Advertisement

Higher Education

, Volume 72, Issue 3, pp 307–322 | Cite as

Equity, institutional diversity and regional development: a cross-country comparison

  • Rómulo PinheiroEmail author
  • David Charles
  • Glen A. Jones
Article

Abstract

This paper investigates historical and current developments regarding governmental policies aimed at enhancing spatial equity (access) or decentralisation of higher education provision in three countries—Australia, Canada and Norway. We then shed light on the links or interrelations between policy objectives and initiatives and institutional diversity and regional development more broadly. We found evidence of convergence trends in Norway and Canada resulting in the rise of hybrid organisational forms, as well as the critical importance of policy frameworks in either maintaining or eroding the traditional binary divide. The cross-country data suggest a rather mixed or nuanced picture when it comes to regional development. Finally, the paper identifies a number of key challenges facing the systems, suggests possible ways of tackling them and sheds light on avenues for future research.

Keywords

Higher education governance Regionalisation of higher education Access to higher education Hybrid forms Norway Canada Australia Comparative analysis 

References

  1. Aamodt, P. O., & Kyvik, S. (2005). Access to higher education in the Nordic countries. In T. Tapper & D. Palfreyman (Eds.), Understanding mass higher education: Comparative perspectives on access (pp. 121–138). London, New York: Taylor and Francis.Google Scholar
  2. Bandias, S., Fuller, D., & Pfitzner, D. (2011). Vocational and higher education in Australia: A need for closer collaboration. Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management, 33(6), 583–594.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Battilana, J., & Dorado, S. (2010). Building sustainable hybrid organizations: The case of commercial microfinance organizations. Academy of Management Journal, 53(6), 1419–1440.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Battilana, J., & Lee, M. (2014). Advancing research on hybrid organizing–Insights from the study of social enterprises. The Academy of Management Annals, 8(1), 397–441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Benneworth, P., & Sanderson, A. (2009). The regional engagement of universities: Building capacity in a sparse innovation environment. Higher Education Management and Policy, 21(1), 1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Berg, L., & Pinheiro, R. (2016). Handling different institutional logics in the public sector: Comparing management in Norwegian universities and hospitals. In R. Pinheiro, F. Ramirez, K. Vrabæk & L. Geschwind (Eds.) Towards a comparative institutionalism: Forms, dynamics and logics across health care and higher education fields. Bingley: Emerald.Google Scholar
  7. Birnbaum, R. (1983). Maintaining diversity in higher education. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  8. Bramwell, A., & Wolfe, D. A. (2008). Universities and regional economic development: The entrepreneurial University of Waterloo. Research Policy, 37(8), 1175–1187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Charles, D. (2003). Universities and territorial development: Reshaping the regional role of UK universities. Local Economy, 18(1), 7–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Charles, D. (2006). Universities as key knowledge infrastructures in regional innovation systems. Innovation: The European Journal of Social Science Research, 19(1), 117–130.Google Scholar
  11. Clark, B. (2001). The entrepreneurial university: New foundations for collegiality, autonomy, and achievement. Higher Education Management, 13(2), 9–24.Google Scholar
  12. Codling, A., & Meek, V. L. (2006). Twelve propositions on diversity in higher education. Higher Education Management and Policy, 18(3), 1–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dennison, J. D., & Gallagher, P. (1986). Canada’s community colleges: A critical analysis. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press.Google Scholar
