plant Tissue and the Inactivation of Tobacco Mosaic Virus by Ultraviolet Radiation.” American Journal of Botany 16: 338–353.Google Scholar
  5. Bald, J.G., and Samuel, Geoffrey. 1934. “Some Factors Affecting the Inactivation Rate of the Virus of Tomato Spotted Wilt.” Annals of Applied Biology 21: 179–190.Google Scholar
  6. Barrus, M.F., and Smith, Ora. 1955. “Dr. Karl Herman Fernow Honored.” American Journal of Potato Research 32: 392–393.Google Scholar
  7. Barton-Wright, Eystace Cecil. 1932. Recent Advances in Botany. Philadelphia: P. Blakiston’s Son & Co. Inc.Google Scholar
  8. Bawden, M.F., 1939. Plant Viruses and Virus Diseases. Leiden: Chronica Botanica Company.Google Scholar
  9. Bawden, F.C. 1966. “Some Reflections on Thirty Years of Research on Plant Viruses.” Annals of Applied Biology 58: 1–11.Google Scholar
  10. Becsei-Kilborn, Eva. 2010. “Scientific Discovery and Scientific Reputation: The Reception of Peyton Rous’ Discovery of the Chicken Sarcoma Virus.” Journal of the History of Biology 43: 111–157.Google Scholar
  11. Benson, Keith R. 1999. “Welch, Sedgwick, and the Hopkins Model of Hygiene.” Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine 72: 313–320.Google Scholar
  12. Best, Rupert J., and Samuel, Geoffrey. 1936a. “The Reaction of the Viruses of Tomato Spotted Wilt and Tobacco Mosaic to the pH Value of Media Containing Them.” Annals of Applied Biology 23: 509–537.Google Scholar
  13. Best, Rupert J., and Samuel, Geoffrey. 1936b. “The Effect of Various Chemical Treatments on the Activity of the Viruses of Tomato Spotted Wilt and Tobacco Mosaic.” Annals of Applied Biology 23: 759–780.Google Scholar
  14. Birkeland, Jorgen M. 1934. “Serological Studies of Plant Viruses.” Botanical Gazette 95: 419–436.Google Scholar
  15. Bolas, Bernard D., and Bewley, W.F. 1930. “Aucuba or Yellow Mosaic of the Tomato: A Note on Metabolism.” Nature 126: 471.Google Scholar
  16. Brakke, Myron K. 1979. “The Origins of Density Gradient Centrifugation.” Fractions 1: 1–9.Google Scholar
  17. Burnet, F.M. 1955. Principles of Animal Virology. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  18. Cairns, John, Stent, Gunther S., and Watson, James D. 1992. Phage and the Origins of Molecular Biology. Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.Google Scholar
  19. Caldwell, John. 1935. “The Physiology of Virus Diseases in Plants. VII. Experiments on the Purification of the Virus of Yellow Mosaic of Tomato.” Annals of Applied Biology 22: 68–85.Google Scholar
  20. Campbell, C.L., Peterson, P.D., and Griffith, C.S. 1999. The Formative Years of Plant Pathology in the United States. St. Paul, MN: American Phytopathological Society Press.Google Scholar
  21. Constant, Edward W. 1994. “Comment on “The Retractable Airplane Landing Gear and the Northrop ‘Anomaly’”.” Technology and Culture 35: 447–449.Google Scholar
  22. Corner, George W. 1964. A History of the Rockefeller Institute, 1901–1953: Origins and Growth. New York: Rockefeller University Press.Google Scholar
  23. Creager, Angela, N.H. 2002. The Life of a Virus: Tobacco Mosaic Virus as an Experimental Model, 1930–1965. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  24. Creager, Angela, N.H., and Morgan, Gregory, J. 2008. “After the Double Helix: Rosalind Franklin’s Research on Tobacco Mosaic Virus.” Isis 99: 239–272.Google Scholar
  25. Creager, Angela, N.H., Scholthof, Karen-Beth G., Citovsky, Vitaly, and Scholthof, Herman B. 1999. “Tobacco Mosaic Virus. Pioneering Research for a Century.” Plant Cell 11: 301–308.Google Scholar
