Skip to main content

Planning the deployment of multiple sinks and relays in wireless sensor networks

Abstract

Wireless sensor networks are subject to failures. Deployment planning should ensure that when a data sink or sensor node fails, the remaining network can still be connected, and so may require placing multiple sinks and relay nodes in addition to sensor nodes. For network performance requirements, there may also be path-length constraints for each sensor node. We propose four algorithms, Greedy-MSP and GRASP-MSP to solve the problem of multiple sink placement, and Greedy-MSRP and GRASP-MSRP for the problem of multiple sink and relay placement. Greedy-MSP and GRASP-MSP minimise the deployment cost, while ensuring that each sensor node in the network is double-covered, i.e. it has two length-constrained paths to two sinks. Greedy-MSRP and GRASP-MSRP deploys sinks and relays to minimise the deployment cost and to guarantee that all sensor nodes in the network are double-covered and noncritical. A sensor node is noncritical if upon its removal, all remaining sensor nodes still have length-constrained paths to sinks. We evaluate the algorithms empirically and show that these algorithms outperform the closely-related algorithms from the literature for the lowest total deployment cost.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13
Fig. 14
Fig. 15
Fig. 16
Fig. 17
Fig. 18
Fig. 19
Fig. 20
Fig. 21
Fig. 22
Fig. 23
Fig. 24

Notes

  1. For simplicity we assume bi-directional links, but this could be easily relaxed by specifying a more complex connectivity graph.

References

  • Akyildiz, I.F., Su, W., Sankarasubramaniam, Y., Cayirci, E.: Wireless sensor networks: a survey. Comput. Netw. 38(4), 393–422 (2002)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Archer, B., Weisstein, E.W.: Lagrange Interpolating Polynomial. MathWorld-A Wolfram Web Resource. http://mathworld.wolfram.com/LagrangeInterpolatingPolynomial.html. (2011). 1 Sept 2011

  • Bavelas, A.: A mathematical model for group structure. Hum. Organ. 7, 16–30 (1948)

    Google Scholar 

  • Beutel, J., Römer, K., Ringwald, M., Woehrle, M.: Deployment techniques for wireless sensor networks. In: Ferrari, G. (ed.) Sensor Networks: Where Theory Meets Practice, pp. 219–248. Springer, Berlin (2009)

    Google Scholar 

  • Brandes, U.: On variants of shortest-path betweenness centrality and their generic computation. Soc. Netw. 30(2), 136–145 (2008)

    Article  MathSciNet  Google Scholar 

  • Bredin, J.L., Demaine, E.D., Hajiaghayi, M., Rus, D.: Deploying sensor networks with guaranteed capacity and fault tolerance. In: Proceedings of the 6th ACM International Symposium on Mobile Ad Hoc Networking and Computing (MobiHoc’05), pp. 309–319 (2005)

  • Cambazard, H., Mehta, D., O’Sullivan, B., Quesada, L., Ruffini, M., Payne, D., Doyle, L.: A combinatorial optimisation approach to the design of dual-parented long-reach passive optical networks. In: Proceedings of the 23rd IEEE International Conference Tools with Artificial Intelligence (ICTAI’11), pp. 785–792 (2011)

  • Feo, T.A., Resende, M.G.C.: A probabilistic heuristic for a computationally difficult set covering problem. Oper. Res. Lett. 8, 67–71 (1989)

    Article  MATH  MathSciNet  Google Scholar 

  • Feo, T.A., Resende, M.G.C.: Greedy randomized adaptive search procedures. J. Glob. Optim. 6, 109–133 (1995)

    Article  MATH  MathSciNet  Google Scholar 

  • Freeman, L.: Centrality in social networks conceptual clarification. Soc. Netw. 1(3), 215–239 (1979)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Guo, Y., Kong, F., Zhu, D., Tosun, A.S., Deng, Q.: Sensor placement for lifetime maximization in monitoring oil pipelines. In: Proceedings of the 1st ACM/IEEE International Conference on Cyber-Physical Systems (ICCPS), pp. 61–68 (2010)

  • Han, X., Cao, X., Lloyd, E.L., Shen, C.C.: Fault-tolerant relay node placement in heterogeneous wireless sensor networks. IEEE Trans Mob. Comput. 9(5), 643–656 (2010)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kashyap, A., Khuller, S., Shayman, M.: Relay placement for fault tolerance in wireless networks in higher dimensions. Comput. Geom. Theory Appl. 44(4), 206–215 (2011)