  14. DiMaggio, P., & Powell, W. (1983). The iron cage revisited: Institutional isomorphism and collective rationality in organizational fields. American Sociological Review, 48(2), 147–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Doutriaux, J. (1998). Canadian science parks, universities, and regional development. In J. Mothe & G. Paquet (Eds.), Local and regional systems of innovation (pp. 303–324). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Edwards, R., & Miller, K. (2008). Academic drift in vocational qualifications? Explorations through the lens of literacy. Journal of Vocational Education & Training, 60(2), 123–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Enders, J., & Boer, H. (2009). The mission impossible of the European university: Institutional confusion and institutional diversity. In A. Amaral, G. Neave, C. Musselin, & P. Maassen (Eds.), European integration and the governance of higher education and research (pp. 159–178). Netherlands: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Garrod, N., & Macfarlane, B. (2009). Challenging boundaries: Managing the integration of post-secondary education. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  19. Gornitzka, Å., Kogan, M., & Amaral, A. (2005). Reform and change in higher education: Analysing policy implementation. Dordrecht: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gornitzka, Å., & Maassen, P. A. M. (2000). Hybrid steering approaches with respect to European higher education. Higher Education Policy, 13(3), 267–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Greenwood, R., & Hinings, C. (1993). Understanding strategic change: The contribution of archetypes. Academy of Management Journal, 36(5), 1052–1081.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Huisman, J., & Morphew, C. (1998). Centralization and diversity: Evaluating the effects of government policies in USA and Dutch higher education. Higher Education Policy, 11(1), 3–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Isaksen, A., & Karlsen, J. (2010). Different modes of innovation and the challenge of connecting universities and industry: Case studies of two regional industries in Norway. European Planning Studies, 18(12), 1993–2008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Jaquette, O. (2013). Why do colleges become universities? Mission drift and the enrollment economy. Research in Higher Education, 54(5), 514–543.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Jones, G. A. (1996a). Governments, governance, and Canadian universities. In J. C. Smart (Ed.), Higher education: Handbook of theory and research. New York, NY: Agathon Press.Google Scholar
  26. Jones, G. A. (1996b). Diversity within a decentralized higher education system: The case of Canada. In V. K. Meek, L. Goedegebuure, O. Kivinen, & R. Rinne (Eds.), The mockers and the mocked: Comparative perspectives on differentiation, convergence and diversity in higher education (pp. 19–94). Oxford: Pergamo.Google Scholar
  27. Jones, G. A. (2009). Sectors, institutional types, and the challenges of shifting categories: A Canadian commentary. Higher Education Quarterly, 63(4), 371–383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Jones, G. A., & Skolnik, M. L. (2009). Degrees of opportunity: Broadening student access by increasing institutional differentiation in Ontario higher education. Toronto: Higher Education Quality Council of Ontario.Google Scholar
  29. Jones, G. A., & Young, S. (2004). “Madly off in all directions”: Higher education, marketization, and Canadian federalism. In P. Teixeira, B. Jongbloed, D. Dill, & A. Amaral (Eds.), Markets and higher education: Rhetoric or reality? (pp. 185–205). Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kuznetsova, Y. (2010). The response of the “non-vocational” disciplines towards increasing focus on employability in their curricula: A case study of the Faculty of humanitites at the University of Oslo. Oslo: University of Oslo.Google Scholar
  31. Kyvik, S. (2009). The dynamics of change in higher education: Expansion and contraction in an organisational field. Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
  32. Kyvik, S., & Larsen, I. M. (2010). Norway: Strong state support of research in university colleges. In S. Kyvik & B. Lepori (Eds.), The research mission of higher education institutions outside the higher education sector (pp. 219–236). Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
  33. Maassen, P., & Stensaker, B. (2011). The knowledge triangle, European higher education policy logics and policy implications. Higher Education, 61(6), 757–769. doi: 10.1007/s10734-010-9360-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Marshall, D. G. (2008). Differentiation by degrees: System design and the changing undergraduate environment in Canada. The Canadian Journal of Higher Education, 38(3), 1–20.Google Scholar
