Understanding the programmatic and contextual forces that influence participation in a government-sponsored international student-mobility program
Although prior research establishes the forces that “push” and “pull” students to participate in foreign study, the transferability of findings from earlier studies is limited by the absence of theoretical grounding. In addition, relatively little is known about how a government-sponsored student mobility program promotes foreign study in a nation with a transitioning economy. Using case study methods, this study explores the characteristics of students who participate in such a program and identifies the programmatic characteristics and contextual forces that promote and limit participation. The findings shed light on the appropriate theoretical perspectives for understanding student participation in a government-sponsored mobility program and illustrate the need to consider how aspects of the national cultural, economic, and political context influence participation. The findings also raise several questions about how an international student mobility program should be structured to encourage participation and maximize benefits to individuals and society within a particular national context.
KeywordsInternational student mobility Human capital Public policy National context
- Acemoglu, D., & Robinson, J. A. (2012). Why nations fail: The origins of power, prosperity, and poverty. New York, NY: Crown Publishing Group.Google Scholar
- Barro, R., & Lee, J. W. (2013). A new data set of educational attainment in the world, 1950–2010. Journal of Development Economics, 104, 184–198.Google Scholar
- Bird, A., & Stevens, M. J. (2008). Assessing global leadership competencies. In M. Mendenhall, J. Osland, A., Bird, G. Oddou & M. Maznevski (Eds.), Global leadership: Research, practice and development (pp. 113–140). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Bureau of Economic and Business Affairs (2012). 2012 Investment climate statement: Kazakhstan. http://www.state.gov/e/eb/rls/othr/ics/2012/191174.htm. Accessed 23 Aug 2013.
- Celik, S. (2009). In their own words: Government sponsored Turkish EFL teachers. Are we really investing, or wasting? (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. (3390262).Google Scholar
- Center for International Programs (2012). Official letter from Center for International Programs to Nazarbayev University Graduate School of Education #15-7/9301.Google Scholar
- Center for International Programs (2013a), Info graphics for the process of participation in the Bolashak scholarship selection. http://bolashak.gov.kz/projects/info/index.html. Accessed 17 Oct 2013.
- Center for International Programs (2013b). Official letter from Center for International programs to Nazarbayev University Graduate School of Education #112.Google Scholar
- Center for International Programs (2013c). History of the Program. http://bolashak.gov.kz/index.php/ru/o-stipendii/istoriya-razvitiya. Accessed 17 October 2013.
- Central Intelligence Agency (2013). The world factbook. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2119rank.html. Accessed 29 Aug 2013.
- Choudaha, R., Orosz, K., & Chang, L. (2012). Not all international students are the same: Understanding segments, mapping behavior. New York: WES Research & Advisory Services.Google Scholar
- Dee, P. (2010). International student movements and the effects of barriers to trade in higher education services. In C. C. Findlay & W. G. Tierney (Eds.), Globalisation and tertiary education in the Asia-Pacific: The changing nature of a dynamic market (pp. 39–71). Singapore: World Scientific.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Edelstein, R. J., & Douglass, J. A. (2012). Comprehending the international initiatives of universities: A taxonomy of modes of engagement and institutional logics. Center for Studies in Higher Education Research and Occasional Paper Series CSHE 19.12. University of California, Berkeley.Google Scholar
- Flander, A. (2011). Is a mobile student also a more employable student? Research on employers’ perceptions on academic mobility. In K. Miklavic (Ed.), Paths to internationalization: Higher education policies, trends, and strategies in Europe and Slovenia (pp. 86–120). Centre of the Republic of Slovenia for Mobility and European Educational and Training Programs.Google Scholar
- Foster, H. (2013). Bolashak to add short-term student experience abroad to its degree-focused repertoire, Tengri News. http://en.tengrinews.kz/opinion/406/. Accessed 30 Aug 2013.
