Advertisement

Group Decision and Negotiation

, Volume 22, Issue 3, pp 389–405 | Cite as

Cultural Perspective Taking in Cross-Cultural Negotiation

  • Sujin LeeEmail author
  • Wendi L. Adair
  • Seong-Jee Seo
Article

Abstract

This study introduces the construct cultural perspective taking in negotiation, the active consideration of the other party’s culturally-normative negotiation behaviors prior to negotiation, and compares the effect of cultural perspective taking (CPT) versus alternative-focused perspective taking (PT) in cross-cultural negotiations. 160 undergraduate students of North American and East Asian ethnicity in the United States and Canada participated in a simulated cross-cultural buyer-seller negotiation in a laboratory study. Participants were randomly assigned to CPT or PT condition. Results show that negotiators who engaged in CPT claimed more value than those who engaged in PT. And when both East Asian and North American negotiators engaged in CPT, East Asian negotiators claimed more value. CPT had no effect on value creation. This study highlights that learning about the other culture before a cross-cultural encounter benefits value claiming, but not necessarily value creation.

Keywords

Negotiation Perspective taking Culture Value claiming 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Acuff FL (1997) How to negotiate with anyone anywhere around the world. AMACOM, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  2. Adair WL (2003) Integrative sequences and negotiation outcome in same- and mixed-culture negotiations. Int J Confl Manag 14: 273–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Adair WL, Okumura T, Brett JM (2001) Negotiation behavior when cultures collide: the US and Japan. J Appl Psychol 86: 371–385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Adair WL, Taylor MS, Tinsley CH (2009) Starting out on the right foot: negotiation schemas when cultures collide. Negot Confl Manag Res 2: 138–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Adler NJ (1997) International dimensions of organizational behavior. 3. South-West College Publishing Company, CincinattiGoogle Scholar
  6. Brett JM (2001) Negotiating globally. Jossey-Bass, San FranciscoGoogle Scholar
  7. Brett JM, Crotty S (2008) Culture and negotiation. In: Smith PB, Peterson MF, Thomas DC (eds) Handbook of cross cultural management research. Sage, CA, pp 269–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brett JM, Okumura T (1998) Inter- and intra-culture negotiation: US and Japanese negotiators. Acad Manag J 41: 495–510CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chartrand TL, Bargh JA (1999) The chameleon effect: the perception-behavior link and social interaction. J Pers Soc Psychol 76: 893–910CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Davis MH, Conklin L, Smith A, Luce C (1996) Effect of perspective taking on the cognitive representation of persons: a merging of self and other. J Pers Soc Psychol 70: 713–726CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Earley PC, Ang S (2003) Cultural intelligence: individual interactions across cultures. Stanford University Press, CaliforniaGoogle Scholar
  12. Epley N, Caruso EM, Bazerman MH (2006) When perspective taking increases taking: reactive egoism in social interaction. J Pers Soc Psychol 91: 872–889CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Fisher R, Ury W, Patton B (1991) Getting to yes. Penguin Books, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  14. Fu JH, Morris MW, Lee S, Chao M, Chiu C, Hong Y (2007) Epistemic motives and cultural conformity: need for closure, culture, and context as determinants of conflict judgments. J Pers Soc Psychol 92: 191–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Galinsky AD (2002) The self and the group: the role of perspective-taking in improving out-group evaluations. In: Neale MA, Mannix EA, Sondak H (eds) Research on managing groups and teams. JAI Press, Greenwich, pp 5–113Google Scholar
