Plant Growth Regulation

, Volume 63, Issue 1, pp 37–44 | Cite as

Effects of shoot bending on ACC content, ethylene production, growth and flowering of bougainvillea

  • Fang-Yin Liu
  • Yu-Sen Chang
Original Research


Several factors, such as environmental conditions, pruning, and plant growth regulators, affect the flowering of bougainvillea. However, information on the effect of shoot bending on growth and flowering of bougainvillea is scarce. In the natural environment, most of the bougainvillea flowering shoots are inclining whereas vertical shoots are not flowering shoots. Bougainvillea shoots are artificially grown vertically, horizontally and at an inclined orientation, to investigate the effect of these orientations on plant growth and the development of flower buds. The results of this indicate an effect of shoot bending on the growth rate of bougainvillea and the rate of flower bud formation. Additionally, our results suggest that vertical shoots have a higher growth rate, more prolific vegetation growth, and longer plastochrons (which are the intervals between the initiations of successive leaves). In contrast, horizontal and inclined shoots exhibited slower growth, a shorter time to reach flowering, and more flower buds. Inclined shoots had a higher endogenous ACC (1-aminocyclopropene-1-carboxylate) content and produced more ethylene than either horizontal or vertical shoots, indicating that more ACC in the inclined shoot is converted into ethylene, and the higher ethylene concentration in the inclined shoot causes it to mature earlier and flower sooner.


ACC content Bougainvillea Ethylene Flowering Shoot bending 





Ethyl alcohol





This research was supported by Council of Agriculture, Executive Yuan, Taiwan, Republic of China. The authors are especially grateful to Mr. Ming-Chih Li and Ted Knoy for the assistance in trial management and manuscript improvement.


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© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of HorticultureNational Taiwan UniversityTaipeiTaiwan, ROC

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