Effects of dark treatment and regular light recovery on the growth characteristics and regulation of chlorophyll in water dropwort

  • Xin-Yue Zhang
  • Tong Li
  • Guo-Fei Tan
  • Ying Huang
  • Feng Wang
  • Ai-Sheng Xiong
Original paper
  • 9 Downloads

Abstract

Water dropwort is one of Apiaceae vegetables. Dark treatment could help to promote the degradation of chlorophyll and improve exterior quality and flavor of vegetable crops. Previous studies showed that the chlorophylls content would dramatically reduce in the dark, while the chlorophylls content would be promoted after regular light recovery. However, the understanding of the metabolic mechanism is limited in water dropwort. We treated the water dropwort under the dark at 0, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20 and 25 days, then, recovered with regular light for 2 and 4 days, respectively. The total of chlorophylls content gradually degraded and the chlorophyll a content decreased faster than chlorophyll b content during dark treatment in water dropwort. After regular light recovery, the expression levels of the genes related to chlorophyll synthesis and transformation were increased, while the expression levels of PPH and PAO degradation-related genes decreased gradually. The water dropwort sprouted a large amount of newborn petioles and leaf blades after 16 days dark treatment. After regular light recovery, chlorophyll content and gene expression level both increased slowly. The plants would maintain lower chlorophyll content for a long time and have a longer shelf-life after 16 days dark treatment. Taken together, the results suggested that the best time of blanching culture for water dropwort is 16 days. This study could help to elucidate the chlorophyll metabolism in water dropwort during blanching culture and provide new perspectives for screening the best time of dark treatment for water dropwort.

Keywords

Water dropwort Dark treatment Light recovery Chlorophyll Expression analysis Blanching culture 

Abbreviations

CAO

Chlorophyllide a oxygenase

Chl

Chlorophyll

Ch1H

Magnesium-chelatase subunit ChlH

Ch1M

Magnesium-protoporphyrin O-methyltransferase

CLH

Putative chlorophyllase

CS

Chlorophyll synthase

DVR

Divinyl chlorophyllide a 8-vinyl-reductase

HCAR

7-Hydroxymethyl chlorophyll a reductase

MPE

Magnesium-protoporphyrin IX monomethyl ester

NOL

Chlorophyll(ide) b reductase NOL

NYC1

Chlorophyll(ide) b reductase NYC1

PAO

Pheophorbide a oxygenase

POR

Protochlorophyllide reductase

PPH

Pheophytinase

Notes

Acknowledgements

The research was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31272175); New Century Excellent Talents in University (NCET-11-0670); Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions (PAPD).

Author contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: ASX and XYZ. Performed the experiments: XYZ, TL, GFT, YH and FW. Analyzed the data: XYZ, TL and ASX. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: ASX. Wrote the paper: XYZ. Revised the paper: ASX, XYZ and TL. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

10725_2018_395_MOESM1_ESM.tif (6.6 mb)
Supplementary Figure S1: Chlorophyll degradation and transformation cycle. A: ChlH, B: ChlM, C: MPE, D: DVR, E: POR, F: Light-independent protophyllidereductase subunit L, G: PPH, H: PAO, I: CAO, J: NYC1 & NOL, K: CS, L: CLH, M: HCAR (TIF 6759 KB)
10725_2018_395_MOESM2_ESM.docx (18 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (DOCX 17 KB)

