Cash, competition, or charity: international students and the global imaginary
- 1.3k Downloads
As the number of students traveling from the Global South to study in the Global North continues to grow (OECD in Education at a glance 2014: highlights. OECD Publishing. Retrieved from http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/education-at-a-glance-2014_eag_highlights-2014-en, 2014), we argue that it is necessary to broaden our conceptual approaches to the study of this dynamic. This article utilizes the framework of “global imaginaries” to examine the links between intensifying international student recruitment and international students’ experiences with racism. We suggest that both recruitment and racism are framed by a dominant global imaginary rooted in Western supremacy. This imaginary both makes Western higher education a desirable product in the global higher education market and shapes the reception of international students.
KeywordsInternational students Internationalization Racism Colonialism
- Andreotti, V. D. O., Stein, S., Ahenakew, C., & Hunt, D. (2015). Mapping interpretations of decolonization in the context of higher education. Decolonization: Indigeneity Education & Society, 4(1), 21–40.Google Scholar
- Association of Canadian Deans of Education (ACDE). (2014). Accord on the internationalization of education. Retrieved from http://www.csse-scee.ca/docs/acde/Accord_Internationalization_EN.pdf.
- Beck, K. (2012). Globalization/s: Reproduction and resistance in the internationalization of higher education. Canadian Journal of Education/Revue Canadienne de L’éducation, 35(3), 133–148.Google Scholar
- Biccum, A. (2010). Global citizenship and the legacy of empire: Marketing development. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
- British Columbia Ministry of Advanced Education. (2012). British Columbia’s international education strategy. Retrieved from http://www.aved.gov.bc.ca/internationaleducation/forms/InternationalEducationStrategy_WEB.PDF.
- Bryan, A. (2013). ‘The impulse to help’: (Post) humanitarianism in an era of the ‘new’ development advocacy. International Journal of Development Education and Global Learning, 5(2), 5–29.Google Scholar
- Brydon, D., & Dvorak, M. (2012). Crosstalk: Canadian and global imaginaries in dialogue. Waterloo: Wilfrid Laurier University Press.Google Scholar
- Canadian Federation of Students. (2013). Tuition fees for international students. Retrieved from http://cfs-fcee.ca/wp-content/uploads/sites/2/2013/05/2014-Factsheet-IntGRADS.2.pdf.
- CBC News. (2014, November 7). UBC’s vantage college: Canadians need not apply. Retrieved from http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/british-columbia/ubc-s-vantage-college-canadians-need-not-apply-1.2826142.
- Citizenship and Immigration Canada (CIC). (2013, February 26). Canada welcomes record number of international students in 2012. Retrieved from http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/department/media/releases/2013/2013-02-26.asp.
- Collins, F. L., Sidhu, R., Lewis, N., & Yeoh, B. S. (2014). Mobility and desire: International students and Asian regionalism in aspirational Singapore. Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education, 35(5), 661–676.Google Scholar
- Coloma, R. S. (2013). ‘Too Asian?’ On racism, paradox and ethno-nationalism. Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education, 34(4), 579–598.Google Scholar
- Cudmore, G. (2005). Globalization, internationalization, and the recruitment of international students in higher education, and in the Ontario colleges of applied arts and technology. The Canadian Journal of Higher Education, 35(1), 37–60.Google Scholar
- Department of Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development. (2014). Canada’s international education strategy: Harnessing our knowledge advantage to drive innovation and prosperity. Retrieved from http://international.gc.ca/global-markets-marches-mondiaux/assets/pdfs/overview-apercu-eng.pdf.
- Dudziak, M. L. (2011). Cold War civil rights: Race and the image of American Democracy: Race and the Image of American Democracy. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
- Findlay, S. & Kohler, N. (2010, November 10). The enrolment controversy: Worries that efforts in the U.S. to limit enrolment of Asian students in top universities may migrate to Canada. MacLeans. Retrieved from http://www2.macleans.ca/2010/11/10/too-asian/3/.
- Gopal, A. (2014). Canada’s immigration to attract international students. International Higher Education, 75, 19–21.Google Scholar
- Grebennikov, L., & Skaines, I. (2007). Comparative analysis of student surveys on international student experience in higher education. Journal of Institutional Research, 13(1), 97–116.Google Scholar
- Guo, S., & Jamal, Z. (2007). Nurturing cultural diversity in higher education: A critical review of selected models. Canadian Journal of Higher Education, 37(3), 27–49.Google Scholar
- Jefferess, D. (2012). The ‘me to we’ social enterprise: Global education as lifestyle brand. Critical Literacy: Theories and Practices, 6(1), 18–30.Google Scholar
- Kapoor, I. (2014). Psychoanalysis and development: Contributions, examples, limits. Third World Quarterly, 35(7), 1120–1143.Google Scholar
- Madge, C., Raghuram, P., & Noxolo, P. (2014). Conceptualizing international education From international student to international study. Progress in Human Geography. doi:10.1177/0309132514526442.
- National Academy of Sciences. (2005). Policy implications of international graduate students and postdoctoral scholars in the United States. Retrieved from http://www.nap.edu/catalog/11289/policyimplications-of-international-graduate-students-and-postdoctoral-scholars-in-the-united-states.
- Nokkala, T. (2006). Knowledge society discourse in internationalization of higher education. Revista Española de Educación Comparada, 12, 171–201.Google Scholar
- OECD. (2014). Education at a glance 2014: Highlights. OECD Publishing. Retrieved from http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/education-at-a-glance-2014_eag_highlights-2014-en.
- Roslyn Kunin & Associates, Inc. (2012, May). Economic impact of international education in Canada—An update: Final report. Retrieved from http://www.international.gc.ca/education/assets/pdfs/economic_impact_en.pdf.
- Scott, C., Safdar, S., Desai Trilokekar, R., & El Masri, A. (2015). International students as ‘ideal immigrants’ in Canada: A disconnect between policy makers’ assumptions and the lived experiences of international students. Comparative and International Education/Éducation Comparée et Internationale, 43(3), 5.Google Scholar
- Sherry, M., Thomas, P., & Chui, W. H. (2010). International students: A vulnerable student population. Higher Education, 60(1), 33–46.Google Scholar
- Silva, D. F. (2007). Toward a global idea of race. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
- Spivak, G. C. (1990). The post-colonial critic: Interviews, strategies, dialogues. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Steger, M. (2008). The rise of the global imaginary: Political ideologies from the French revolution to the global war on terror. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Terzian, S. G., & Osborne, L. A. (2006). Postwar era precedents and the ambivalent quest for international students at the University of Florida. Journal of Studies in International Education, 10(3), 286–306.Google Scholar
- Thobani, S. (2007). Exalted subjects: Studies in the making of race and nation in Canada. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar
- Tlostanova, M. V., & Mignolo, W. (2012). Learning to unlearn: Decolonial reflections from Eurasia and the Americas. Columbus: The Ohio State University Press.Google Scholar
- Trilokekar, R. D., & Kizilbash, Z. (2013). Imagine: Canada as a leader in international education. How can Canada benefit from the Australian experience? Canadian Journal of Higher Education, 43(2), 1–26.Google Scholar
- University of British Columbia. (2014). Plan and promise: The UBC plan—International engagement. Retrieved from http://strategicplan.ubc.ca/the-plan/international-engagement/.
- Volet, S. E., & Jones, C. (2012). Cultural transitions in higher education: Individual adaptation, transformation and engagement. In S. Karabenick & T. C. Urdan (Eds.), Transitions across schools and cultures (pp. 241–284). Bingley, UK: Emerald Group Publishing Limited.Google Scholar