  26. Creager, Angela, N.H. 2010. “The Paradox of the Phage Group: Essay Review.” Journal of the History of Biology 43: 183–193.Google Scholar
  27. Crocker, William. 1948. Growth of Plants. New York: Reinhold Publishing Corporation. Twenty Years’ Research at Boyce Thompson Institute.Google Scholar
  28. d’Herelle, Felix H. 1922. The Bacteriophage and Its Role in Immunity. Trans. George H. Smith. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins Company.Google Scholar
  29. Daston, Lorraine, and Galison, Peter. 2007. Objectivity. New York: Zone Books.Google Scholar
  30. de Bruyn, H.L.G. 1961. “H. M. Quanjer: April 23, 1879–March 1, 1961.” European Potato Journal 4: 116.Google Scholar
  31. Duckworth, Donna H. 1976. “Who Discovered Bacteriophage?” Bacteriological Reviews 40: 793–802.Google Scholar
  32. Dulbecco, Renato. 1952. “Production of Plaques in Monolayer Tissue Cultures by Single Particles of an Animal Virus.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 38: 747–752.Google Scholar
  33. Eckerson, Sophia H. 1926. “An Organism of Tomato Mosaic.” Botanical Gazette 81: 204–209.Google Scholar
  34. Edgeloe, Victor Allen. 1984. The Waite Agricultural Institute: The First Fifty Years, 1924–1974. Glen Osmond: Waite Agricultural Research Institute.Google Scholar
  35. Endersby, Jim. 2007. A Guinea Pig’s History of Biology. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  36. Erickson, F. Lee, Holzberg, Steve, Calderon-Urrea, Alejandro, Handley, Vanessa, Axtell, Michael, Corr, Catherine, and Baker, Barbara. 1999. “The Helicase Domain of the TMV Replicase Proteins Induces the N-Mediated Defence Response in Tobacco.” Plant Journal 18: 67–75.Google Scholar
  37. Fernow, Karl Herman. 1925. “Interspecific Transmission of Mosaic Diseases of Plants.” Cornell University Agricultural Experiment Station, Memoir 96: 34.Google Scholar
  38. Fromme, F.D., Wingard, S.A., and Priode, C.N. 1927. “Ringspot of Tobacco: An Infectious Disease of Unknown Cause.” Phytopathology 17: 321–328.Google Scholar
  39. Fulton, Robert W. 1984. “Pioneer Leaders in Plant Pathology: James Johnson.” Annual Review of Phytopathology 22: 27–34.Google Scholar
  40. García-Sancho, Miguel. 2010. “A New Insight into Sanger’s Development of Sequencing: From Proteins to DNA, 1943–1977.” Journal of the History of Biology 43: 265–323.Google Scholar
  41. Garrett, Steven Denis. 1972. “Learning to Become a Plant Pathologist.” Annual Review of Phytopathology 10: 1–8.Google Scholar
  42. Goldberg, Karen-Beth, and Brakke, Myron K. 1987. “Concentration of Maize Chlorotic Mottle Virus Increased in Mixed Infections with Maize Dwarf Mosaic Virus, Strain B.” Phytopathology 77: 162–167.Google Scholar
  43. Goldstein, Bessie. 1924. “Cytological Study of Living Cells of Tobacco Plants Affected with Mosaic Disease.” Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 51: 261–273.Google Scholar
  44. Goldstein, Bessie. 1926. “A Cytological Study of the Leaves and Growing Points of Healthy and Mosaic Diseased Tobacco Plants.” Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 53: 499–599.Google Scholar
  45. Goldstein, Bessie. 1927. “The X-Bodies in the Cells of Dahlia Plants Affected with Mosaic Disease and Dwarf.” Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 54: 285–293.Google Scholar
  46. Goodpasture, E.W., Woodruff, Alice M., and Buddingh, G.J. 1932. “Vaccinal Infection of the Chorio-Allantoic Membrane of the Chick Embryo.” American Journal of Pathology 8: 271–282.Google Scholar
  47. Grant, Theodore J. 1934. “The Host Range and Behavior of the Ordinary Tobacco-Mosaic Virus.” Phytopathology 24: 311–336.Google Scholar
