Advertisement

Group Decision and Negotiation

, Volume 17, Issue 1, pp 13–30 | Cite as

Anger in social conflict: Cross-situational comparisons and suggestions for the future

  • Gerben A. Van KleefEmail author
  • Eric van Dijk
  • Wolfgang Steinel
  • Fieke Harinck
  • Ilja van Beest
Open Access
Article

Abstract

This paper reviews research on the role of anger in conflict. We distinguish between intrapersonal and interpersonal effects of anger, the former referring to the impact of parties’ feelings of anger on their own behavior and the latter referring to the impact of one parties’ anger on the other’s behavior. We further compare the effects of anger across a variety of conflict settings, including negotiation, ultimatum bargaining, prisoner’s dilemma, resource dilemma, and coalition formation. At the intrapersonal level, anger is associated with competition in all conflict settings. In contrast, the interpersonal effects of anger differ across situations, with anger sometimes eliciting cooperation, sometimes eliciting competition, and sometimes having no effect. Based on the research reviewed, we conclude that the interpersonal effects of anger in conflict are determined by the level of interdependence of the parties, their information processing tendencies, and the justifiability of the anger expressions.

Keywords

Anger Conflict Negotiation Ultimatum bargaining Prisoner’s dilemma Resource dilemma Coalition formation 

