Advertisement

Journal of the History of Biology

, Volume 43, Issue 1, pp 67–109 | Cite as

Stems and Standards: Social Interaction in the Search for Blood Stem Cells

Article

Abstract

This essay examines the role of social interactions in the search for blood stem cells, in a recent episode of biomedical research. Linked to mid-20th century cell biology, genetics and radiation research, the search for blood stem cells coalesced in the 1960s and took a developmental turn in the late 1980s, with significant ramifications for immunology, stem cell and cancer biology. Like much contemporary biomedical research, this line of inquiry exhibits a complex social structure and includes several prominent scientific successes, recognized as such by participating researchers. I use personal interviews and the published record to trace the social interactions crucial for scientific success in this episode. All recognized successes in this episode have two aspects: improved models of blood cell development, and new interfaces with other lines of research. The narrative of the search for blood stem cells thus yields a robust account of scientific success in practice, which generalizes to other scientific episodes and lends itself to expansion to include wider social contexts.

Keywords

social epistemology immunology stem cells collaboration laboratory studies scientific practice Irving Weissman 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

Acknowledgments

This research was supported by Dissertation Year Fellowship from the College of Arts and Sciences at Indiana University (2006–2007) and a Doctoral Dissertation Improvement Grant from the National Science Foundation (SES-0620993). Guidance in sociological research methods was generously provided by Tom Gieryn. Many thanks to Jordi Cat, Elihu Gerson, Tom Gieryn, Jim Griesemer, Jutta Schickore, Fred Tauber, two anonymous reviewers, and audiences at the Universities of Western Ontario, California at Santa Cruz, California at Davis, Exeter, and Pittsburgh for helpful comments and criticism. Last but not least, I thank the interviewees and their colleagues for patiently sharing their time and experiences in research. Any errors are my own.