  48. Hagedorn, Hermann. 1935. The Magnate: William Boyce Thompson and His Time, 1869–1930. New York: Reynal and Hitchcock.Google Scholar
  49. Hagen, Joel B., Allchin, Douglas, and Singer, Fred. 1997. Doing Biology. Redwood City: Benjamin Cummings.Google Scholar
  50. Hammond, Evelynn M. 1999. Childhood’s Deadly Scourge: The Campaign to Control Diphtheria in New York City, 1880–1930. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  51. Henderson Smith, J. 1938. “Some Recent Developments in Virus Research.” Annals of Applied Biology 25: 227–243.Google Scholar
  52. Hirst, George K. 1962. “Development of Virology as an Independent Science.” British Medical Journal 1: 1431–1437.Google Scholar
  53. Hoggan, Isme A. 1934. “Transmissibility by Aphids of the Tobacco Mosaic Virus from Different Hosts.” Journal Agricultural Research 49: 1135–1142.Google Scholar
  54. Holmes, Francis O. 1921. Mode of Entrance of Fusarium into Wheat Seedlings. Undergraduate Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts.Google Scholar
  55. Holmes, Francis O. 1923. “Observations on the Cysts of Endamoeba cobayae.” Journal of Parasitology 10: 47–50.Google Scholar
  56. Holmes, Francis O. 1925. “The Relation of Herpetomonas elmassiani (Migone) to Its Plant and Insect Hosts.” Biological Bulletin 44: 323–337.Google Scholar
  57. Holmes, Francis O. 1928a. “Accuracy in Comparing Various Concentrations of Tobacco-Mosaic Virus.” Phytopathology 18: 132.Google Scholar
  58. Holmes, Francis O. 1928b. “Accuracy in Quantitative Work with Tobacco Mosaic Virus.” Botanical Gazette 86: 66–81.Google Scholar
  59. Holmes, Francis O. 1928c. “Cytological Study of the Intracellular Body Characteristic of Hippeastrum Mosaic.” Botanical Gazette 86: 50–58.Google Scholar
  60. Holmes, Francis O. 1928d. “Ultra-Violet Light Photography in the Study of Plant Viruses.” Botanical Gazette 86: 59–65.Google Scholar
  61. Holmes, Francis O. 1929. “Local Lesions in Tobacco Mosaic.” Botanical Gazette 87: 39–70.Google Scholar
  62. Holmes, Francis O. 1931a. Letter to Geoffrey Samuel, December 7, 1931. In Rockefeller Archive Center. Sleepy Hollow, NY. Francis O. Holmes Papers, Record Group 450 H735, Box 17, Folder 12, Sams-G. Samuel.Google Scholar
  63. Holmes, Francis O. 1931b. Letter to Geoffrey Samuel, March 10, 1931. In Rockefeller Archive Center. Sleepy Hollow, NY. Francis O. Holmes Papers, Record Group 450 H735, Box 17, Folder 12, Sams-G. Samuel.Google Scholar
  64. Holmes, Francis O. 1931c. Letter to Geoffrey Samuel, May 18, 1931. In Rockefeller Archive Center. Sleepy Hollow, NY. Francis O. Holmes Papers, Record Group 450 H735, Box 17, Folder 12, Sams-G. Samuel.Google Scholar
  65. Holmes, Francis O. 1931d. “Local Lesions of Mosaic in Nicotiana tabacum L.” Contributions of the Boyce Thompson Institute 3: 163–172.Google Scholar
  66. Holmes, Francis O. 1932. “Symptoms of Tobacco Mosaic Disease.” Contributions of the Boyce Thompson Institute 4: 323–357.Google Scholar
  67. Holmes, Francis O. 1933. Letter to Geoffrey Samuel, June 30, 1933. In Rockefeller Archive Center. Sleepy Hollow, NY. Francis O. Holmes Papers, Record Group 450 H735, Box 17, Folder 12, Sams-G. Samuel.Google Scholar
  68. Holmes, Francis O. 1934. Letter to L. O. Kunkel, July 23, 1934. In Rockefeller Archive Center, Sleepy Hollow, NY. Louis O. Kunkel Papers. Record Group 450 K963, Box 8, Folder 6.Google Scholar
  69. Holmes, Francis O. 1968. “Trends in the Development of Plant Virology.” Annual Review of Phytopathology 6: 41–62.Google Scholar
