Plant Growth Regulation

, Volume 81, Issue 3, pp 511–521 | Cite as

Multiple factors influence adventitious rooting in carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) stem cuttings

  • Joan Villanova
  • Antonio Cano
  • Alfonso Albacete
  • Alfonso López
  • Emilio Á. Cano
  • Manuel Acosta
  • José Manuel Pérez-PérezEmail author
Original paper


Efficient propagation of uniform starting material is a critical requirement for mass production of most ornamental plants, including carnation. For some elite cultivars, the production of young plantlets is limited by poor adventitious root formation from stem cuttings. We previously characterized the molecular signature during adventitious rooting in two carnation cultivars, 2101-02 MFR and 2003 R 8, which were selected because of their contrasting rooting performance. To determine additional factors that contribute to the differences observed in adventitious rooting during the commercial scaling-up of this species, we characterized rooting performance and endogenous hormone levels in stem cuttings of these two cultivars during one production season. We found that stem cutting production declined during the harvest season in a cultivar-dependent manner. In addition, the initiation of adventitious roots in the stem cutting base depended on its endogenous auxin and cytokinin levels at harvest time, while their subsequent growth and development was mainly influenced by the physiological status of the mother plant at harvest time and of the stem cutting during the rooting process.


Adventitious roots Auxin/cytokinin ratio ABA Ornamental plants 



This work was supported by the Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (MINECO) of Spain (Grants Nos. AGL2012-33610 and BIO2015-64255-R), by the Center for the Development of Industrial Technology (CARNOMICS Eurostars-EUREKA Project E! 6384), and by FEDER Funds of the European Commission.

Supplementary material

10725_2016_228_MOESM1_ESM.tif (17.2 mb)
Figure S1.– Adventitious rooting morphology of carnation stem cuttings. (A) Experimental design for adventitious rooting evaluation in cultivated carnation. For each cultivar, all stem cuttings with commercial quality from 36 mother plants were collected every 15 days from 365 to 485 days after planting. Stem cutting samples collected at 380 (S1), 410 (S3) and 440 (S5) days after planting were cold-treated for 15 days. Stem cutting samples for hormone analysis were taken just before rooting at 395 (S1 and S2), 425 (S3 and S4) and 455 (S5 and S6) days after planting. Three consecutive rooting experiments were performed: from 395 to 425 (S1 and S2), from 425 to 455 (S3 and S4) and 455 to 485 (S5 and S6) days after planting. (B) A representative image of a stem cutting grown in soil plugs for 30 days. (C) The stem cutting shown in B after removal of the soil substrate with high-pressure tap water. Notice that some leaves have been cut off. (D) A magnification of the root system from C that will be used for the morphometric analysis. (E, F) Image segmentation files obtained with the Gia Roots software. Scale bars: 10 mm. (TIF 17599 KB)
10725_2016_228_MOESM2_ESM.tif (1.1 mb)
Figure S2.– Environmental parameters at the greenhouse during production of carnation stem cuttings. Average, minimum and maximum temperature (°C) and relative humidity (%) data collected at the greenhouse during the entire experiment on a daily basis. (TIF 1082 KB)
10725_2016_228_MOESM3_ESM.tif (1.2 mb)
Figure S3.– Levels of IAA catabolites in the stem cutting base in carnation cultivars. (A) 2-oxindole-3-acetic acid (OxIAA), and (B) indole-3-acetyl-L-aspartic acid (IAA-Asp). Dashed lines represent data from fresh cuttings. Closed lines represent data from cold-stored cuttings. Average values ± a standard deviation values are shown. Different letters indicate significant differences (LSD; P < 0.01). (TIF 1205 KB)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Instituto de BioingenieríaUniversidad Miguel HernándezElcheSpain
  2. 2.Departamento de Biología Vegetal (Fisiología Vegetal)Universidad de MurciaMurciaSpain
  3. 3.Departamento de Nutrición VegetalCEBAS-CSICMurciaSpain
  4. 4.Research and Development DepartmentBarberet & Blanc S.A.Puerto LumbrerasSpain

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