References

Primary Sources

  1. Abbas, A.K., Lichtman, A.H., Pober, J.S. 1994. Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2nd ed. Philadelphia:W. B. Saunders.Google Scholar
  2. Aihara, Y., Bühring, H.-J., Aihara, M., Klein, J. 1986. ‹An Attempt to Produce “Pre-T” Cell Hybridomas and to Identify Their Antigens.’ European Journal of Immunology 16: 1391–1399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barnes, DM. 1988. ‹Blood-Forming Stem Cells Purified.’ Science 240: 24–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Basch, R.S. and Berman JW 1982. “Thy-1 Determinants are Present on Many Murine Hematopoietic Cells other than T Cells.” European Journal of Immunology 12: 359-364Google Scholar
  5. Becker, A.J., McCulloch, E.A., Till, J.E. 1963. ‹Cytological Demonstration of the Clonal Nature of Spleen Colonies Derived from Transplanted Mouse Bone Marrow Cells.’ Nature 197: 452–454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Billingham, Brent L, Medawar, P.B. 1953. ‹Actively Acquired Tolerance.’ Nature 172: 603.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bonner, W.A., Hulett, H.R., Sweet, R.G., Herzenberg, L.A. 1972. ‹Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorting.’ Review of Scientific Instruments 43: 404–409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bonnet, D, Dick, JE. 1997. ‹Human Acute Myeloid Leukemia is Organized as a Hierarchy That Originates from a Primitive Hematopoietic Cell.’ Nature Medicine 3: 730–737.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Burnet, FM, Fenner, F. 1949. The Production of Antibodies, 2nd ed. Melbourne:MacMillan.Google Scholar
  10. Coffman, RL, Weissman, IL. 1981. ‹B220: A B Cell-Specific Member of the T200 Glycoprotein Family.’ Nature 289: 681–683.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Coffman, RL, Weissman, IL. 1982. ‹Surface Phenotype of Peyer’s Patch Germinal Center Cells: Implications for the Role of Germinal Centers in B Cell Differentiation.’ Journal of Immunology 129: 2698–2707.Google Scholar
  12. DeTomaso, AW. 2006. ‹Allorecognition Polymorphism vs. Parasitic Stem Cells.’ Trends in Genetics 22: 485–490.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dexter, TM, Lord, BI. 1989. ‹Hematopoietic Stem Cell Purification – Reply.’ Immunology Today 10: 185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Dontu, G., Al-Hajj, M., Abdallah, W.A., Clarke, M.F. and Wicha, M.S. 2003. “Stem Cells in Normal Breast Development and Breast Cancer.” Cell Proliferation 36: 59–72, S1.Google Scholar
  15. Dorshkind, K. 2002. ‹Stem Cells and Lineage Plasticity: The Challenge to Existing Paradigms.’ Immunological Reviews 187: 5–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ezine, S, Weissman, IL, Rouse, RV. 1984. ‹Bone Marrow Cells Give Rise to Distinct Cell Clones Within the Thymus.’ Nature 309: 629–631.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ezine, S, Jerabek, L, Weissman, IL. 1987. ‹The Phenotype of Thymocytes Derived from a Single Clonogenic Precursor.’ Journal of Immunology 139: 2195–2199.Google Scholar
  18. Ford, CE, Hamerton, JL, Barnes, DWH, Loutit, JF. 1956. ‹Cytological Identification of Radiation-Chimeras.’ Nature 177: 452–454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gatti, RA, Meuwisse, HJ, Allen, HD, Hong, R, Good, RA. 1968. ‹Immunological Reconstitution of Sex-Linked Lymphopenic Immunological Deficiency.’ Lancet 2: 1366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Good, RA. 1968. ‹Experiments of Nature in Immunobiology.’ New England Journal of Medicine 279: 1344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Goldschneider, I., Metacalf. D., Mandel, T. and Bollum, F.J. 1980. “Analysis of Rat Hemopoietic Cells on the Fluorescence-Activated Cell Sorter.” Journal of Experimental Medicine 152: 438-466Google Scholar
  22. Gowans, J.L., Gesner, B.M. and McGregor, D.D. 1961. “The Immunological Activity of Lymphocytes.” G.E.W. Wolstenholme, M. O’Connor (eds.), Biological Activity of the Leucocyte. Ciba Foundation Study Group, London: Churchill, pp. 32–44.Google Scholar
  23. Gowans, JL, McGregor, DD, Cowen, DM, Ford, CE. 1962. ‹Initiation of Immune Responses by Small Lymphocytes.’ Nature 196: 651.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gutman, G, Weissman, IL. 1972. ‹Lymphoid-Tissue Architecture – Experimental Analysis of Origin and Distribution of T-Cells and B-Cells.’ Immunology 23: 465–479.Google Scholar
  25. Gutman, GA, Weissman, IL. 1973. ‹Homing Properties of Thymus-Independent Follicular Lymphocytes.’ Transplantation 16: 621–629.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hamburger, AW, Salmon, SE. 1977. ‹Primary Bioassay of Human Tumor Stem Cells.’ Science 197: 461–463.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Herzenberg, L.A. and Herzenberg, L.A. 2004. Genetics, FACS, Immunology, and Redox.” Annual Review of Immunology 22: 1-31Google Scholar
  28. Herzenberg, L.A., Sweet, R.G. and Herzenberg, L.A. 1976. “Fluorescence-Activated Cell Sorting.” Scientific American 224: 108-117Google Scholar
  29. Ingram, VM. 1957. ‹Gene Mutation in Human Haemoglobin: The Chemical Difference Between Normal and Sickle Cell Haemoglobin.’ Nature 180: 326–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Jacobson, L.O., Simmons, E.L., Marks, E.K., Gaston, E.O., Robson, M.J. and Eldredge, J.H. 1951. “Further Studies on Recovery from Radiation Injury.” Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine 37: 683-697Google Scholar
  31. Jackson, EB, Brues, AM. 1941. ‹Studies on a Transplantable Teratoma of the Mouse.’ Cancer Research 1: 494–498.Google Scholar
  32. Jordan, HE. 1942. ‹Extramedullary Blood Production.’ Physiological Review 22: 375–384.Google Scholar
  33. Katsura, Y. 2002. ‹Redefinition of Lymphoid Progenitors.’ Nature Reviews Immunology 2: 127–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kawamoto, H, Ohmura, K, Katsura, Y. 1997. ‹Direct Evidence for the Commitment of Hematopoietic Stem Cells to T, B, and Myeloid Lineages in Murine Fetal Liver.’ International Immunology 9: 1011–1019.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Köhler, G, Milstein, C. 1975. ‹Continuous Cultures of Fused Cells Secreting Antibody of Predefined Specificity.’ Nature 256: 475–477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kondo, M, Weissman, IL, Akashi, K. 1997. ‹Identification of Clonogenic Common Lymphoid Progenitors in Mouse Bone Marrow.’ Cell 91: 661–672.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Koretzky, G, Monroe, J. 2002. ‹Introduction.’ Immunological Reviews 185: 5–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kuby, J. 1999. Immunology, (2nd ed.). New York: FreemanGoogle Scholar
  39. Lemischka, IR, Raulet, DH, Mulligan, RC. 1986. ‹Developmental Potential and Dynamic Behavior of Hematopoietic Stem-Cells.’ Cell 45: 917–927.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Lord, BJ, Dexter, TM. 1988. ‹Purification of Haemopoietic Stem Cells – The End of the Road?’ Immunology Today 9: 376–377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Lu, M, Kawamoto, H, Katsube, Y, Ikawa, T, Katsura, Y. 2002. ‹The Common Myelolymphoid Progenitor: A Key Intermediate Stage in Hemopoiesis Generating T and B Cells.’ Journal of Immunology 169: 3519–3525.Google Scholar
  42. Magli, MC, Iscove, NN, Odartchenko, N. 1982. ‹Transient Nature of Early Haematopoietic Spleen Colonies.’ Nature 295: 527–529.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Medawar, PB. 1946. ‹Immunity to Homologous Grafted Skin.’ British Journal of Experimental Pathology 27: 9–15.Google Scholar
  44. Micklem, HS, Lennon, JE, Ansell, JD, Gray, RA. 1987. ‹Numbers and Dispersion of Repopulating Hematopoietic-Cell Clones in Radiation Chimeras as Functions of Injected Cell Dose.’ Experimental Hematology 15: 251–257.Google Scholar
  45. Miller, JFAP. 1961. ‹Analysis of the Thymus Influence on Leukemogenesis.’ Nature 191: 248–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Miller, JFAP, Mitchell, GF. 1967. ‹The Thymus and the Precursors of Antigen-Reactive Cells.’ Nature 216: 659–663.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Morrison, SJ, Kimble, J. 2006. ‹Asymmetric and Symmetric Stem-Cell Divisions in Development and Cancer.’ Nature 441: 1068–1074.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Morrison, SJ, Weissman, IL. 1994. ‹The Long-Term Repopulating Subset of Hematopoietic Stem Cells is Deterministic and Isolatable by Phenotype.’ Immunity 1: 661–673.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Mulder, AH, Visser, JWM. 1987. ‹Separation and Functional Analysis of Bone-Marrow Cells Separated by Rhodamine-123 Fluorescence.’ Experimental Hematology 15: 99–104.Google Scholar
  50. Müller-Sieberg, C, Whitlock, CA, Weissman, IL. 1986. ‹Isolation of Two Early B Lymphocyte Progenitors from Mouse Marrow: A Committed Pre-Pre-B Cell and a Clonogenic Thy-1lo Hematopoietic Stem Cell.’ Cell 44: 653–662.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Müller-Sieberg, C, Townsend, K, Weissman, IL, Rennick, D. 1988. ‹Proliferation and Differentiation of Highly Enriched Mouse Hematopoietic Stem Cells and Progenitor Cells in Response to Defined Growth Factors.’ Journal of Experimental Medicine 167: 1825–1840.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Müller-Sieberg, C., Torok-Storb, B., Visser, J. and Storb, R. (eds.). 1992. Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Animal Models and Human Transplantation. Volume 177, Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  53. Owen, R. 1945. ‹Immunogenetic Consequences of Vascular Anastomoses Between Bovine Twins.’ Science 102: 400–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Park, CH, Bergsagel, DE, McCulloch, EA. 1971. ‹Mouse Myeloma Tumor Stem Cells: A Primary Cell Culture Assay.’ Journal of the National Cancer Institute 46: 411–422.Google Scholar