  70. Hook, Ernest B. 2002. Prematurity in Scientific Discovery: On Resistance and Neglect. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  71. Jensen, James H. 1933. “Isolation of Yellow-Mosaic Viruses from Plants Infected with Tobacco Mosaic.” Phytopathology 23: 964–974.Google Scholar
  72. Kay, Lily E. 1986. “W. M. Stanley’s Crystallization of the Tobacco Mosaic Virus, 1930–1940.” Isis 77: 450–472.Google Scholar
  73. Kay, Lily E. 1993. The Molecular Vision of Life: Caltech, The Rockefeller Foundation, and the Rise of the New Biology. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  74. Kelman, Arthur, and Peterson, Paul D. 2002. “Contributions of Plant Scientists to the Development of the Germ Theory of Disease.” Microbes and Infection 4: 257–260.Google Scholar
  75. Kent, G.C. 1937. “Some Physical, Chemical, and Biological Properties of a Specific Bacteriophage for Pseudomonas tumefaciens.” Phytopathology 27: 871–902.Google Scholar
  76. Kohler, Robert E. 2002. Landscapes and Labscapes: Exploring the Lab-Field Border in Biology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  77. Kraut, Alan. 1996. Dr. Joseph Goldberger & the War on Pellegra. Office of NIH History Virtual Exhibit. http://history.nih.gov/exhibits/Goldberger/index.html. Accessed 28 January 2013.
  78. Kraut, Alan M. 2003. Goldberger’s War: The Life and Work of a Public Health Crusader. New York: Hill and Wang.Google Scholar
  79. Kunkel, L.O. 1922. “Ameboid Bodies Associated with Hippeastrum Mosaic.” Science 55: 73.Google Scholar
  80. Kunkel, L.O. 1925. “Mosaic and Related Diseases.” American Journal of Botany 12: 517–521.Google Scholar
  81. Kunkel, L.O. 1933. Letter to Edward M. East, April 28, 1933. In Rockefeller Archive Center, Sleepy Hollow, NY. Louis O. Kunkel Papers. Record Group 450 K963, Box 8, Folder 6.Google Scholar
  82. Kunkel, L.O. 1934a. “Studies on Acquired Immunity with Tobacco and Aucuba Mosaics.” Phytopathology 24: 437–466.Google Scholar
  83. Kunkel, Louis Otto. 1934b. “Tobacco and Aucuba-Mosaic Infections by Single Units of Virus.” Phytopathology 24: 13.Google Scholar
  84. Lederman, Muriel, and Tolin, Sue A. 1993. “OVATOOMB: Other Viruses and the Origins of Molecular Biology.” Journal of the History of Biology 26: 239–254.Google Scholar
  85. Leonard, M.D. 1931. “Entomology in Puerto Rico During the Past Decade.” Journal of Economic Entomology 24: 141–151.Google Scholar
  86. Luria, Salvador E. 1984. A Slot Machine, A Broken Test Tube: An Autobiography. New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  87. McCallan, S.E.A. 1978. Boyce Thompson Institute of Plant Research, Inc. Annual Reports. Vol. I, 1924–1939. Ithaca, New York: Boyce Thompson Institute.Google Scholar
  88. McKinney, H.H. 1927a. “Factors Affecting Certain Properties of a Mosaic Virus.” Journal of Agricultural Research 35: 1–12.Google Scholar
  89. McKinney, H.H. 1927b. “Quantitative and Purification Methods in Virus Studies.” Journal of Agricultural Research 35: 13–38.Google Scholar
  90. McKinney, H.H. 1972. Over Fifty Two Years as a Government Servant in Plant Disease and Virus Research. Personal Memoir.Google Scholar
  91. McKinney, Harold H., Eckerson, Sophia H., and Webb, Robert W. 1923. “The Intracellular Bodies Associated with the Rosette Disease and a Mosaiclike Leaf Mottling of Wheat.” Journal of Agricultural Research 26: 605–608.Google Scholar
  92. McNew, George L. 1956. “Basic Concepts Behind the Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research.” AIBS Bulletin 6: 5–7.Google Scholar