References

  1. An JU, Joung KH, Yoon HS, Hwang YH, Hong GP (2017) Effects of photo/dark period and relative humidity during dark period on growth and tipburn occurrence of water dropwort (Oenanthe stolonifera DC.) in a closed-type plant factory. Prot Hort Plant Fac 26(2):146–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Benkeblia N, Shiomi N (2004) Chilling effect on soluble sugars, respiration rate, total phenolics, peroxidase activity and dormancy of onion bulbs. Sci Agric 61:281–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Benková E, Witters E, Van DW, Kolár J, Motyka V, Brzobohatý B, Van Onckelen HA, Machácková I (1999) Cytokinins in tobacco and wheat chloroplasts: occurrence and changes due to light/dark treatment. Plant Physiol 121:245–252CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. Chen WC, Huang HC, Wang YS, Yen JH (2011) Effect of benzyl butyl phthalate on physiology and proteome characterization of water celery (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk.). Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 74:1325–1330CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Corneliuss B (2009) The stay-green revolution: recent progress in deciphering the mechanisms of chlorophyll degradation in higher plants. Plant Sci 176(3):325–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Dongjin C, Changbae K, Sukhee L, Jaetak Y, Boosull C, Hyungkook K (2000) Effects of precooling and packaging film materials on quality of water dropwort (Oenanthe stolonifera DC.) at low temperature storage. J Kor Soc Hortic Sci:379–382Google Scholar
  7. Ekvall J, Stegmark R, Nyman M (2005) Content of low molecular weight carbohydrates in vining peas (Pisum sativum) after blanching and freezing: effect of cultivar and cultivation conditions. J Sci Food Agric 85:691–699CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Eo J, Lee BY (2009) Effects of ethylene, abscisic acid and auxin on fruit abscission in water dropwort (Oenanthe stolonifera DC.). Sci Hortic 123:224–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ganeteg U, Strand A, Gustafsson P, Jansson S (2001) The properties of the chlorophyll a/b-binding proteins Lhca2 and Lhca3 studied in vivo using antisense inhibition. Plant Physiol 127:150–158CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. Gauthierjaques A, Bortlik K, Hau J, Fay LB (2001) Improved method to track chlorophyll degradation. J Agr Food Chem 49:1117–1122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Gonçalves EM, Pinheiro J, Abreu M, Brandão TRS, Silva CLM (2005) Influence of blanching treatments on colour, texture, chlorophylls content and sensory quality of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.). ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 5(15):7291–7298Google Scholar
  12. Hörtensteiner S (2006) Chlorophyll degradation during senescence. Annu Rev Plant Biol 57(1):55–77CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Hörtensteiner S (2013) Update on the biochemistry of chlorophyll breakdown. Plant Mol Biol 82:505–517CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Jansson S (1994) The light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b-binding proteins. Biochim Biophys Acta 1184:1–19CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Jiang Q, Wang F, Li MY, Ma J, Tan GF, Xiong AS (2014) Selection of suitable reference genes for qPCR normalization under abiotic stresses in Oenanthe javanica (BI.) DC. PLoS ONE 9(3):e92262CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. Kong Q, Yuan J, Niu P, Xie J, Jiang W, Huang Y, Bie Z (2014) Screening suitable reference genes for normalization in reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR analysis in melon. PLoS ONE 9:e87197CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. Lee MS, Youn SY, Sang CY, Park HJ, Shin JD (1998) Bioremediation of heavy metals from the land application of industrial sewage sludge with minari (Oenanthe stolonifer DC.) plant. Plant Resourc 1:53–59Google Scholar
  18. Li NN, Yang YP, Ye JH, Lu JL, Zheng XQ, Liang YR (2016) Effects of sunlight on gene expression and chemical composition of light-sensitive albino tea plant. Plant Growth Regul 78(2):253–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Macalalad EA, Robidillo CJT, Marfori EC (2004) Influence of different cytokinins on the growth, [6]-gingerol production and antioxidant activity of in vitro multiple shoot culture of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe). Res J Med Plant 10:194–200Google Scholar