  35. Meek, V. K., Goedegebuure, L., & Huisman, J. (2000). Understanding diversity and differentiation in higher education: An overview. Higher Education Policy, 13(1), 1–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Morphew, C., & Huisman, J. (2002). Using institutional theory to reframe research on academic drift. Higher Education in Europe, 27, 491–506.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Mouwen, K. (2000). Strategy, structure and culture of the hybrid university: Towards the university of the 21st century. Tertiary Education & Management, 6(1), 47–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. OECD. (2007). Higher education and regions: Globally competitive, locally engaged. Paris: OECD Publishing.Google Scholar
  39. OECD. (2009). OECD regions at a glance. Paris: The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.Google Scholar
  40. OECD. (2013). Education at a glance 2014: OECD indicators. Paris: OECD Publishing.Google Scholar
  41. OECD. (2014). Education at a glance 2014: OECD indicators. Paris: OECD Publishing.Google Scholar
  42. Orton, J. D., & Weick, K. E. (1990). Loosely coupled systems: A reconceptualization. The Academiy of Management Review, 15(2), 203–223.Google Scholar
  43. Owen-Smith, J. (2003). From separate systems to a hybrid order: Accumulative advantage across public and private science at Research One universities. Research Policy, 32(6), 1081-1104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Pache, A.-C., & Santos, F. (2013). Inside the hybrid organization: Selective coupling as a response to competing institutional logics. Academy of Management Journal, 56(4), 972–1001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Pierson, P., & Skocpol, T. (2002). Historical institutionalism in contemporary political science. In I. Katznelson & H. V. Milner (Eds.), Political science: State of the discipline (pp. 693–721). New York: W.W. Norton.Google Scholar
  46. Pinheiro, R. (2012a). In the region, for the region? A comparative study of the institutionalisation of the regional mission of universities. Oslo: University of Oslo.Google Scholar
  47. Pinheiro, R. (2012b). Knowledge and the ‘Europe of the Regions’: The case of the High North. In M. Kwiek & P. Maassen (Eds.), National higher education reforms in a European context: Comparative reflections on Poland and Norway (pp. 179–208). Frankfurt: Peter Lang Publishing Group.Google Scholar
  48. Pinheiro, R., Benneworth, P., & Jones, G. A. (2012). Universities and regional development: A critical assessment of tensions and contradictions. Milton Park, New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  49. Pinheiro, R., Geschwind, L., & Aarrevaara, T. (2016). Mergers in higher education: The experience from Northern Europe. Cham, Heidelberg: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Pinheiro, R., & Kyvik, S. (2009). Norway: Separate but connected. In N. Garrod & B. Macfarlane (Eds.), Challenging boundaries: Managing the integration of post-secondary education (pp. 47–58). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  51. Pinheiro, R., & Stensaker, B. (2014). Designing the entrepreneurial university: The interpretation of a global idea. Public Organization Review, 14(4), 497–516.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Sa, C. (2010). Canadian provinces and public policies for university research. Higher Education Policy, 23(3), 335–357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Sotarauta, M., Dubarle, P., Gulbrandsen, M., & Nauwelaers, C. (2006). Supporting the contribution of higher education institutions to regional development, peer review report. Norway: Trøndelag (Mid-Norwegian Region).Google Scholar
  54. Thelen, K. (1999). Historical institutionalism in comparative politics. Annual Review of Political Science, 2(1), 369–404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Van Vught, F. (2007). Diversity and Differentiation in Higher Education Systems. In Paper presented at the CHER anniversary conference. City: Cape Town, 16 November.Google Scholar
  56. Van Vught, F. (2009). Mapping the Higher Education Landscape. London: Dordrecht, Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Vang, J., & Asheim, B. (2006). Regions, absorptive capacity and strategic coupling with high-tech TNCs lessons from India and China. Science Technology Society, 11(1), 39–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rómulo Pinheiro
    • 1
    Email author
  • David Charles
    • 2
  • Glen A. Jones
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Political Science and Management, Faculty of Social SciencesUniversity of AgderKristiansandNorway
  2. 2.Lincoln Business SchoolUniversity of LincolnBrayford Pool, LincolnUK
  3. 3.Department of Leadership, Higher and Adult Education, Ontario Institute for Studies in Education (OISE)University of TorontoTorontoCanada

Personalised recommendations