  93. Mosley, Adam. 2007. “Objects, Texts and Images in the History of Science.” Studies in History and Philosophy of Science 38: 289–302.Google Scholar
  94. Norrby, Erling. 2008. “Nobel Prizes and the Emerging Virus Concept.” Arch. Virol. 153: 1109–1123.Google Scholar
  95. Peterson, Paul D., and Scholthof, Karen-Beth G. 2010. “The Society that Almost Wasn’t: Issues of Professional Identity and the Creation of the American Phytopathological Society in 1908.” Phytopathology 100: 14–20.Google Scholar
  96. Pierce, Walter H. 1934. “Viroses of the Bean.” Phytopathology 24: 87–115.Google Scholar
  97. Price, W.C. 1930. “Local Lesions on Bean Leaves Inoculated with Tobacco Mosaic Virus.” American Journal of Botany 17: 694–702.Google Scholar
  98. Price, W.C. 1933. “The Thermal Death Rate of Tobacco-Mosaic Virus.” Phytopathology 23: 749–769.Google Scholar
  99. Priode, C.N. 1928. “Further Studies in the Ring-Spot Disease of Tobacco.” American Journal of Botany 15: 88–93.Google Scholar
  100. Roane, Curtiss. 1992. Biographical Sketch: Priode, Carl Neel (1898–1885). In Iowa State University Library Special Collections Department, Ames, Iowa. American Phytopathological Society Records, Collection MS-175, Box 32, Folder 25.Google Scholar
  101. Salisbury, Gay and Salisbury, Laney. 2003. The Cruelest Miles: The Heroic Story of Dogs and Men in a Race Against an Epidemic. New York: W. W. Norton & Company.Google Scholar
  102. Samuel, Geoffrey. 1934. “The Movement of Tobacco Mosaic Virus Within the Plant.” Annals of Applied Biology 21: 90–111.Google Scholar
  103. Samuel, Geoffrey, Best, R.J.., and Bald, J.G. 1935. “Further Studies on Quantitative Methods with Two Plant Viruses.” Annals of Applied Biology 22: 508–524.Google Scholar
  104. Samuel, Geoffrey. 1930. Letter to Francis O. Holmes, February 1, 1930. In Rockefeller Archive Center. Sleepy Hollow, NY. Francis O. Holmes Papers, Record Group 450 H735, Box 17, Folder 12, Sams-G. Samuel.Google Scholar
  105. Samuel, Geoffrey. 1931a. Letter to Francis O. Holmes, March 18, 1931. In Rockefeller Archive Center. Sleepy Hollow, NY. Francis O. Holmes Papers, Record Group 450 H735, Box 17, Folder 12, Sams-G. Samuel.Google Scholar
  106. Samuel, Geoffrey. 1931b. Letter to Francis O. Holmes, October 2, 1931. In Rockefeller Archive Center. Sleepy Hollow, NY. Francis O. Holmes Papers, Record Group 450 H735, Box 17, Folder 12, Sams-G. Samuel.Google Scholar
  107. Samuel, Geoffrey. 1931c. “Some Experiments on Inoculating Methods with Plant Viruses, and on Local Lesions.” Annals of Applied Biology 18: 494–507.Google Scholar
  108. Samuel, Geoffrey. 1932a. Letter to Francis O. Holmes, April 26, 1932. In Rockefeller Archive Center. Sleepy Hollow, NY. Francis O. Holmes Papers, Record Group 450 H735, Box 17, Folder 12, Sams-G. Samuel.Google Scholar
  109. Samuel, Geoffrey. 1932b. Letter to Francis O. Holmes, December 14, 1932. In Rockefeller Archive Center. Sleepy Hollow, NY. Francis O. Holmes Papers, Record Group 450 H735, Box 17, Folder 12, Sams-G. Samuel.Google Scholar
  110. Samuel, Geoffrey. 1933a. Letter to Francis O. Holmes, February 26, 1933. In Rockefeller Archive Center. Sleepy Hollow, NY. Francis O. Holmes Papers, Record Group 450 H735, Box 17, Folder 12, Sams-G. Samuel.Google Scholar
  111. Samuel, Geoffrey. 1933b. Letter to Francis O. Holmes, November 20, 1933. In Rockefeller Archive Center. Sleepy Hollow, NY. Francis O. Holmes Papers, Record Group 450 H735, Box 17, Folder 12, Sams-G. Samuel.Google Scholar
