Variation in soil fungal community structure during successive rotations of Casuarina equisetifolia plantations as determined by high-throughput sequencing analysis
Regeneration failure and productivity decline, which is collectively known as consecutive monoculture problem (CMP), were observed during long-term monoculture Casuarina equisetifolia plantations. In this study, the high-throughput sequencing method was applied to determine whether the rhizospheric microbial community composition would be significantly degenerated by consecutive monoculture in C. equisetifolia plantations. The results showed that the soil fungal community structure exhibited obvious differences among the first rotation plantation (FCP), the second rotation plantation (SCP), and the third rotation plantation (TCP). Both the Shannon and Simpson diversity indices of the soil fungal community in the FCP were significantly higher than in the SCP (P < 0.05). Additionally, the relative abundance of Fusarium, Thelephora, Hortaea and Penicillium were significantly higher in the SCP and TCP soils than in the FCP soils, suggesting that certain fungi gradually became predominant in the continuous monoculture plantation soils. Conversely, the relative abundance of Tolypocladium and Trichoderma were significantly lower in the SCP and TCP soils than in the FCP soils, suggesting that some microbes gradually decreased in the continuous monoculture plantation soils. Overall, the results demonstrated that the long-term pure plantation pattern exacerbated the microecological imbalance in rhizospheric soils of C. equisetifolia and markedly decreased soil microbial community diversity.
KeywordsCasuarina equisetifolia High-throughput sequencing Successive rotation Microbial community composition
Consecutive monoculture problem
First rotation plantation
Second rotation plantation
Third rotation plantation
Operational taxonomic unit
Abundance-based coverage estimator
Principal coordinate analysis
Unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic means
Operational taxonomic units
We thank LetPub (http://www.letpub.com) for providing linguistic assistance during the preparation of this manuscript. This work was supported by the Chinese National Natural Science Foundation (Grant No. 31500443), Natural Science Foundation of Fujian Province, China (Grant No. 2018J01617), the Scientific Research Foundation of Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University (Grant No. XJQ201718), and the Fujian-Taiwan Joint Innovative Centre for Germplasm Resources and Cultivation of Crops (Grant No. 2015-75. FJ 2011 Program, China).
WZY and LWX conceived and directed the project. WZY, ZLT and LWX designed all experiments. LY, LJJ, WJY, CJ, LSY and BY did all of experiments. ZLT and LJJ performed the integrated data analysis. ZLT and WZY wrote the manuscript with the assistance and approval of all authors.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no competing financial interests.
This study has been approved by the Hui’an National Forest Farm Management Committee, which takes care of the planning and protection of Hui’an National Forest Farm. The study did not involve any endangered or protected species. All of the data in this study can be published and shared.
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