- Heyneman, S. (2013). Higher education institutions: Why they matter and why corruption puts them at risk. In G. Sweeney, K. Despota, & S. Lindner (Eds.), Global corruption report: Education, transparency international (pp. 101–107). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Irsaliyev, S. A. (2004). Sostoyanie, problemy i puti razvitiya mezhdunarodnogo sotrudnichestva v oblasti obrazovaniya. KZ: Astana.Google Scholar
- Lee, J. J., Maldonado-Maldonado, A., & Rhoades, G. (2006). The political economy of international student flows: Patterns, ideas, and propositions. In J. C. Smart (Ed.) Higher Education: Handbook of Theory and Research (Vol. 21, pp. 545–590). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
- Luchilo, L. (2009). Los impactos del programa de becas del CONACYT mexicano: Un análisis sobre la trayectoria ocupacional de los ex becarios (1997-2006). Revista Iberoamericana De Ciencia, Tecnología y Sociedad, 5(13), 175–206.Google Scholar
- Macready, C., & Tucker, C. (2011). Who goes where and why? An overview and analysis of global educational mobility. New York: Institute of International Education.Google Scholar
- Maringe, F., & Carter, S. (2007). International students’ motivations for studying in UK HE. Insights into the choice and decision making of African students. International Journal of Educational Management, 21, 459–475.Google Scholar
- Mazzarol, T., & Soutar, G. (2002). “Push-pull” factors influencing international student destination choice. International Journal of Education Management, 16, 82–90.Google Scholar
- McMahon, W. W. (2009). Higher learning, greater good: The private and social benefits of higher education. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
- Merrill, M. (2010). Central Asia: Increasing under diversity. International Higher Education, 59, 26–28.Google Scholar
- Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan. (2011). Strategy of development of international scholarship of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan “Bolashak” 2011–2015. Astana: Author.Google Scholar
- Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan. (2010). State program of education development in the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2011–2020. Astana: Author.Google Scholar
- Netz, N., Orr, D., Gwosc, C., & Hub, B. (2012). What deters students from studying abroad? Evidence from Austria, Switzerland, Germany, the Netherlands, and Poland. Discussion paper prepared for the Federal Ministry of Education and Research. Hannover: Hochschul-Informations-System GmbH.Google Scholar
- Olcott, M. B. (2010). Kazakhstan: Unfulfilled promise? Revised edition. Washington, D.C.: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.Google Scholar
- Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. (2007). Higher education in Kazakhstan. Paris: OECD Publishing.Google Scholar
- Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. (2012). Education at a Glance 2012: OECD Indicators. Paris: OECD Publishing.Google Scholar
- Paulsen, M. B. (2001). The economics of the public sector: The nature and role of public policy in the finance of higher education. In M. B. Paulsen & J. C. Smart (Eds.), The finance of higher education: Theory, research, policy, and practice (pp. 95–132). New York: Agathon Press.Google Scholar
- Perna, L. W., & Steele, P. (2011). The role of context in understanding the contributions of financial aid to college opportunity. Teachers College Record, 113, 895–933.Google Scholar
- Schwab, K. (2012). The global competitiveness report: 2012–2013. Geneva: World Economic Forum.Google Scholar
- Smailov, A. A. (2013). Kazakhstan v cifrah. Astana: Statistics Agency of Kazakhstan.Google Scholar
- Statistics Agency of Kazakhstan. (2012). Gross regional product per capita. Astana: Author.Google Scholar
- Stetar, J., & Kurakbayev, K. (2010). Goals in Kazakhstan. International Higher Education, 59, 28–29.Google Scholar
- UNESCO Institute for Statistics (2012). Global education digest 2012. http://www.uis.unesco.org/Education/Pages/global-education-digest.aspx. Accessed 23 Aug 2013.
- Varghese, N. V. (2008). Globalization of higher education and cross-border student mobility. Paris: UNESCO.Google Scholar
- Yin, R. K. (2003a). Applications of case study research (2nd ed.). Applied Social Research Methods Series (Vol. 34). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
- Yin, R. K. (2003b). Case study research: Design and methods (3rd ed.). Applied Social Research Methods Series (Vol. 5). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
- Zhumagulov, B. (2013). Speech of the Minister of Education and Science at Government Meeting. http://www.edu.gov.kz/ru/about/o_ministerstve0/ministr/vystuplenija/vystuplenie/?tx_ttnews%5Btt_news%5D=4821&cHash=30513adc08e0ad410e85b6cbb8fb6492. Accessed 3 Sep 2013.