  112. Samuel, Geoffrey. 1935. Letter to Francis O. Holmes, May 7, 1935. In Rockefeller Archive Center. Sleepy Hollow, NY. Francis O. Holmes Papers, Record Group 450 H735, Box 17, Folder 12, Sams-G. Samuel.Google Scholar
  113. Samuel, Geoffrey. 1936. Letter to Francis O. Holmes, June 16, 1936. In Rockefeller Archive Center. Sleepy Hollow, NY. Francis O. Holmes Papers, Record Group 450 H735, Box 17, Folder 12, Sams-G. Samuel.Google Scholar
  114. Samuel, Geoffrey, and Bald, J.G. 1933. “On the Use of the Primary Lesions in Quantitative Work with Two Plant Viruses.” Annals of Applied Biology 20: 70–99.Google Scholar
  115. Sankaran, Neeraja. 2006. Frank Macfarlane Burnet and the Nature of the Bacteriophage, 1924–1937. Ph.D. Dissertation, Yale University.Google Scholar
  116. Sankaran, Neeraja. 2010. “Mutant Bacteriophages, Frank Macfarlane Burnet, and the Changing Nature of “Genespeak” in the 1930s.” Journal of the History of Biology 43: 571–599.Google Scholar
  117. Scholthof, Karen-Beth G., 2004. “Tobacco Mosaic Virus: A Model System for Plant Biology.” Annual Review of Phytopathology 42: 13–34.Google Scholar
  118. Scholthof, Karen-Beth G., and Peterson, Paul D. 2006. “The Role of Helen Purdy Beale in the Early Development of Plant Serology and Virology.” Advances in Applied Microbiology 59: 221–241.Google Scholar
  119. Scholthof, Karen-Beth G., Shaw, John G., and Zaitlin, Milton. 1999. Tobacco Mosaic Virus: One Hundred Years of Contributions to Virology. St. Paul, MN: American Phytopathological Society Press.Google Scholar
  120. Scholthof, Karen-Beth G. 2011. “TMV in 1930: Francis O. Holmes and the Local Lesion Assay.” Microbe 6: 221–225.Google Scholar
  121. Seín, Francisco. 1930. “New Mechanical Method for Artifically Transmitting Sugar Cane Mosaic.” Journal of the Department of Agriculture of Porto Rico 14: 49–68.Google Scholar
  122. Smith, Kenneth M. 1933a. “The Present Status of Plant Virus Research.” Biological Reviews 8: 136–179.Google Scholar
  123. Smith, Kenneth M. 1933b. Recent Advances in the Study of Plant Viruses. London: J. & A. Churchill.Google Scholar
  124. Stanley, W.M. 1934a. “The Action of High Frequency Sound Waves on Tobacco Mosaic Virus.” Science 80: 339–341.Google Scholar
  125. Stanley, W.M. 1934b. “Chemical Studies on the Virus of Tobacco Mosaic. II. The Proteolytic Action of Pepsin.” Phytopathology 24: 1269–1289.Google Scholar
  126. Stanley, Wendall M. 1934c. “Chemical Studies on the Virus of Tobacco Mosaic.” I. Some effects of trypsin. Phytopathology 24: 1055–1085.Google Scholar
  127. Stanley, Wendell M., and Valens, Evans G. 1961. Viruses and the Nature of Life. New York: E. P. Dutton.Google Scholar
  128. Stent, Gunther S. 1960. Papers on Bacterial Viruses. Boston: Little, Brown.Google Scholar
  129. Streisinger, George. 2007. “Terminal Redundancy, or All’s Well That Ends Well.” John Cairns, Gunther S. Stent, and James D. Watson (eds.), Phage and the Origins of Molecular Biology, Expanded Edition. Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, pp. 335–340.Google Scholar
  130. Summers, William C. 1991. “On the Origins of Science in Arrowsmith: Paul de Kruif, Felix d’Herelle, and Phage.” Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences 46: 315–332.Google Scholar
  131. Summers, William C. 1993. “How Bacteriophage Came to be Used by the Phage Group.” Journal of the History of Biology 26: 255–267.Google Scholar
  132. Summers, William C. 1999. Felix d’Herelle and the Origins of Molecular Biology. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  133. Summers, William C. 2001. “Bacteriophage Therapy.” Annual Review of Microbiology 55: 437–451.Google Scholar
