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Effect of endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis in the role of periodontitis on vascular calcification in a rat model

Abstract

The present study aimed to investigate the mechanism(s) through which endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS)-induced apoptosis, in the role of periodontitis, affects vascular calcification. Rat models of periodontitis, vascular calcification, periodontitis-vascular calcification, and a normal group were established. Cardiovascular tissues were obtained, and hematoxylin–eosin staining was applied to demonstrate the morphological changes in vascular tissues. Immunohistochemical staining was applied to analyze apoptosis in cardiovascular tissues. The expression levels of apoptotic factor cysteinyl aspartate specific proteinase 3 (Caspase-3), ERS-induced apoptotic factors glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), 94 (GRP94), and ERS-induced apoptosis pathways Caspase-12, C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) were analyzed and compared. Hematoxylin–eosin staining revealed that the arterial layers in the normal group were structurally intact. The structural damage to the aortic wall gradually aggravated from the periodontitis group to the vascular calcification group to the combined group. The immunohistochemistry results showed Caspase-3, GRP78, GRP94, and ERS-induced apoptosis pathways in the cardiovascular tissues cells in the periodontitis group, vascular calcification group, and combined group. The Caspase-3, GRP78, GRP94, and CHOP expression levels in the combined group were significantly higher than that in the normal group (P < 0.05); however, the Capase-12 and JNK expression levels in the four groups exhibited no significant differences (P > 0.05). Apoptosis induced by ERS is involved in the effect of periodontitis on vascular calcification and might be mainly achieved through the activation of the CHOP transcription pathway.

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Data availability

The datasets used or analyzed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.

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Acknowledgements

This work was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China [Grant Number 81100755] and Health Department of Shandong Province [Grant Number 2016WS0252].

Funding

This work was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China [Grant Number 81100755] and Health Department of Shandong Province [Grant Number 2016WS0252].

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Conceptualization: XS, KP; Methodology: XS, JL, KP; Data Curation: MJ; Formal analysis and investigation: JL, YC; Writing - original draft preparation: XS, JL, MJ; YC; KP; Writing—review and editing: XS, JL, MJ; YC; KP; Funding acquisition: KP.

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Correspondence to Keqing Pan.

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Song, X., Li, J., Jiao, M. et al. Effect of endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis in the role of periodontitis on vascular calcification in a rat model. J Mol Histol 52, 1097–1104 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10735-021-10015-z

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Keywords

  • Periodontitis
  • Vascular calcification
  • Endoplasmic reticulum stress
  • Apoptosis