  55. Paul, W.E. 1983. “Preface to Volume 1.” Annual Review of Immunology 1: vii.Google Scholar
  56. Paul, WE (ed.). 2003. Fundamental Immunology, 5th ed. Philadelphia:Lippincott, Williams, and Wilkins.Google Scholar
  57. Pauling, L, Itano, HA, Singer, SJ, Wells, IC. 1949. ‹Sickle Cell Anemia: A Molecular Disease.’ Science 110: 543–548.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Reya, T., Morrison, S.J., Clarke, M.F. and Weissman, I.L. 2001. “Stem Cells, Cancer and Cancer Stem Cells.” Nature 4: 105-111Google Scholar
  59. Sawyers, C, Denny, C, Witte, O. 1991. ‹Leukemia and the Disruption of Normal Hematopoiesis.’ Cell 64: 337–350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Shizuru, JA, Negrin, RS, Weissman, IL. 2005. ‹Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells: Clinical and Preclinical Regeneration of the Hematolymphoid System.’ Annual Review of Medicine 56: 509–538.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Siminovitch, L, McCulloch, EA, Till, JE. 1963. ‹The Distribution of Colony-Forming Cells Among Spleen Colonies.’ Journal of Cellular and Comparative Physiology 62: 327–336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Spangrude, GJ. 1989. ‹Enrichment of Murine Hematopoietic Stem-Cells: Diverging Roads.’ Immunology Today 10: 344–350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Spangrude, GJ. 2002. ‹Divergent Models of Lymphoid Lineage Specification: Do Clonal Assays Provide all the Answers?’ Immunological Reviews 187: 40–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Spangrude, GJ. 2003. ‹Future Challenges for Hematopoietic Stem Cell Research.’ Biotechniques 35: 1273–1279.Google Scholar
  65. Spangrude, GJ, Weissman, IL. 1988. ‹Mature T Cells Generated from Single Thymic Clones are Phenotypically and Functionally Heterogeneous.’ Journal of Immunology 141: 1877–1890.Google Scholar
  66. Spangrude, GJ, Heimfeld, S, Weissman, IL. 1988a. ‹Purification and Characterization of Mouse Hematopoietic Stem Cells.’ Science 241: 58–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Spangrude, GJ, Aihara, Y, Weissman, IL, Klein, J. 1988b. ‹The Stem Cell Antigens Sca-1 and Sca-2 Subdivide Thymic and Peripheral T Lymphocytes into Unique Subsets.’ Journal of Immunology 141: 3697–3707. (1988a in notes).Google Scholar
  68. Spangrude, GJ, Müller-Sieberg, C, Heimfeld, S, Weissman, IL. 1988c. ‹Two Rare Populations of Mouse Thy-1lo Bone Marrow Cells Repopulate the Thymus.’ Journal of Experimental Medicine 167: 1671–1683. (1988b in notes).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Stevens, L. 1984. ‹Experimental Production of Testicular Teratomas in Mice.’ Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 52: 654–661.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Stocum, DL. 2006. Regenerative Biology and Medicine. Burlington, MA:Academic Press.Google Scholar
  71. Till, JE, McCulloch, EA. 1961. ‹A Direct Measurement of the Radiation Sensitivity of Normal Mouse Bone Marrow Cells.’ Radiation Research 14: 213–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Visser, JWM, van Bekkum, DW. 1990. ‹Purification of Pluripotent Hematopoietic Stem Cells – Past and Present.’ Experimental Hematology 18: 248–256.Google Scholar
  73. Visser, JWM, Bauman, JGJ, Mulder, AH, Eliason, JF, de Leeuw, AM. 1984. ‹Isolation of Murine Pluripotent Hemopoietic Stem Cells.’ Journal of Experimental Medicine 59: 1576–1590.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Wagers, AJ, Weissman, IL. 2004. ‹Plasticity of Adult Stem Cells.’ Cell 116: 639–648.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Weissman, IL. 2000a. ‹Stem Cells: Units of Development, Units of Regeneration, Units of Evolution.’ Cell 100: 157–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Weissman, IL. 2000b. ‹Translating Stem and Progenitor Cell Biology to the Clinic: Barriers and Opportunities.’ Science 287: 1442–1446.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Weissman, IL. 2002. ‹The Road Ended up at Stem Cells.’ Immunological Reviews 185: 159–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Weissman, IL. 2005. ‹Stem Cell Research: Paths to Cancer Therapies and Regenerative Medicine.’ Journal of the American Medical Association 294: 1359–1366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Weissman, IL, Heimfeld, S, Spangrude, G. 1989. ‹Hematopoietic Stem Cell Purification.’ Immunology Today 10: 184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Wilson, EB. 1896. The Cell in Development and Inheritance. New York:MacMillan.Google Scholar