References

  1. Allred KG (1999). Anger and retaliation: toward an understanding of impassioned conflict in organizations. Res Negotiat Organ 7: 27–58 Google Scholar
  2. Allred KG, Mallozzi JS, Matsui F and Raia CP (1997). The influence of anger and compassion on negotiation performance. Organ Behav Human Decis Process 70: 175–187 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Averill JR (1982). Anger and aggression. Springer, New York Google Scholar
  4. Baron RA (1990). Environmentally induced positive affect: It’s impact on self-efficacy, task performance, negotiation and conflict. J Appl Soc Psychol 20: 368–384 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Baron RA, Fortin SP, Frei RL, Hauver LA and Shack ML (1990). Reducing organizational conflict: the role of socially-induced positive affect. Int J Conflict Manage 1: 133–152 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Barry B, Fulmer IS, Van Kleef GA (2004) I laughed, I cried, I settled: the role of emotion in negotiation. In: Gelfand MJ, Brett JM (eds) The handbook of negotiation and culture. Stanford University Press, pp 71–94Google Scholar
  7. Bazerman MH, Curhan JR, Moore DA and Valley KL (2000). Negotiation. Annu Rev Psychol 51: 279–314 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bok S (1978). Lying: Moral choice in public and private life. Pantheon Books, New York Google Scholar
  9. Boles TL, Croson RTA and Munighan JK (2000). Deception and retribution in repeated ultimatum bargaining. Organ Behav Human Decis Process 83: 235–259 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bolton GE, Chatterjee K and McGinn KL (2003). How communication links influence coalition bargaining: a laboratory investigation. Manage Sci 49: 583–598 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Butt AN, Choi JN and Jaeger AM (2005). The effects of self-emotion, counterpart emotion, and counterpart behavior on negotiator behavior: a comparison of individual-level and dyad-level dynamics. J Organ Behav 26: 681–704 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Camerer C and Thaler RH (1995). Anomalies: ultimatums, dictators and manners. J Econ Perspect 9: 209–219 Google Scholar
  13. Carnevale PJ and Isen AM (1986). The influence of positive affect and visual access on the discovery of integrative solutions in bilateral negotiation. Organ Behav Human Decis Proces 37: 1–13 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chertkoff JM (1971). Coalition formation as a function of differences in resources. J Conflict Resolut 15: 371–383 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Daly JP (1991). The effects of anger on negotiations over mergers and acquisitions. Negotiat J 7: 31–39 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Darwin C (1872). The expression of the emotions in man and animals, 3rd edn. HarperCollins, London Google Scholar
  17. Dawes RM (1980). Social dilemmas. Ann Rev Psychol 31: 169–193 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. De Dreu CKW and Van Kleef GA (2004). The influence of power on the information search, impression formation and demands in negotiation. J Exp Soc Psychol 40: 303–319 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Druckman D, Rozelle M and Zechmeister K (1977). Conflict of interest and value dissensus: two perspectives. In: Druckman, D (eds) Negotiations: social-psychological perspectives, pp. Sage, Beverly Hills CA Google Scholar
  20. Ekman P (1993). Facial expression and emotion. Am Psychol 48: 384–392 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Fisher R and Ury W (1981). Getting to yes. Penguin Books, New York Google Scholar
  22. Fiske ST and Dépret E (1996). Control, interdependence and power: Understanding social cognition in its social context. In: Stroebe, W and Hewstone, M (eds) European review of social psychology vol 7, pp 31–61. Wiley, Chichester England Google Scholar
  23. Forgas JP (1998). On feeling good and getting your way: mood effects on negotiator cognition and behavior. J Pers Soc Psychol 74: 565–577 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Fridlund AJ (1992). The behavioral ecology and sociality of human faces. In: Clark, MS (eds) Review of personality and social psychology, vol 13, pp 90–121. Sage, Thousand Oakes, CA Google Scholar
  25. Friedman R, Anderson C, Brett J, Olekalns M, Goates N and Lisco CC (2004). The positive and negative effects of anger on dispute resolution: evidence from electronically mediated disputes. J Appl Psychol 89: 369–376 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Frijda NH (1986). The emotions. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge Google Scholar
  27. Frijda NH and Mesquita B (1994). The social roles and functions of emotions. In: Kitayama, S and Markus, HS (eds) Emotion and culture: empirical studies of mutual influence, pp 51–87. American Psychological Association, Washington, DC CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Güth W and Tietz R (1990). Ultimatum bargaining behavior: a survey and comparison of experimental results. J Econ Psychol 11: 417–449 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Güth W, Schmittberger R and Schwarze B (1982). An experimental analysis of ultimatum bargaining. J Econ Behav Org 3: 367–388 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Handgraaf MJJ, Van Dijk E and De Cremer D (2003). Social utility in ultimatum bargaining. Soc Justice Res 16: 263–283 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Harinck F (2004). Persuasive arguments and beating around the bush in negotiations. Group Process Intergroup Relat 7: 5–17 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Harinck F and De Dreu CKW (2004). Negotiating interests or values and reaching integrative agreements: the importance of time pressure and temporary impasses. Eur J Soc Psycho 34: 595–611 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Harinck F, De Dreu CKW and VanVianen AE M (2000). The impact of conflict issue on fixed-pie perceptions, problem solving, and integrative outcomes in negotiation. Organ Behav Human Decis Proces 81: 329–358 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kahan JP and Rapoport A (1984). Theories of coalition formation. Erlbaum, Hillsdale NJ Google Scholar
  35. Kassinove H, Roth D, Owens SG and Fuller JR (2002). Effects of trait anger and anger expression style on competitive attack responses in a wartime prisoner’s dilemma game. Aggress Behav 28: 117–125 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Keltner D and Haidt J (1999). Social functions of emotions at four levels of analysis. Cognit Emotion 13: 505–521 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Keltner D and Robinson RJ (1997). Defending the status quo: power and bias in social conflict. Pers Soc Psychol Bull 23: 1066–1077 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Klinnert M, Campos J, Sorce J, Emde R and Svejda M (1983). Emotions as behavior regulators: social referencing in infants. In: Plutchik, R and Kellerman, H (eds) Emotion theory, research, and experience, vol 2, pp 57–68. Academic Press, New York Google Scholar
  39. Knapp A and Clark M (1991). Some detrimental effects of negative mood on individuals’ ability to solve resource dilemmas. Pers Soc Psychol Bull 17: 678–688 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Knutson B (1996). Facial expressions of emotion influence interpersonal trait inferences. J Nonverbal Behav 20: 165–182 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Kopelman S, Rosette AS and Thompson L (2006). The three faces of eve: an examination of the strategic display of positive, negative, and neutral emotions in negotiations. Org Behav Human Decis Process 99: 81–101 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kramer RM (1991). Intergroup Relations and Organizational Dilemmas – the Role of categorization Processes. Res Organ Behav 13: 191–228 Google Scholar
