Advertisement

Plant Growth Regulation

, Volume 63, Issue 1, pp 37–44 | Cite as

Effects of shoot bending on ACC content, ethylene production, growth and flowering of bougainvillea

  • Fang-Yin Liu
  • Yu-Sen Chang
Original Research

Abstract

Several factors, such as environmental conditions, pruning, and plant growth regulators, affect the flowering of bougainvillea. However, information on the effect of shoot bending on growth and flowering of bougainvillea is scarce. In the natural environment, most of the bougainvillea flowering shoots are inclining whereas vertical shoots are not flowering shoots. Bougainvillea shoots are artificially grown vertically, horizontally and at an inclined orientation, to investigate the effect of these orientations on plant growth and the development of flower buds. The results of this indicate an effect of shoot bending on the growth rate of bougainvillea and the rate of flower bud formation. Additionally, our results suggest that vertical shoots have a higher growth rate, more prolific vegetation growth, and longer plastochrons (which are the intervals between the initiations of successive leaves). In contrast, horizontal and inclined shoots exhibited slower growth, a shorter time to reach flowering, and more flower buds. Inclined shoots had a higher endogenous ACC (1-aminocyclopropene-1-carboxylate) content and produced more ethylene than either horizontal or vertical shoots, indicating that more ACC in the inclined shoot is converted into ethylene, and the higher ethylene concentration in the inclined shoot causes it to mature earlier and flower sooner.

Keywords

ACC content Bougainvillea Ethylene Flowering Shoot bending 

Abbreviations

ACC

1-Aminocyclopropene-1-carboxylate

EtOH

Ethyl alcohol

h

Hour

Notes

Acknowledgments

This research was supported by Council of Agriculture, Executive Yuan, Taiwan, Republic of China. The authors are especially grateful to Mr. Ming-Chih Li and Ted Knoy for the assistance in trial management and manuscript improvement.