Interviews

  1. Ailles, L. Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Stanford, 4/4/2007.Google Scholar
  2. Coffman, R. Dynavax Technologies, Berkeley, 10/2/2006.Google Scholar
  3. Gutman, G. University of California, Irvine, 9/28/2006.Google Scholar
  4. Herzenberg, L. and Herzenberg, L. Stanford University, 4/3/2007.Google Scholar
  5. Jerabek, L. Stanford University, 10/4/2006, 4/3/2007.Google Scholar
  6. Kondo, M. Duke University, 12/7/2006.Google Scholar
  7. Morrison, S. University of Michigan, 11/20/2006.Google Scholar
  8. Müller-Sieburg, C. Sidney Kimmel Cancer Institute, La Jolla, 4/6/2007.Google Scholar
  9. Spangrude, G. University of Utah, 12/4/2006.Google Scholar
  10. Weissman, I. Stanford University, 11/7/2005.Google Scholar

Secondary Sources

  1. Cambrosio, A, Keating, P. 1995. Exquisite Specificity: The Monoclonal Antibody Revolution. New York:Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Cinader, B. 1989. “Down-Regulation and Tolerance: The Trail from the Past.” P.M.H. Mazumdar (ed.), Immunology 1930–1980: Essays on the History of Immunology. Toronto: Wall and Thompson, pp. 51–65.Google Scholar
  3. Clarke, A. 1998. Disciplining Reproduction: Modernity, American Life Sciences, and the Problems of Sex. Berkeley:University of California Press.Google Scholar
  4. Fagan, MB. 2007. ‹The Search for the Hematopoietic Stem Cell: Social Interaction and Epistemic Success in Immunology.’ Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 38: 217–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Fleck, L. 1979. Genesis and Development of a Scientific Fact. (F. Bradley and T.J. Trenn, trans.; T.J. Trenn and R.K. Merton, eds.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press (1st ed. published 1935, German).Google Scholar
  6. Hall, SS. 1997. A Commotion in the Blood: Life, Death and the Immune System. New York:Henry Holt.Google Scholar
  7. Hauskeller, C. 2004. ‹How Traditions of Ethical Reasoning and Institutional Processes Shape Stem Cell Research in Britain.’ Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 29: 509–532.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Keating, P, Cambrosio, A. 1994. ‹‹Ours is an Engineering Approach’: Flow Cytometry and the Constitution of Human T-Cell Subsets.’ Journal of the History of Biology 27: 449–479.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Keating, P, Cambrosio, A. 2003. Biomedical Platforms: Realigning the Normal and the Pathological in Late-Twentieth-Century Medicine. Cambridge:The MIT Press.Google Scholar
  10. Landecker, H. 2007. Culturing Life: How Cells Became Technologies. Cambridge:Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Löwy, I. 1992. ‹The Strength of Loose Concepts – Boundary Concepts, Federative Experimental Strategies and Disciplinary Growth: The Case of Immunology.’ History of Science 30: 371–396.Google Scholar
  12. Mazumdar, PMH (ed.). 1989. Immunology 1930–1980: Essays on the History of Immunology. Toronto:Wall and Thompson.Google Scholar
  13. Mazumdar, PMH. 1995. Species and Specificity: An Interpretation of the History of Immunology. Cambridge:Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Mazumdar, P. 2003. “History of Immunology.” W.E. Paul (ed.), Fundamental Immunology (5th ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins, pp. 23–46 .Google Scholar
  15. Moulin, A.-M. 1989. “Immunology Old and New: The Beginning and the End.” P.M.H. Mazumdar (ed.), Immunology 1930–1980: Essays on the History of Immunology. Toronto: Wall and Thompson, pp. 291–298.Google Scholar
  16. Moulin, AM. 1991. Le dernier langage de la médecine. Histoire de I’immunologie de Pasteur au Sida. Paris:Presses Universitaires de France.Google Scholar