  43. Kruglanski AW and Webster DM (1996). Motivated closing of the mind: “Seizing” and “freezing”. Psychol Rev 103: 263–283 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Lerner JS and Keltner D (2001). Fear, anger and risk. J Pers Soc Psychol 81: 146–159 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Mayer JD, Salovey P, Gomberg-Kaufman S and Blainey K (1991). A broader conception of mood experience. J Pers Soc Psychol 60: 100–111 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Messick DM and Brewer MB (1983). Solving social dilemmas: A review. In: Wheeler, L and Shaver, P (eds) Review of personality and social psychology, vol 4, pp 11–44. Sage, Beverley Hills, CA Google Scholar
  47. Morris MW and Keltner D (2000). How emotions work: an analysis of the social functions of emotional expression in negotiations. Res Organ Behav 22: 1–50 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Murnighan JK (1978). Models of coalition behavior: game theoretic, social psychological and political perspectives. Psychol Bull 85: 1130–1153 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Murnighan JK (1991) The dynamics of bargaining games. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJGoogle Scholar
  50. Oatley K and Jenkins JM (1992). Human emotions: function and dysfunction. Annu Rev of Psychol 43: 55–85 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. O’Connor KM and Carnevale PJ (1997). A nasty but effective negotiation strategy: misrepresentation of a common-value issue. Pers Soc Psychol Bull 23: 504–515 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Parkinson B (1996). Emotions are social. Brit J Psychol 87: 663–683 Google Scholar
  53. Pillutla MM and Murnighan JK (1996). Unfairness, anger and spite: emotional rejections of ultimatum offers. Organ Behav Human Decis Process 68: 208–224 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Pinkley RL (1995). Impact of knowledge regarding alternatives to settlement in dyadic negotiations: whose knowledge counts?. J Appl Psychol 80: 403–417 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Pruitt DG and Carnevale PJ (1993). Negotiation in social conflict. Open University Press, Buckingham, England Google Scholar
  56. Rokeach M (1973). The nature of human values. Free Press, New York Google Scholar
  57. Sinaceur M and Tiedens LZ (2006). Get mad and get more than even: when and why anger expression is effective in negotiations. J Exp Soc Psychol 42: 314–322 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Skitka LJ (2002). Do the means always justify the ends, or do the ends sometimes justify the means? A value protection model of justice reasoning. Pers Soc Psychol Bull 28: 588–697 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Steinel W and De Dreu CKW (2004). Social motives and strategic misrepresentation in social decision making. J Pers Soc Psychol 86: 419–434 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Steinel W, Van Kleef GA, Harinck F (in press) Are you talking to me?! Separating the people from the problem when expressing emotions in negotiation. J Exp Soc PsycholGoogle Scholar
  61. Suleiman R (1996). Expectations and fairness in a modified ultimatum game. J Econ Psychol 17: 531–554 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Thaler RH (1988). Anomalies: the ultimatum game. J Econ Perspect 2: 195–206 Google Scholar
  63. Tetlock PE, Kristel OV, Elson SB, Green MC and Lerner JS (2000). The psychology of the unthinkable: taboo trade-offs, forbidden base-rates, and heretical counterfactuals. J Pers Soc Psychol 78: 853–870 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Thompson L and Gonzalez R (1996). Environmental disputes; competition for scarce resource and clashing of values. In: Bazerman, MH, Messick, DM, Tenbrunsel, AE and Wade-Benzoni, KA (eds) Environment, ethics, and behavior, pp 75–104. New Lexington Press, San Francisco Google Scholar
  65. Van Beest I, Van Dijk E, De Dreu CKW and Wilke HAM (2005). Do-no-harm in coalition formation: why losses inhibit exclusion and promote fairness cognitions. J Exp Soc Psychol 41(6): 609–617 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Van Beest I, Van Dijk E and Wilke HAM (2004a). The interplay of self-interest and equity in coalition formation. Eur J Soc Psychol 34: 547–565 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Van Beest I, Van Dijk E and Wilke HAM (2004b). Resources and alternatives in coalition formation: the effects on payoff, self-serving behavior, and bargaining length. European J Soc Psychol 34: 713–728 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Van Beest I, Van Kleef GA, Van Dijk E (2006) When raisings one’s voice lowers one’s payoff: the effects of anger in multi-party negotiation. Paper presented at the 18th annual conference of the International Association for Conflict Management, Seville, SpainGoogle Scholar
  69. Van Dijk E and Tenbrunsel A (2005). The battle between self-interest and fairness in bargaining: ultimatum, dictator and delta games. In: Gilliland, SW, Steiner, DD, Skarlicki, DP, and Vanden Bos, K (eds) What motivates fairness in organizations? [In Gilliland SW, Steiner DD, Skarlicki DP (Series Eds), Res social issues in management], pp 31–48. Greenwich CT, Information Age Publishing, pp Google Scholar
  70. Van Dijk E, Van Kleef GA, Steinel W, Van Beest I (2006) Emotions in bargaining: when communicating anger pays and when it backfires. Manuscript submitted for publicationGoogle Scholar
  71. Van Kleef GA, Côté S (in press) Expressing anger in conflict: when it helps and when it hurts. J Appl PsycholGoogle Scholar
  72. Van Kleef GA, De Dreu CKW and Manstead ASR (2004a). The interpersonal effects of anger and happiness in negotiations. J Pers Soc Psychol 86: 57–76 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Van Kleef GA, De Dreu CKW and Manstead ASR (2004b). The interpersonal effects of emotions in negotiations: a motivated information processing approach. J Pers Soc Psychol 87: 510–528 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Van Kleef GA, De Dreu CKW, Pietroni D and Manstead ASR (2006). Power and emotion in negotiations: Power moderates the interpersonal effects of anger and happiness on concession making. Eur J Soc Psychol 36: 557–581 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Vinacke WE and Arkoff A (1957). An experimental study of coalitions in the triad. Ame Soc Rev 22: 406–414 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Wade-Benzoni KA, Hoffman AJ, Thompson LL, Moore DA, Gillespie JJ and Bazerman MH (2002). Barriers to resolution in ideologically based negotiations: the role of values and institutions. Acad Manage Rev 27: 41–57 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Webster DM and Kruglanski AW (1994). Individual differences in need for cognitive closure. J Person Soc Psychol 67: 1049–1062 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Wilke HAM (1985). Coalition formation. Elsevier, New York Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gerben A. Van Kleef
    • 1
    Email author
  • Eric van Dijk
    • 2
  • Wolfgang Steinel
    • 2
  • Fieke Harinck
    • 2
  • Ilja van Beest
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Social PsychologyUniversity of AmsterdamAmsterdamThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Leiden UniversityLeidenThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations