Variation in soil fungal community structure during successive rotations of Casuarina equisetifolia plantations as determined by high-throughput sequencing analysis

  • Zhou Liuting
  • Li Jianjuan
  • Luo Yang
  • Liu Shuying
  • Chen Jun
  • Wang Juanying
  • Bai Ying
  • Lin Wenxiong
  • Wu ZeyanEmail author
Original Paper


Regeneration failure and productivity decline, which is collectively known as consecutive monoculture problem (CMP), were observed during long-term monoculture Casuarina equisetifolia plantations. In this study, the high-throughput sequencing method was applied to determine whether the rhizospheric microbial community composition would be significantly degenerated by consecutive monoculture in C. equisetifolia plantations. The results showed that the soil fungal community structure exhibited obvious differences among the first rotation plantation (FCP), the second rotation plantation (SCP), and the third rotation plantation (TCP). Both the Shannon and Simpson diversity indices of the soil fungal community in the FCP were significantly higher than in the SCP (P < 0.05). Additionally, the relative abundance of Fusarium, Thelephora, Hortaea and Penicillium were significantly higher in the SCP and TCP soils than in the FCP soils, suggesting that certain fungi gradually became predominant in the continuous monoculture plantation soils. Conversely, the relative abundance of Tolypocladium and Trichoderma were significantly lower in the SCP and TCP soils than in the FCP soils, suggesting that some microbes gradually decreased in the continuous monoculture plantation soils. Overall, the results demonstrated that the long-term pure plantation pattern exacerbated the microecological imbalance in rhizospheric soils of C. equisetifolia and markedly decreased soil microbial community diversity.


Casuarina equisetifolia High-throughput sequencing Successive rotation Microbial community composition 



Consecutive monoculture problem


First rotation plantation


Second rotation plantation


Third rotation plantation


Total nitrogen


Alkaline nitrogen


Total phosphorus


Available phosphorus


Total potassium


Operational taxonomic unit


Available potassium


Abundance-based coverage estimator


Principal coordinate analysis


Unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic means


Operational taxonomic units



We thank LetPub ( for providing linguistic assistance during the preparation of this manuscript. This work was supported by the Chinese National Natural Science Foundation (Grant No. 31500443), Natural Science Foundation of Fujian Province, China (Grant No. 2018J01617), the Scientific Research Foundation of Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University (Grant No. XJQ201718), and the Fujian-Taiwan Joint Innovative Centre for Germplasm Resources and Cultivation of Crops (Grant No. 2015-75. FJ 2011 Program, China).

Author contributions

WZY and LWX conceived and directed the project. WZY, ZLT and LWX designed all experiments. LY, LJJ, WJY, CJ, LSY and BY did all of experiments. ZLT and LJJ performed the integrated data analysis. ZLT and WZY wrote the manuscript with the assistance and approval of all authors.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no competing financial interests.

Ethical approval

This study has been approved by the Hui’an National Forest Farm Management Committee, which takes care of the planning and protection of Hui’an National Forest Farm. The study did not involve any endangered or protected species. All of the data in this study can be published and shared.

Supplementary material

10725_2019_483_MOESM1_ESM.docx (236 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 236 KB)


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Life SciencesFujian Agriculture and Forestry UniversityFujianChina
  2. 2.College of ForestryFujian Agriculture and Forestry UniversityFujianChina
  3. 3.Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Agroecological Processing and Safety Monitoring, School of Life SciencesFujian Agriculture and Forestry UniversityFuzhouChina
  4. 4.Key Laboratory of Crop Ecology and Molecular Physiology (Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University)Fujian Province UniversityFuzhouChina

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