Skip to main content
Log in

Strategic planning in higher education institutions: what are the stakeholders’ roles in the process?

  • Published:
Higher Education Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

This article classifies and assigns degrees of influence to the stakeholders involved in the implementation of strategic planning at a Brazilian higher education institution. In order to test the stakeholder influence theory, we carried out a case study of a Brazilian university based on qualitative methods. The models of Frooman (Academy of Management Review, 24(2), 191–205, 1999) and Mitchell et al. (Academy of Management Review, 22(4), 853–886, 1997) served as the theoretical basis for assessing the stakeholders’ identification and management. Findings indicate that higher education institutions focus on the internal and external stakeholders that have the power to control them. In practice, this study provides insight into the stakeholder influences that have an effect on the implementation of strategic planning in a university. Based on the findings, university managers will be able to think more strategically about the institution’s objectives, taking into account the degree of influence that stakeholders have on the institution’s objectives.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  • Alarcón-del-Amo, M. C., Casablancas-Segura, C., & Llonch, J. (2016). Responsive and proactive stakeholder orientation in public universities: Antecedents and consequences. Higher Education, 72(2), 131–151.

  • Andrade, J. C. S. (2002). Formação de estratégias socioambientais corporativas: os jogos Aracruz Celulose – Stakeholders. Revista de Administração Contemporânea, 6(2), 75–97.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Atkinson, A. A., Waterhouse, J. H., & Wells, R. B. (1997). A stakeholder approach to strategic performance measurement. Sloan Management Review, 38(3), 25–37.

    Google Scholar 

  • Balbachevsky, E. (2015). The role of internal and external stakeholders in Brazilian higher education. In S. Schwartzman, R. Pinheiro, & P. Pillay (Eds.), Higher education in the BRICS countries: Investigating the pact between higher education and society (pp. 193–214). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Benneworth, P., & Jongbloed, B. W. (2010). Who matters to universities? A stakeholder perspective on humanities, arts and social sciences valorisation. Higher Education. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10734-009-9265-2.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Brasil. (2015). Censo da Educação Superior. Brasilia: INEP.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bryson, J. M. (1995). Strategic planning for public and non-profit organization. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.

    Google Scholar 

  • Burrows, J. (1999). Going beyond labels: A framework for profiling institutional stakeholders. Contemporary Education, 70, 5–10.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cappiello, G., & Pedrini, G. (2017). The performance evaluation of corporate universities. Tertiary Education and Management, 23(3), 304–317. https://doi.org/10.1080/13583883.2017.1329452.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Casablancas-Segura, C., & Llonch, J. (2016). Responsive and proactive stakeholder orientation in public universities: Antecedents and consequences. Higher Education, 72(2), 131–151.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Chapman, K. J., Meuter, M. L., Toy, D., & Wright, L. K. (2010). Are student groups dysfunctional? Perspectives from both sides of the classroom. Journal of Marketing Education, 32(1), 39–49.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Childress, L. K. (2009). Internationalization plans for higher education institutions. Journal of Studies in International Education, 13(3), 289–309.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Donaldson, T., & Preston, L. E. (1995). The stakeholder theory of the corporation: Concepts, evidences, and implications. Academy of Management Review, 20(1), 65–91.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Donina, D., & Paleari, S. (2019). New public management: Global reform script or conceptual stretching? Analysis of university governance structures in the Napoleonic administrative tradition. Higher Education, 78. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10734-018-0338-y.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Duke, C. R. (2002). Learning outcomes: Comparing student perceptions of skill level and importance. Journal of Marketing Education, 24(3), 203–217.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Etzkowitz, H. (2003). Innovation in innovation: The triple helix of university-industry government relations. Social Science Information, 42(3), 293–337.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Freeman, R. E. (1984). Strategic management: A stakeholder approach. Marshfield: Pitman.

    Google Scholar 

  • Freeman, E., & McVea, J. (2001). A stakeholder approach to strategic management. In M. Hitt, E. Freeman, & J. Harrison (Eds.), Handbook of strategic management. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.263511.

  • Freeman, R. E., & Reed, D. L. (1983). Stockholders and stakeholders: A new perspective on corporate governance. California Management Review, 25(3), 88–106.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Frooman, J. (1999). Stakeholder influences strategies. Academy of Management Review, 24(2), 191–205.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ian, K. A., & Hjortsø, C. (2019). Sources of complexity in participatory curriculum development: An activity system and stakeholder analysis approach to the analyses of tensions and contradictions. Higher Education, 77, 1–22. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10734-018-0274-x.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Idenburg, P. J. (1993). Four styles of strategy development. Long Range Planning, 26(6), 132–137.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • James, M. A., & Derrick, G. E. (2019). When culture trumps strategy: Higher education institutional strategic plans and their influence on international student recruitment practice. Higher Education. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10734-019-00424-1.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jarzabkowski, P., & Wolf, C. (2015). An activity theory approach to strategy as practice. In Cambridge handbook of strategy as practice (pp. 127–140). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Jongbloed, B., Enders, J., & Salerno, C. (2008). Higher education and its communities: Interconnections, interdependencies and a research agenda. Higher Education. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10734-008-9128-2.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kettunen, J. (2015). Stakeholder relationships in higher education. Tertiary Education and Management, 21(1), 56–65.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lopes, L.A.C., & Bernardes, F.R. (2005). Estruturas administrativas das universidades brasileiras. VIII Seminários de Administração –SEMEAD proceedings.