  20. Meguro M, Tanaka A (2011) Identification of the 7-hydroxymethyl chlorophyll a reductase of the chlorophyll cycle in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell 23:3442–3453CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. Mutui TM, Mibus H, Serek M (2007) Influence of thidiazuron, ethylene, abscisic acid and dark storage on the expression levels of ethylene receptors (ETR) and ACC synthase (ACS) genes in Pelargonium. Plant Growth Regul 53:87–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Pápista É, Ács É, Böddi B (2002) Chlorophyll-a determination with ethanol: a critical test. Hydrobiologia 485:191–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Park SY, Yu JW, Park JS, Li J, Yoo SC, Lee NY, Lee SK, Jeong SW, Seo HS, Koh HJ (2007) The senescence-induced staygreen protein regulates chlorophyll degradation. Plant Cell 19:1649–1664CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. Pietrzykowska M, Suorsa M, Semchonok DA, Tikkanen M, Boekema EJ, Aro EM, Jansson S (2014) The light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b binding proteins Lhcb1 and Lhcb2 play complementary roles during state transitions in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell 26:3646–3660CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. Pružinská A, Tanner G, Aubry S, Anders I, Moser S, Müller T, Ongania KH, Kräutler B, Youn JY, Liljegren SJ (2005) Chlorophyll breakdown in senescent Arabidopsis leaves: characterization of chlorophyll catabolites and of chlorophyll catabolic enzymes involved in the degreening reaction. Plant Physiol 139:52–63CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. Ren G, An K, Liao Y, Zhou X, Cao Y, Zhao H (2007) Identification of novel chloroplast protein atnye1 regulating chlorophyll degradation during leaf senescence in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol 144(3):1429–1441CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. Rodoni S, Muhlecker W, Anderl M, Krautler B, Moser D, Thomas H, Matile P, Hortensteiner S (1997) Chlorophyll breakdown in senescent chloroplasts (cleavage of pheophorbide a in two enzymic steps). Plant Physiol 115:669CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. Sofia DC, Kevin MF (2014) Sequential light programs shape kale (Brassica napus) sprout appearance and alter metabolic and nutrient content. Hortic Res 1:8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Wang GL, Xu ZS, Wang F, Li MY, Tan GF, Xiong AS (2015) Regulation of ascorbic acid biosynthesis and recycling during root development in carrot (Daucus carota L.). Plant Physiol Biochem 94:10–18CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Wang YW, Xu C, Wu M, Chen GX (2016) Characterization of photosynthetic performance during reproductive stage in high-yield hybrid rice LYPJ exposed to drought stress probed by chlorophyll a fluorescence transient. Plant Growth Regul 81(3):1–11Google Scholar
  31. Xu YH, Liu R, Yan L, Liu ZQ, Jiang SC, Shen YY, Wang XF, Zhang DP (2012) Light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b-binding proteins are required for stomatal response to abscisic acid in Arabidopsis. J Exp Bot 63:1095–1106CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Yang M, Her N (2011) Perchlorate in soybean sprouts (Glycine max L. Merr.), water dropwort (Oenanthe stolonifera DC.), and lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.) root in South Korea. J Agr Food Chem 59:7490–7495CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Zhang X, Zhang Z, Li J, Wu L, Guo J, Ouyang L, Xia Y, Huang X, Pang X (2011) Correlation of leaf senescence and gene expression/activities of chlorophyll degradation enzymes in harvested Chinese flowering cabbage (Brassica rapa var. parachinensis). J Plant Physiol 168:2081–2087CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Zhang J, Yuan HW, Yang QS, Li M, Wang Y, Li YJ, Ma XJ, Tan F, Wu RL (2017) The genetic architecture of growth traits in Salix matsudana under salt stress. Hortic Res 4:17024CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. Zhu MK, Meng XQ, Chen GP, Dong TT, Yu XH, Cai J, Hu ZL (2016) Physiological, biochemical, and molecular differences in chloroplast synthesis between leaf and corolla of cabbage (Brassica rapa L. var. chinensis) and rapeseed (Brassica napus L.). Plant Growth Regul 82:1–11Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xin-Yue Zhang
    • 1
  • Tong Li
    • 1
  • Guo-Fei Tan
    • 1
  • Ying Huang
    • 1
  • Feng Wang
    • 1
  • Ai-Sheng Xiong
    • 1
  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Crop Genetics and Germplasm Enhancement, College of HorticultureNanjing Agricultural UniversityNanjingChina

Personalised recommendations