References

  1. Adams DO, Yang SF (1979) Ethylene biosynthesis: identification of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid as an intermediate in the conversion of methionine to ethylene. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 76:170–174CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Allard HA (1935) Response of the woody plants Hibiscus syriacus, Malvavicus conzatti and Bougainvillea glabra to day length. J Agric Res 51:27–34Google Scholar
  3. Bangerth F (1990) Polar auxin transport in fruit trees in relation to fruit drop. Acta Hortic 275:461–468Google Scholar
  4. Bangerth F (1993) Polar auxin transport as a signal in the regulation of tree and fruit development. Acta Hortic 329:70–76Google Scholar
  5. Bangerth F (1994) Response of cytokinin concentration in the xylem exudate of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants to decapitation and auxin treatment, and relationship to apical dominance. Planta 194:439–442CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Banno K, Hayashi S, Tanabe K (1985) Effect of SADH and shoot-bending on flower bud formation, nutrient components and endogenous growth regulators in Japanese pear (Pyrus serotina Rehd). J Jpn Soc Hortic Sci 53:365–376Google Scholar
  7. Botha ML, Whitehead SC, Halevy AH (1998) Effect of octanoic acid on ethylene-mediated flower induction in Dutch iris. Plant Growth Regul 25:47–51. doi: 10.1023/A:1005986317865 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Buban T, Faust M (1982) Flower bud induction in apple trees: internal control and differentiation. Hortic Rev 4:174–203Google Scholar
  9. Cameron AC, Fenton CAL, Yu Y, Adams D, Yang S (1979) Increased production of ethylene by plant tissues treated with l-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid. HortSci 14:178–180Google Scholar
  10. Chacko EK, Kohli RR, Swamy RD, Randhawa GS (1974) Effect of 2-chloroethyl phosphornic acid (Ethephon, CEPA) on flower induction in juvenile mango (Mangifera indica L.) seedling. Physiol Plant 32:188–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cherian KA, Beena S, Padiyath Shabnaz (2004) Flower blight of Bougainvillea glabra Choisy. J Mycol Plant Pathol 34:160–161Google Scholar
  12. Cline MG (1991) Apical dominance. Bot Rev 57:318–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Criley RA (1977) Year around flowering of double Bougainvillea: effect of daylength and growth retardants. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 102:775–778Google Scholar
  14. Dathe W (1992) Effects of jasmonic acid and ethephon on tillering to maturity in spring barley. Ann Bot 69:237–241Google Scholar
  15. Friedman H, Meir S, Halevy AH, Philosoph-Hadas S (2003) Inhibition of the gravitropic bending response of flowering shoots by salicylic acid. Plant Sci 165:905–911CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Hackett WP, Sachs RM (1966) Flowering in Bougainvilllea ‘San Diego Red’. Proc Am Soc Hortic Sci 88:606–612Google Scholar
  17. Hackett WP, Sachs RM (1967) Chemical control of flowering in Bougainvilllea ‘San Diego Red’. Proc Am Soc Hortic Sci 90:361–364Google Scholar
  18. Hackett WP, Sachs RM (1968) Experimental separation of inflorescence development from initiation in Bougainvillea. Proc Am Soc Hortic Sci 92:615–621Google Scholar
  19. Halevy AH (1969) Recent advances in chemical growth regulation on ornamental plants. Acta Hortic 15:143–146Google Scholar
  20. Hampson CR, Quamme HA, Kappel F, Brownlee RT (2004) Varying density with constant rectangularity. I. Effects on apple tree growth and light interception in three training systems over ten years. HortSci 39:501–506Google Scholar
  21. Henrard G (1976) Automatic irrigation by the Chapin system. Its application to pot plant culture of Bougainvillea glabra, Euphorbia pulcherrima and Stephanotis floribunda. Bulletin des Recherches Agronomiques de Gembloux 11:135–148 (in French, with an English summary)Google Scholar
  22. Hosokawa Z, Shi L, Prasad TK, Cline MG (1990) Apical dominance control in Ipomoea nil: the influence of the shoot apex, leaves and stem. Ann Bot 65:547–556Google Scholar
  23. Imanishi H, Yue D (1986) Effects of duration of exposure to ethylene on flowering of Dutch iris. Acta Hortic 177:141–145Google Scholar
  24. Imanishi H, Halevy AH, Kofranek AM, Han S, Reid MS (1994) Respiration and carbohydrate changes during ethylene mediated flower induction in Dutch iris. Sci Hortic 59:275–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ito A, Yaegaki H, Hayama H, Yamaguchi I, Kusaba S, Yoshioka H (1999) Bending shoots stimulates flowering and influences hormone levels in lateral buds of Japanese pear. HortSci 34:1224–1228Google Scholar
  26. Ito A, Hayama H, Yoshioka H (2001) The effect of shoot-bending on the amount of diffusible indole-3-acetic acid and its transport in shoots of Japanese pear. Plant Growth Regul 34:151–158. doi: 10.1023/A:1013367530800 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Ito A, Yoshioka H, Hayama H, Kashimura Y (2004) Effect of shoot bending on endogenous auxin and cytokinin levels in buds, and its possible relationship to flower bud formation in Japanese pear. Acta Hortic 653:57–62Google Scholar
  28. Kende H (1993) Ethylene biosynthesis. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 44:283–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kende H, Zeevaart J (1997) The five classical plant hormones. Plant Cell 9:1197–1210CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Kieber J (2002) Ethylene: the gaseous hormone. In: Taiz L, Zeiger E (eds) Plant physiology, 3rd edn. Sinauer associates, Sunderlands, pp 519–538Google Scholar
  31. Kim SH, Lieth JH (2004) Effect of shoot-bending on productivity and economic value estimation of cut-flower roses grown in Coir and UC Mix. Sci Hortic 99:331–343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kim SH, Shackel KA, Lieth JH (2004) Bending alters water balance and reduces photosynthesis of rose shoots. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 129:896–901Google Scholar