  • Lyra, M. G., Gomes, R. C., & Jacovine, L. A. G. (2009). Stakeholder management and organizational sustainability: A Brazilian case study from the forestry sector. Revista de Administração Contemporânea, 13(special), 39–52.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mainardes, E. W., Alves, H., Raposo, M., & Domingues, M. J. (2010). Categorização por importância dos stakeholders das universidades. Revista Ibero Americana de Estratégia, 9(3), 4–43.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mainardes, E. W., Raposo, M., & Alves, H. (2014). Universities need a market orientation to attract non-traditional stakeholders as new financing sources. Public Organization Review, 14(2), 159–171.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • McCune, S. D. (1986). Guide to Strategic Planning for Educators. Edited by Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Alexandria: Publication Sales.

  • Miller, K., McAdam, M., & McAdam, R. (2014). The changing university business model: A stakeholder perspective. R&D Management, 44(3), 265–287.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mintzberg, H. (1987). Crafting strategy. Harvard Business Review, july-august, 66–75.

  • Mitchell, R. K., Agle, B. R., & Wood, D. J. (1997). Toward a theory of stakeholder identification and salience: Defining the principle of the who and what really counts. Academy of Management Review, 22(4), 853–886.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Morphew, C. C., Fumasoli, T., & Stensaker, B. (2018). Changing missions? How the strategic plans of research-intensive universities in northern Europe and North America balance competing identities. Studies in Higher Education, 43(6), 1074–1088. https://doi.org/10.1080/03075079.2016.1214697.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Najan, A. (1995). Learning from the literature on policy implementation: A synthesis perspective (working paper WP-95-61). Laxenburg: International Institute for Applied Systems analysis.

  • Neave, G. (2000). The Universities’ Responsibilities to Society: International perspectives. Issues in Higher Education Series: ERIC.

  • Neuendorf, K. A. (2016). The content analysis guidebook. Los Angeles: Sage.

    Google Scholar 

  • Oliva, E. J. D. (2009). La gestión de la universidad como elemento básico del sistema universitario: una reflexión desde la perspectiva de los stakeholders. Innovar. Revista de Ciencias Administrativas y Sociales, (1), 25–41.

  • Pavičić, J., Alfirević, N., & Mihanović, Z. (2009). Market orientation in managing relationships with multiple constituencies of Croatian higher education. Higher Education, 57(2), 191–207

  • Pinheiro, R. (2015). The role of internal and external stakeholders. In Higher education in the BRICS countries (pp. 43–57). New Ypurk: Springer.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Pinheiro, R., Charles, D., & Jones, G. (2017). Translating strategy, values and identities in higher education: The case of multi-campus systems. Tertiary Education and Management, 23(1), 1–4. https://doi.org/10.1080/13583883.2016.1248858.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Reavill, L. R. P. (1998). Quality assessment, total quality management and the stakeholders in the UK higher education system. Managing Service Quality: An International Journal, 8(1), 55–63.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sam, C., & Dahles, H. (2017). Stakeholder involvement in the higher education sector in Cambodia. Studies in Higher Education, 42(9), 1764–1784.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sampaio, R. M., & Laniado, R. N. (2009). Uma experiência de mudança da gestão universitária: o percurso ambivalente entre proposições e realizações. Revista de Administração Pública, 43, 151–174.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Savage, G. T., Nix, T. W., Whitehead, C. J., & Blair, J. D. (1991). Strategies for assessing and managing organizational stakeholders. Academy of Management Executive, 5(2), 61–75.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sin, C., & Neave, G. (2016). Employability deconstructed: Perceptions of Bologna stakeholders. Studies in Higher Education, 41(8), 1447–1462. https://doi.org/10.1080/03075079.2014.977859.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sucozhanay, D., Santos, E., Witte, K. D., & Euwema, M. (2016). A stakeholder management approach for university change: A case study in Latin America. INTED2016 proceedings.

  • Universidade de Brasília. (2018). Resultados do PDI anterior (2014–2017). Resource document. Universidade de Brasília. Retrieved from http://www.planejamentodpo.unb.br/index.php?option=com_phocadownload&view=category&download=49:resultados-do-pdi-2014-2017&id=1:plano-de-desenvolvimento-institucional&Itemid=800. Accessed 28 Dec 2018.

  • Vos, J. F. (2003). Corporate social responsibility and the identification of stakeholders. Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, 10(3), 141–152.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Yang, R. (2015). Cost sharing in China’s higher education: Analyses of major stakeholders. In Higher education in the BRICS countries (pp. 237–251). New York: Springer.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Yin, R. K. (2017). Case study research and applications: Design and methods. Los Angeles: Sage.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Júnia Maria Zandonade Falqueto.

Additional information

Publisher’s note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Electronic supplementary material

ESM 1

(DOCX 12 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Falqueto, J.M.Z., Hoffmann, V.E., Gomes, R.C. et al. Strategic planning in higher education institutions: what are the stakeholders’ roles in the process?. High Educ 79, 1039–1056 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10734-019-00455-8

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10734-019-00455-8

Keywords

Navigation