  17. Moulin, AM. 1996. ‹Un objet scientifique à la charnière des sciences biologiques et sociales: le système immunitaire.’ História, Ciências, Saúde – Manguinhos 3: 300–318.Google Scholar
  18. Podolsky, SH, Tauber, AI. 1997. The Generation of Diversity. Cambridge:Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  19. Porter, R. 1997. The Greatest Benefit to Mankind: A Medical History of Humanity. New York:W.W. Norton & Co.Google Scholar
  20. Prüll, C-R. 2003. ‹Part of a Scientific Master Plan? Paul Ehrlich and the Origins of His Receptor Concept.’ Medical History 47: 332–356.Google Scholar
  21. Radetsky, P. 1995. ‹The Mother of all Blood Cells.’ Discover 16: 86–93.Google Scholar
  22. Rader, K. 2004. Making Mice: Standardizing animals for American Biomedical Research 1900–1955. Princeton: Princeton University PressGoogle Scholar
  23. Rheinberger, H-J. 1997. Towards a History of Epistemic Things: Synthesizing Proteins in the Test-Tube. Stanford:Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  24. Rubin, LP. 1980. ‹Styles in Scientific Explanation: Paul Ehrlich and Svante Arrhenius on Immunochemistry.’ Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences 35: 397–425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Silverstein, AM. 1989. A History of Immunology. San Diego:Academic Press.Google Scholar
  26. 2002. Paul Ehrlich's Receptor Immunology: The Magnificent Obsession. London: Academic PressGoogle Scholar
  27. Silverstein, AM. 2003. ‹Splitting the Difference: The Germline-Somatic Mutation Debate on Generating Antibody Diversity.’ Nature Immunology 4: 829–833.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Silverstein, A, Söderqvist, T. 1994. ‹The Structure and Dynamics of Immunology, 1951–1972: A Prosopographical Study of International Meetings.’ Cellular Immunology 158: 1–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Söderqvist, T. 2003. Science as Autobiography: The Troubled Life of Niels Jerne. New Haven:Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  30. Söderqvist, T, Stillwell, C. 1999. ‹Essay Review: The Historiography of Immunology is Still in Its Infancy.’ Journal of the History of Biology 32: 205–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Tauber, AI. 1994. The Immune Self: Theory or Metaphor?. Cambridge:Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Tauber, AI, Chernyak, L. 1991. Metchnikoff and the Origins of Immunology. New York:Oxford University Press.Google Scholar

Interviewing Methods

  1. Briggs, CL. 1986. Learning How to Ask: A Sociolinguistic Appraisal of the Role of the Interview in Social Science Research. Cambridge:Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Gerson, E.M. 1998. “Analyzing interview data for the history of science.” Conference Manuscript: “Interviews in Writing the History of Recent Science” held by the Immunology Project, Stanford University Program in the History of Science, Palo Alto, California, 28–30 April 1994.Google Scholar
  3. Gorden, RL. 1980. Interviewing: Strategy, Techniques, and Tactics, 3rd ed. Homewood, IL:The Dorsey Press.Google Scholar
  4. Merton, RK, Fisk, M, Kendall, PL. 1956. The Focused Interview: A Manual of Problems and Procedures. Glencoe, IL:Free Press.Google Scholar
  5. Mishler, EG. 1986. Research Interviewing: Context and Narrative. Cambridge:Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  6. Seidman, I. 1998. Interviewing as Qualitative Research, 2nd ed. New York:Teacher’s College Press.Google Scholar
  7. Zuckerman, H. 1977. Scientific Elites: Nobel Laureates in the United States. New York:Free Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PhilosophyRice UniversityHoustonUSA

Personalised recommendations