  33. King RA, van Staden J (1987) The metabolism of N6-(D2-isopentenyl)[3H]adenine by isolated organs of Pisum sativum. J Plant Physiol 131:181–190Google Scholar
  34. Kitazawa D, Miyazawa Y, Fujii N, Hoshino A, Iida S, Nitasaka E, Takahashi H (2008) The gravity-tegulated growth of axillary buds is mediated by a mechanism different from decapitation-induced release. Plant Cell Physiol 49:891–900CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Kool MTN, Lenssen EFA (1997) Basal-shoot formation in young rose plants: effects of bending practices and plant density. J Hortic Sci 72:635–644Google Scholar
  36. Leopoid AC, Brown KM, Emerson FH (1972) Ethylene in the wood of stressed tress. HortSci 7:175Google Scholar
  37. Lizada MCC, Yang SF (1979) A simple and sensitive assay for 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid. Anal Biochem 100:140–145CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Masuda M, Asahira T (1981) Effects of various gaseous compounds and respiratory inhibitors on breaking dormancy of freesia corms. Sci Hortic 15:373–381CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. McGarvey DJ, Sirevag R, Christoffersen RE (1992) Ripening-related gene from avocado fruit. Ethylene inducible expression of the mRNA and polypeptide. Plant Physiol 98:554–559CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Meier-Dinkel A, Kleinschmidt J (1990) Aging in tree species: present knowledge. In: Rodriguez R et al (eds) Plant aging: basic and applied principles. Plenum Press, New York, pp 51–63Google Scholar
  41. Meilan R (1997) Floral induction in woody angiosperms. New Forests 14:179–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Mor Y, Zieslin N (1987) Plant growth regulators in rose plants. Hortic Rev 9:53–72Google Scholar
  43. Naor A, Flaishman M, Stern R, Moshe A, Erez A (2003) Temperature effects on dormancy completion of vegetative buds in apple. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 128:636–641Google Scholar
  44. Norcini JG (1993) How to grow a great Bougainvillea. Grower Talks 62:62–64Google Scholar
  45. Norcini JG, Aldrich JH (1994) Flowering response of Bougainvillea cultivars to dikegulac. HortSci 29:282–284Google Scholar
  46. Norcini JG, McDowell JM, Aldrich JH (1992) Effect of dikegulac on flowering and growth of Bougainvillea ‘Rainbow Gold’. HortSci 28:119–121Google Scholar
  47. Prasad TK, Cline MG (1985) Mechanical perturbation-induced ethylene release apical dominance in Pharbitis nil by restricting shoot growth. Plant Sci 41:217–222CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Prasad TK, Hosokawa Z, Cline MG (1989) Shoot inversion-induced ethylene production: a general phenomenon. J Plant Growth Regul 8:71–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Ramina A, Hackett WP, Sachs RM (1979) Flowering in Bougainvillea a function of assimilate supply and nutrition diversion. Plant Physiol 64:810–813CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Reid MS (1987) Ethylene in plant growth, development and senescence. In: Davies PJ (ed) Plant hormones and their role in plant growth and development. Martinus Nijhoff, Dordrecht, pp 257–279Google Scholar
  51. Robbie FA, Atkinson CJ, Knight JN, Moore KG (1993) Branch orientation as a factor determining fruit set in apple trees. J Hortic Sci Biol 68:317–335Google Scholar
  52. Robitaille HA, Leopold AC (1974) Ethylene and the regulation of apple stem growth under stress. Physiol Plant 32:301–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Sachs RM (1977) Nutrient diversion: an hypothesis to explain the chemical control of flowering. HortSci 12:220–222Google Scholar
  54. Sachs T (1993) The role of auxin in plant organization. Acta Hortic 329:162–168Google Scholar
  55. Sanyal D, Bangerth F (1998) Stress induced ethylene evolution and its possible relationship to auxin-transport, cytokinin levels, and flower bud induction in shoots of apple seedlings and bearing apple trees. Plant Growth Regul 24:127–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Steed CL, Taylor LK, Harrison MA (2004) Red light regulation of ethylene biosynthesis and gravitropism in etiolated pea stems. Plant Growth Regul 43:117–125. doi: 10.1023/B:GROW.0000040116.10016.c3 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Subhadrabandhu S, Adulsak KD (1987) Effect of ethephon on flowering of two lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) cultivars. Acta Hortic 201:181–186Google Scholar
  58. Theologis A (1992) One rotten apple spoils the whole bushel: the role of ethylene in fruit ripening. Cell 70:181–184CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Thunyarpar T (1998) Physiological aspects on flowering of lychee and longan: a review. J Jpn Soc Hortic Sci 67:1161–1163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Tse ATY, Ramina A, Hackett WP, Sachs RM (1974) Enhanced inflorescence development in bougainvillea ‘San Diego Red’ by removal of young leaves and cytokinin treatments. Plant Physiol 54:404–407CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Tsujikawa T, Ichii T, Nakanishi T, Ozaki T, Kawai Y (1990) In vitro flowering of Japanese pear and the effect of GA4+7. Sci Hortic 41:233–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Wallerstein I, Runger W (1985) Hydragea macrophylla. In: Halevy AE (ed) CRC handbook of flowering, vol III. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 286–288Google Scholar
  63. Wareing P (1970) Growth and its co-ordination in trees. In: Luckwill LC, Cutting CV (eds) Physiology of tree crops. Academic Press, London, pp 1–21Google Scholar
  64. Wheeler RM, White RG, Salisbury FB (1986) Gravitropism in higher plant shoots. Plant Physiol 82:534–542CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Wheeler RM, Peterson BV, Sager JC, Knott WM (1996) Ethylene production by plans in a closed environment. Adv Space Res 18:193–196CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Yang SF, Hoffman NE (1984) Ethylene biosynthesis and its regulation in higher plants. Annu Rev Plant Physiol 35:155–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of HorticultureNational Taiwan UniversityTaipeiTaiwan, ROC

Personalised recommendations