    Article  MATH  MathSciNet  Google Scholar 

  • Lanza-Gutierrez, J.M., Gomez-Pulido, J.A., Vega-Rodriguez, M.A., Sanchez-Perez, J.M.: A parallel evolutionary approach to solve the relay node placement problem in wireless sensor networks. In: Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on Genetic and Evolutionary Computation (GECCO’13), pp. 1157–1164 (2013)

  • Mahmud, S., Wu, H., Xue, J.: Efficient energy balancing aware multiple base station deployment for WSNs. In: Proceedings of the 8th European Conference on Wireless Sensor Networks (EWSN’11), pp. 179–194 (2011)

  • Misra, S., Hong, S.D., Xue, G., Tang, J.: Constrained relay node placement in wireless sensor networks to meet connectivity and survivability requirements. In: Proceedings of the 27th Annual IEEE Conference on Computer Communications (INFOCOM’08), pp. 281–285 (2008)

  • Moteiv: Tmote Sky Datasheet. http://www.eecs.harvard.edu/~konrad/projects/shimmer/references/tmote-sky-datasheet (2010). 30 April 2010

  • Oyman, E.I., Ersoy, C.: Multiple sink network design problem in large scale wireless sensor networks. In: Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC’04), pp. 3663–3667 (2004)

  • Pu, J., Xiong, Z., Lu, X.: Fault-tolerant deployment with \(k\)-connectivity and partial \(k\)-connectivity in sensor networks. Wirel. Commun. Mob. Comput. 9(7), 909–919 (2008)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Resende, M.G.C., Ribeiro, C.C.: Greedy randomized adaptive search procedures. In: Glover, F., Kochenberger, G. (eds.) State of the Art Handbook in Metaheuristics, pp. 219–249. Kluwer academic publishers, Boston (2002)

    Google Scholar 

  • Sitanayah, L.: GRASP-MSRP Dataset. http://www.cs.ucc.ie/~ls3/grasp_msrp/dataset/ (2014). 25 June 2014

  • Sitanayah, L., Brown, K.N., Sreenan, C.J.: Fault-tolerant relay deployment based on length-constrained connectivity and rerouting centrality in wireless sensor networks. In: Proceedings of the 9th European Conference on Wireless Sensor Networks (EWSN’12), pp. 115–130 (2012)

  • Sitanayah, L., Brown, K.N., Sreenan, C.J.: Multiple sink and relay placement in wireless sensor networks. In: Proceedings of the 1st Workshop Artificial Intelligence for Telecommunications and Sensor Networks (WAITS’12), 20th European Conference on Artificial Intelligence (ECAI’12), pp. 18–23 (2012)

  • Sitanayah, L., Sreenan, C.J., Brown, K.N.: ER-MAC: A hybrid MAC protocol for emergency response wireless sensor networks. In: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Sensor Technologies and Applications (SENSORCOMM’10), pp. 244–249 (2010)

  • Sitanayah, L., Sreenan, C.J., Brown, K.N.: A hybrid MAC protocol for emergency response wireless sensor networks. Ad Hoc Netw. 20, 77–95 (2014)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • VINT: The Network Simulator-ns-2 (2010). http://www.isi.edu/nsnam/ns/. 30 April 2010

  • Wenming, S., Chuanhe, H., Mingkai, S., Yong, C., Zhe, C.: Indoor localization scheme in wireless sensor networks using spatial information. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Wireless Communications, Networking and Mobile Computing (WiCOM’06), pp. 1–5 (2006)

  • Xu, X., Liang, W.: Placing optimal number of sinks in sensor networks for network lifetime maximization. In: Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC’11) (2011)

  • Youssef, W., Younis, M.: Intelligent gateway placement for reduced data latency in wireless sensor networks. In: Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC’07), pp. 3805–3810 (2007)

Download references

Acknowledgments

This research is funded by the Irish Higher Education Authority PRTLI-IV research program through the NEMBES project and by the Science Foundation Ireland as part of the CTVR project (SFI CSET 10/CE/I1853).

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Lanny Sitanayah.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Sitanayah, L., Brown, K.N. & Sreenan, C.J. Planning the deployment of multiple sinks and relays in wireless sensor networks. J Heuristics 21, 197–232 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10732-014-9256-z

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10732-014-9256-z

Keywords

  • Wireless sensor networks
  • Network deployment planning
  • Multiple sink and relay placement