  134. Takahashi, William N., and Rawlins, T.E. 1937. “Stream Double Refraction of Preparations of Crystalline Tobacco-Mosaic Protein.” Science 85: 103–104.Google Scholar
  135. Takahashi, William N., and Christensen, Ralph J. 1934. “The Virucidal Action of High Frequency Sound Radiation.” Science 79: 415–416.Google Scholar
  136. Takahashi, William N., and Rawlins, T.E. 1934. “Application of Stream Double Refraction in the Identification of Streak Diseases of Tomato.” Phytopathology 24: 1111–1115.Google Scholar
  137. Takahashi, William N., and Rawlins, T.E. 1935. “The Relation of Stream Double Refraction to Tobacco Mosaic Virus.” Science 81: 299–300.Google Scholar
  138. Thompson, Paul D. 1968. The Virus Realm. Philadelphia: Lippincott.Google Scholar
  139. Tooze, John. 1979. “A Seminal Assay in Plant Virology.” Trends in Biochemical Sciences 4: 96.Google Scholar
  140. Twort, F.W. 1915. “An Investigation on the Nature of Ultra-Microscopic Viruses.” Lancet 186: 1241–1243.Google Scholar
  141. van Helvoort, Ton. 1991. “What is a Virus? The Case of Tobacco Mosaic Disease.” Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 22: 557–588.Google Scholar
  142. van Helvoort, Ton. 1992. “The Controversy Between John H. Northrop and Max Delbrück on the Formation of Bacteriophage: Bacterial Synthesis or Autonomous Multiplication?” Annals of Science 49: 545–575.Google Scholar
  143. Van Helvoort, Ton. 1994. “The Construction of Bacteriophage as Bacterial Virus: Linking Endogenous and Exogenous Thought Styles.” Journal of the History of Biology 27: 91–139.Google Scholar
  144. Van Helvoort, Ton. 1996. “When Did Virology Start?” ASM News 62: 142–145.Google Scholar
  145. Wellman, Fredrick L. 1934. “Identification of Celery Virus 1, The Cause of Southern Celery Mosaic.” Phytopathology 24: 695–725.Google Scholar
  146. Wells, Simon. 1995. Balto. USA: Universal Pictures.Google Scholar
  147. White, Philip R. 1934. “Multiplication of the Viruses of Tobacco and Aucuba Mosaics in Growing Excised Tomato Root Tips.” Phytopathology 24: 1003–1011.Google Scholar
  148. Wilkinson, Lise. 1976. “The Development of the Virus Concept as Reflected in Corpora of Studies on Individual Pathogens. 3. Lessons of the Plant Viruses–Tobacco Mosaic Virus.” Medical History 20: 111–134.Google Scholar
  149. Williams, Greer. 1959. Virus Hunters. New York: Knopf.Google Scholar
  150. Williams, Robley C., and Wyckoff, Ralph, W.G. 1945. “Electron Shadow Micrography of the Tobacco Mosaic Virus Protein.” Science 101: 594–596.Google Scholar
  151. Winslow, C.-E.A. 1921. “William Thompson Sedgwick: 1855–1921.” Journal of Bacteriology 6: 254–262.Google Scholar
  152. Wise, M. Norton. 2006. “Making Visible.” Isis 97: 75–82.Google Scholar
  153. Yarwood, C.E. 1957. “Mechanical Transmission of Plant Viruses.” Advances in Virus Research 4: 243–278.Google Scholar
  154. Youden, W.J., and Beale, Helen Purdy. 1934. “A Statistical Study of the Local Lesion Method for Estimating Tobacco Mosaic Virus.” Contributions of the Boyce Thompson Institute 6: 437–454.Google Scholar
  155. Youden, W.J., Beale, Helen Purdy, and Gutherie, John D. 1935. “Relation of Virus Concentration to the Number of Lesions Produced.” Contributions of the Boyce Thompson Institute 7: 37–53.Google Scholar
  156. Zimmerman, Percy W. 1929. “The Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research, Inc.” Journal of Chemical Education 6: 1385–1404.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Plant Pathology and MicrobiologyTexas A&M UniversityCollege StationUSA

Personalised recommendations