The perceived impact of external evaluation: the system, organisation and individual levels—Estonian case
- 345 Downloads
The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of how the employees of higher education institutions perceive the impact of external evaluations. The study was conducted using the concurrent mixed method and involved 361 employees from Estonian universities and professional higher education institutions. The results indicated that evaluation is mostly deemed necessary at the levels of the organisation and the system; from the personal viewpoint of an employee, positive effects of external evaluations are perceived to a lesser degree. The negative influences mentioned were increased bureaucracy, extra work and stress. Top managers of institutions most often saw the positive influences from external evaluations since they help to implement reorganisations and development activities within an organisation. Managers perceived the positive effects of external evaluations on their everyday work as well, more than other employees did. Researchers felt the positive effects of external evaluations least. Nearly a quarter of all employees of higher education institutions do not perceive the effects of external evaluations on their everyday work at all. Employees of professional higher education institutions perceive the positive effects of external evaluations to a greater extent than employees of universities do, indicating that external evaluation has contributed to the development of their organisations. The differences in opinions of the employees of higher education institutions regarding perceived positive and negative impacts of external evaluations—whether on individual, organisation or system points of view—indicate that employees do not identify closely enough with the organisation and its strategic goals.
KeywordsEmployees of higher education institutions Attitudes Perceived impact of external evaluation Universities Professional higher education institutions Concurrent mixed method
- Bogue, E. G., & Hall, K. B. (2003). Quality and accountability in higher education: Improving policy, enhancing performance. Westport, CT: Praeger.Google Scholar
- Borg, I., & Groenen, P. J. F. (2010). Modern multidimensional scaling: Theory and applications (2nd ed.)., Springer Series in Statistics New York: Springer.Google Scholar
- Cardoso, S., Rosa, M.J., & Dias, D. (2013). Obstacles to quality in higher education institutions: The views of academics. 8th European Quality Assurance Forum. Sweden http://www.eua.be/Libraries/EQAF_2013/IVa_3_Cardoso_Rosa_Dias_1.sflb.ashx. Accessed July 13, 2015.
- Child, D. (2006). The essentials of factor analysis (3rd ed.). New York: Continuum.Google Scholar
- Cremonini, L., Epping, E., Westerheijden, D. F., & Vogelsang, K. (2012). Impact of Quality Assurance on Cross-Border Higher Education. Center for Higher Education Policy Studies (CHEPS). http://www.utwente.nl/bms/cheps/publications/Publications%202012/Cremonini,%20Epping,%20Westerheijden%20C12DW012%20Publicatie%20inqaahe_case_study_report-final-0201.pdf. Accessed August 01, 2015.
- Denscombe, M. (2010). The good research guide for small-scale social research projects (4th ed.). New York, NY: McCraw-Hill.Google Scholar
- Giugėre, G. (2006). Collecting and analyzing data in multidimensional scaling experiments: A guide for psychologists using SPSS. Tutorials in Quantitative Methods for Psychology, 21(1), 26–37.Google Scholar
- Grifoll, J., Leiber, T., Moldt, C., Salado-Rasmussen, J., & Sørensen, M. (2012). Measuring the impact of external quality assurance—or: Preparing external quality assurance for a greater impact on higher education. In N. Ryan (Ed.), How does quality assurance make a difference? A selection of papers from the 7th European Quality Assurance Forum (pp. 27–35). Tallinn: Tallinn University Estonia.Google Scholar
- HaridusSILM. (2014). http://qlikview-pub.hm.ee/QvAJAXZfc/opendoc_hm.htm?document=htm_avalik.qvw&host=QVS%40qlikview-pub&anonymous=true. Accessed August 12, 2014.
- Kumar, J. R., & Triandis, H. C. (1997). Management of research and development organisations: Managing the unmanagable. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
- Liu, S. (2013). External quality audit in the UK: An impact analysis. External Quality Audit. Has it improved quality assurance in universities? A volume in Chandos Learning and Teaching Series. PP. 117–129.Google Scholar
- Manatos, M., Sarrico, C., & Rosa, M. (2014). Perceptions of academics on ESG implementation in Portugese universites. In EAIR 36th Annual Forum in Essen, Germany. http://eairaww.websites.xs4all.nl/forum/essen/PDF/1478.pdf. Accessed July 13, 2015.
- Newman, J., & McNeil, K. (1998). Conducting study research in the social sciences. Lanham: University Press of America.Google Scholar
- Oakland, J. S. (2003). TQM: Text with cases (3rd ed.). Oxford: Elsevier.Google Scholar
- Paewai, S. (2013). Multiple views of quality audits in New Zealand: A case for advancing systemic understanding. In M. Shah & C. S. Nair (Eds.), External quality audit: Has it improved quality assurance in universities?. Oxford: Chandos Publishing.Google Scholar
- Rosa, M., Sarrico, C., & Amaral, A. (2012). Academics’ perceptions on the purposes of quality assessment. Quality in Higher Education 18(3), 349–366. Academic Search Complete, Ipswich, MA. Accessed July 7, 2015.Google Scholar
- Saldana, J. (2012). The coding manual for qualitative research (2nd ed.). London: Sage.Google Scholar
- Standards and Guidelines for Quality Assurance in the European Higher Education Area (ESG). (2015). Brussels: Belgium.Google Scholar
- Sursock, A. (2015). Trends 2015: Learning and teaching in European universities. Brussels: EUA.Google Scholar
- Udam, M. (2013). Meeting state, market and academic concerns: Challenge for quality assurance of higher education institutions: Estonian case. Dissertations on Social Sciences. Tallinn University.Google Scholar
- Veiga, A., Magalhães, A. & Amaral, A. (2015). Differentiated integration and the Bologna process. Journal of Contemporary European Research 11(1).Google Scholar
- Vilgats, B. (2009). The impact of external quality assessment on universities: Estonian experience. Dissertations on Social Sciences. Tallinn University.Google Scholar
- Wainwright, D., & Calnan, M. (2002). Work stress: The making of a modern epidemic. Philadelphia: Open University Press.Google Scholar
- Zoqaqi, P. (2011). Impact of quality assurance on higher education. Regulating and improving impact. Royal University of Woman. http://www.anqahe.org/files/abu_dhabi_2011/FullPapers/Parsa_Zoqaqi.pdf. Accessed November 25, 2014.