  16. Galinsky AD, Ku G, Wang CS (2005) Perspective-taking and self-other overlap: fostering social bonds and facilitating social coordination. Group Process Intergroup Relat 8: 109–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Galinsky AD, Maddux WM, Gilin D, White JB (2008) Why it pays to get inside the head of your opponent: the differential effects of perspective taking and empathy in negotiations. Psychol Sci 19: 378–384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Galinsky AD, Moskowitz GB (2000) Perspective-taking: decreasing stereotype expression, stereotype accessibility, and in-group favoritism. J Pers Soc Psychol 78: 708–724CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Galinsky AD, Mussweiler T (2001) First offers as anchors: the role of perspective-taking and negotiator focus. J Pers Soc Psychol 81: 657–669CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gelfand MJ, Christakopoulou S (1999) Culture and negotiator cognition: judgment accuracy and negotiation processes in individualistic and collectivistic cultures. Organ Behav Hum Decis Process 79: 248–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gelfand MJ, Higgins M, Hishii LH, Raver JL, Dominguiz A, Murakami R, Yamaguchi S, Toyama M (2002) Culture and egocentric perceptions of fairness in conflict and negotiation. J Appl Psychol 87: 833–845CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gelfand MJ, McCusker C (2001) Culture, metaphor and negotiation. In: Gannon M, Newman KL (eds) Handbook of cross-cultural management. Blackwell Publishers, New York, pp 292–314Google Scholar
  23. Gelfand MJ, Nishii LH, Holcombe KM, Dyer M, Ohbuchi K, Fukuno M (2001) Cultural influences on cognitive representations of conflict: interpretations of conflict episodes in the United States and Japan. J Appl Psychol 86: 1059–1074CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gelfand MJ, Realo A (1999) Individualism-collectivism and accountability in intergroup negotiations. J Appl Psychol 84: 721–736CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Insko CA, Schopler J, Hoyle RH, Dardis GJ, Graetz KA (1990) Individual-group discontinuity as a function of fear and greed. J Pers Soc Psychol 58: 68–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kern MC, Lee S, Aytung ZG, Brett JM (in press) Bridging social distance in inter-cultural negotiation: “You” and the bi-cultural negotiator. Intl J Confl ManagGoogle Scholar
  27. Lee S (2005) Judgment of ingroups and outgroups in intra-and inter-cultural negotiation: the role of interdependent self-construal in judgment timing. Group Decis Negot 14: 43–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Lee S, Brett JM, Park JH (2010) The East Asians’ social heterogeneity: differences in negotiation norms among China, Japan and Korea. Paper presented at the international association for conflict management annual conference, BostonGoogle Scholar
  29. Liu M (2011) Cultural differences in goal-directed interaction patterns in negotiation. Negot Confl Manag Res 4: 178–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Moran RT, Harris PR, Moran SV (2007) Managing cultural differences: global leadership strategies for the 21st century. Elesiver, BurlingtonGoogle Scholar
  31. Morrison T, Conaway WA, Borden GA (1994) Kiss, bow or shake hands. Adams Media Corp., HolbrookGoogle Scholar
  32. Nadler J, Thompson L, Morris M (2008) New car. In: Brett JM (eds) Teaching materials for negotiations and decision making, Northwestern University. Dispute Resolution Research Center, EvanstonGoogle Scholar
  33. Neale MA, Bazerman MH (1983) The role of perspective taking ability in negotiating under different forms of arbitration. Ind Labor Relat Rev 36: 378–388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Pearce WB, Stamm KR (1973) Coorientational states and interpersonal communication. In: Clarke P (eds) New models of mass communication research. Sage, Beverly Hills, pp 177–203Google Scholar
  35. Sebenius JK (1992) Negotiation analysis: a characterization and review. Manag Sci 38: 18–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Thompson L (1993) The impact of negotiation on intergroup relations. J Exp Soc Psychol 29: 304–325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Tinsley CH, O’Connor KM, Sullivan BA (2002) Tough guys finish last: the perils of a distributive reputation. Organ Behav Hum Decis Process 88: 621–642CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Tinsley CH, Pillutla MM (1998) Negotiating in the United States and Hong Kong. J Int Bus Stud 29: 711–728CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Todd AR, Bodenhausen GV, Richeson JA, Galinsky AD (2011) Perspective taking combats automatic expressions of racial bias. J Pers Soc Psychol 100: 1027–1042CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Weiss SE (1994) Negotiating with “Romans” - Parts 1 & 2”. Sloan Manag Rev 35: 51–99Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Management Science, Graduate School of Innovation and Technology ManagementKAISTDaejeonRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyUniversity of WaterlooWest WaterlooCanada
  3. 3.Graduate School of Innovation and Technology ManagementKAISTDaejeonRepublic of Korea

Personalised recommendations