University access for disadvantaged children: a comparison across countries
In this paper, we consider whether certain countries are particularly adept (or particularly poor) at getting children from disadvantaged homes to study for a bachelor’s degree. A series of university access models are estimated for four English-speaking countries (England, Canada, Australia and the USA), which include controls for comparable measures of academic achievement at age 15. Our results suggest that socioeconomic differences in university access are more pronounced in England and Canada than Australia and the USA and that cross-national variation in the socioeconomic gap remains even once we take account of differences in academic achievement. We discuss the implications of our findings for the creation of more socially mobile societies.
KeywordsUniversity access Educational inequality Social mobility PISA
- Anders, J. (2012). The link between household income, university applications and university attendance. Fiscal Studies, 33(2), 185–210.Google Scholar
- Berger, J.; Motte, A. & Parkin, A. (2008). The price of knowledge: Access and student finance in Canada. The Canada Millennium Scholarship Foundation.Google Scholar
- Blanden, Jo. (2013). Cross-national rankings of intergenerational mobility: A comparison of approaches from economics and sociology. Journal of Economic Surveys, 27(1), 38–73.Google Scholar
- Boliver, V. (2013). How fair is access to more prestigious UK Universities?. British Journal of Sociology, 64(2), 344–364.Google Scholar
- Carneiro, P., & Heckman, J. (2002). The evidence on credit constraints in post-secondary schooling. Economic Journal, 112(482), 705–734.Google Scholar
- Chevalier, A. & Conlon, G. (2003). Does it pay to attend a prestigious university?, Centre for the Economics of Education (CEE) Discussion paper Number 33. http://cee.lse.ac.uk/ceedps/ceedp22.pdf. Accessed 18th October 2012.
- Chowdry, H., Crawford, C., Dearden, L., Goodman, A., & Vignoles, A. (2013). Widening participation in higher education: Analysis using linked administrative data. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series A, 176(2), 431–57.Google Scholar
- Cunha, F., Heckman, J., & Lochner, L. (2006). Interpreting the evidence on life cycle skill formation. In Eric Hanushek & Finis Welch (Eds.), Handbook of the economics of education. Amsterdam: Holland North.Google Scholar
- Ermisch, J., & Del Bono, E. (2012). Inequality in Achievements during Adolescence. In J. Ermisch, M. Jantti, & T. Smeeding (Eds.), Inequality from childhood to adulthood: A cross-national perspective on the transmission of advantage. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
- Ermisch, J., Jantti, M., & Smeeding, T. (2012). Inequality from childhood to adulthood: A cross-national perspective on the transmission of advantage. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
- Finnie, R. & Mueller, R. (2008). The effects of family income, parental education and other background factors on access to post-secondary education in Canada: Evidence from the YITS’, MESA research paper 2008-2. http://higheredstrategy.com/mesa/pub/pdf/MESA_Finnie_Mueller.pdf. Accessed 25th October 2012.
- Groot, W. & van den Brink,H. (2006). What does education do to our health? measuring the effects of education on health and civic engagement: Proceedings of the Copenhagen Symposium. http://www.oecd.org/edu/innovation-education/37425763.pdf. Accessed 16 Jan 2014.
- Haveman, R., & Wolfe, B. (1995). The determinants of children’s attainments: A Review of methods and findings. Journal of Economic Literature, 33(4), 1829–1878.Google Scholar
- Ingels, S., Pratt, D., Rogers, J., Siegel, P., & Stutts, E. (2005). ‘Education longitudinal study of 2002: Base-year to first follow-up data file documentation’, US department of education. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics.Google Scholar
- Marcenaro-Gutierrez, O., Galindo-Rueda, F., & Vignoles. A. (2007). Who actually goes to University?. Empirical Economics, 32(2), 333–357.Google Scholar
- Micklewright, J. & Schnepf, S. (2006). Response bias in England in PISA 2000 and 2003, department for education and skills Research Report 771. www.education.gov.uk/publications/eOrderingDownload/RR771.pdf. Accessed 18th October 2012.
- Micklewright, J., Schnepf, S. & Skinner, C. (2010) Non-response biases in surveys of school children: The case of the english PISA samples, DoQSS working paper. http://ideas.repec.org/p/qss/dqsswp/1004.html. Accessed 26th Nov 2012.
- OECD. (2008). Education at a glance 2008: OECD indicators. Paris: OECD.Google Scholar
- OECD (2011). stats.oecd.org.
- OECD. (2012). Education at a glance 2012: OECD indicators. Paris: OECD.Google Scholar
- PISA (2009). Programme for International Student Assessment. OECD: Paris.Google Scholar
- Smeeding, T., Erikson, R., & Jantti, M. (2011). Persistence, privilege and parenting: The comparative study of intergenerational mobility. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar